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Full text of "Northwest horticulturist, dairy"

THE UNIVERSITY 



OF ILLINOIS 
LIBRARY 

N © W 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2014 



https://archive.org/details/northwesthorticu2729unse 




Twenty-seventh Year 



TACOMA AND SEATTLE. WASH., JUNE, 1914 



No. 6 



Farmers and Markets 

Farmers all over the country, par- 
ticularly in the Pacific Northwest, 
are realizing that they can sell more 
readily and get a larger proportion 
of what the consumer pays when there 
is unity of action on their own part 
and when the product offered is 
standardized. The berry industry in 
the Puyallup Valley could never have 
attained to its present magnitude if 
there had not been unity of purpose 
and action on the part of a large 
number of growers. The North Pa- 



more money it would mean to the 
dairy farmers of this State if 75 per 
cent of the butter made would be 
equal in quality to that shown by the 
butter makers. It can be done if 
dairymen will get together in suitable 
groups, plan the work correctly and 
. determine that their efforts shall suc- 
ceed. Substantial promotion, back- 
bone, grit and diplomacy are essen- 
tial factors for co-operation. There 
are few communities but have men 
with these qualities in evidence. 
Farmers are being educated to har- 
ness these forces and to set them in 
motion, shown in many places by 



try. It will cost something to get out 
of the old rut of indifference, to clean 
up, in order to make an article of 
high quality at the minimum of ex- 
pense, but once an improoved system 
has been adopted the cost of manu- 
facture is no greater, while the mar- 
ket will become larger and satisfac- 
tory prices more steadily maintained. 
Mr. Henry T. Fink, states in "Good 
Housekeeping" that New York City 
alone consumes annually over $65,- 
000,000 worth of butter. In England 
the value of butter imports exceeds 
that of all other articles except wheat 
and sugar. For consumptives, and 



Chief Harry Hayward, of the Bu- 
reau of Animal Industry, has declared 
that "a very small percentage of all 
dairy butter made is really of high 
grade." The time will perhaps come 
when more of our butter will be made 
from sweet cream but dairymen all 
over the country will benefit by work- 
ing together in the aim for a higher 
quality and better butter. 



STANDARDIZING AND MARKET- 
ING. 

The National Conference on Mar- 
keting and Farm Credits, which clos- 




* T ?f world - fame d Tacoma Stadium, with 30,000 people, its picturesque setting is worth coming a long way to see. Great preparations are being made 
f or the Montamara Festo celebration, July 3, 4 and 5. [Courtesy West Coast Trade.] 



cific Fruit Distributors is another ex- 
ample of concerted efforts. For the 
past twenty years the way has been 
paved by frequent association of 
growers for the rapid strides this 
organization has made during the 
past two seasons. Its existence be- 
came an imperative necessity because 
the growers wanted to be in control 
of the marketing of their products 
and joined forces with that purpose 
in view. Last week the butter mak- 
ers had an exhibition of a high 
scoring product taken from different 
creameries in the western part of the 
State, but all uniformly of high qual- 
ity — a standard product. How much 



their willingness to come together 
for specific industrial and business 
undertakings. Do farmers want a 
better market? The question is an- 
swered in a practical way by those 
who are willing to rise above little 
differences which may exist between 
residents of a community in order to 
gain that larger margin of profit 
which is otherwise wasted somewhere 
between the market and the pro- 
ducer. 



BETTER BUTTER. 

Better butter a higher standard qual- 
ity has become the watchword with 
leading dairymen all over this coun- 



others who need toning up, butter i» 
better than cod-liver oil. It is useful 
also in some forms of dyspepsia. An 
eminent physician once wrote that 
children should not have bread and 
butter, but butter and bread. You 
cannot give them too much of it — nor 
adults, either. We are a spare nation 
— Uncle Sam himself is always pictur- 
ed as a lean gentleman — and we need 
more fat in our diet. Butter is the 
most digestible of all fats. We crave 
it instinctively; we eat more of it 
than does any other nation even now, 
but we would eat even greater quanti- 
ties if it were made more tempting 
to the palate than it usually is. 



ed its second session at Chicago re- 
cently, urges upon farmers to con- 
tinue their efforts in the campaign for 
the standardization of packs, pack- 
ages, carriers, and to seek the co- 
operation of the various interests em- 
ployed in the promotion of this work. 

The co-operative plan of marketing 
produce and other goods was endors- 
ed and state acts recommended for 
the encouragement of such organiza- 
tions, the protection of them against 
unfair discrimination, also such sur- 
vey of the state markets and market 
conditions generally, information of 
same to be disseminated by market- 
ing commissions. 



804856 



126 

NORTHWEST 

HORTICULTURIST 

Agriculturist and Dairyman. 

C. A. TONNESON, 
Editor and Proprietor. 

Subscriptions 50 Cents per Tear when 

PaM in Advance. Otherwise 76 Cents. 

Six Months, 80c. Three Months, 20o 
in Advance. 

Canadian, other foreign, also when deliv- 
ered y carrier In Tacoma, 75c a year. 

Subscribers will indicate the time for 
which they wish the paper continued. 

Payment! are due one year In adrance. 

Address all Communications to tha 
Tacoma Office 
HOSt TIC tXIiTTJRIST, Box 1604, Tacoma, 
Wash. 

Office, 511 Chamber of Commoici 
Building-, Tacoma, Wash. 

Seattle Office 

420 Globe Bldg-, Constantine Advertising Agency 
Established October, 1887. 
Entered as Second Class Matter at the 
Postofflce at Tacoma, Wash., under Act 
of March 8, 1879. 

EDITORIAL STAFF CONTRIBUTORS 

Geo. Severance, State College Agri- 
culturist. 

Byron Hunter, Agriculturist. 

W. A. Linklater, Supt. Exp. Sta. 

H. L. Blanchard, Poultry and Dairy. 

J. L. Stahl, Horticulturist. 

S. O. Jayne, Irrigation, Dept. Agr. 

S. B. Nelson, Veterinarian. 



LIBERTY UNDER AMERICAN 
FLAG. 

If the A. B. C. mediators now at 
work in Canada have any idea of set- 
tling the troubles in Mexico without 
tituting political and religious lib- 
;y to the masses of the people they 
. ght as well change their tactics at 
ce or go home. The stars and 
ripes fly over Vera Cruz at the cost 
ia sacrifice of lives from the na- 
on of which the flag is an emblem. 
' has always stood for liberty and 
astice with no uncertain backbone 
,nd it cannot consistently mean any- 
,hing else for the people of Mexico. 
vVhile in the Philippines an observer 
relates this fact: One day a repre- 
sentative of the "vanisning religious 
system" complained to the command- 
ing general that the free schools and 
churches established by the people of 
the United States were causing a 
large percentage of the natives to be- 
come indifferent about payments he 
formerly had exacted of them. The 
U. S. army officer took him to the 
side of his office building and point- 
ing to the dome over the city hall 
said: "Do you see that flag? Well, 
wherever you see the stars and 
stripes people worship and vote ac- 
cording to the dictates of their own 
conscience. Conflict if unavoidable, 
but there can be no compromise in 
the matter of liberty under the Amer- 
ican flag." 



STANDARIZE AND HARMONIZE. 

Leading commission merchants are 
now ready for standardization of the 
commission business. They favor in- 
spection under state supervision, real- 
izing that such system will cause to 
be eliminated a large percent of those 
who for one reason or another do not 
handle the business properly. It will 
also serve to keep a better balance 
as to the number of merchants of 
this class required for the business 
in cities of specific sizes to handle 
it most economically. 

Live commission merchants realize 
the fact as well as do producers and 
consumers that the distance or chan- 
nel in which the merchants are a 
factor, is being reformed. 

Just as fast as producers standard- 



THE NORTHWEST 

ize their products and adopt concerted 
methods in the marketing of them 
there will be less cause for waste in 
the commission merchant business 
and those who remain to carry it on 
will conduct it on a basis more sat- 
isfactory to themselves and to pro- 
ducers than has been the case in the 
past. Standardize and harmonize. 
The movement cannot be pushed too 
fast. 



PINT BOXES A DELUSION. 

Pint berry boxes for the local mar- 
kets have proved a delusion both to 
the grower and to the consumer. 
When the average laborer earning $2 
per day bought 3 boxes berries for 25 
cents for his average family of six 
and found that his purchase was only 
two thirds as much fruit as that 
last year for the same price, he did 
not come back the next day for the 
second quarters worth. Instead he 
bought oranges, bananas and gelatine 
for the delicious desert for his family 
table. Think of it— 2000 crates from 
Vashon with half as many more from 
some other point glutting the Seattle 
market a city of about 350,000 people, 
pint boxes in the crates at that. The 
cost of package and of handling is 
about the same as that of the short 
quart, so that in proportion to the 
amount of fruit actually handled the 
cost of getting it from the producer 
to the < consumer has increased in- 
stead of decreased with the result 
that the demand decreased in like 
proportion. This was a rather funny 
experiment on the part of our legis- 
lature. So far as any benefit to either 
the producer or the consumer the pint 
cup is a delusion. 



MONTAMARA FESTO. 

The Tacoma Carnival and Speed- 
way Association is preparing for great 
celebration and automobile races in 
Tacoma July 3rd, 4th and 5th. The 
speedway association offers $10,500 
cash awards and is attracting lead- 
ing automobile drivers of the "country. 
On the nights of July 2nd and 3rd, 
a special program is arranged at the 
Tacoma Stadium, which seats over 
30,000 people. The Stadium itself 
filled with people is worth coming a 
long way to see. Fireworks, music, 
colored torchlight procession, 260 per- 
formers lining up to form an Ameri- 
can flag 65x100 feet are some of the 
attractions. The grand Stadium pyro- 
technic display "Stromboli" is to be' 
given at 8 p. m. 

Auto Races. 

Friday, July 3rd, 10 a. m., Inter-City 
Century, 100 miles, perpetual chal- 
lenge trophy, Tacoma Carnival Asso- 
ciation and $1,500 cash. 2 p. m. Gol- 
den Potlatch trophy, 200 miles, per- 
petual challenge trophy, by Seattle 
Carnival Association, and $3,500 cash. 

Saturday, July 4th, 2:30 p. m., Mon- 
tamarathon trophy, 250 miles, trophy 
and $5,500 cash. 



NURSERYMEN AND INSPECTION. 

At the twelfth annual meeting of 
the Pacific Coast Association of Nur- 
serymen, horticultural and experi- 
ment state officials will continue in 
co-operative work with the nursery- 
men to secure, so far as possible, 
uniformity of inspection laws cover- 
ing nursery stock, orchards and or- 
chard products. Efficiency of service 
in every department is the aim. 
Standardization has become the 
watchword with fruit growers, farm- 
ers, dairymen and nurserymen. When 
fixed standards of high quality in ev- 



HORTICULTURIST 

ery line of the plant and fruit indus- 
tries have been established and made 
subject to uniform regulations, then 
much of what is now unnecessary 
waste can be avoided. Planters want 
trees free from pests and diseases 
and nurserymen realize they must 
meet that demand, but they don't like 
to propagate plants and trees con- 
forming to sanitary requirements in 
the nursery and have the product 
held up at some distant point by offi- 
cials who do not understand their du- 
ties. Nurserymen want inspection, 
but insist on thorough, efficient work 
both in the nursery and in the orch- 
ard. The interests of the nursery- 
men and that of the fruit growers are 
identical. Both require good uniform 
laws governing inspection and the 
standardizing of their products. 



LOGAN BERRY JUICE MANUFACT- 
URE. 

The commercial manufacture of 
loganberry juice is in its infancy, but 
Professor Lewis has conducted many 
experiments to justify the statements 
that approximately 80 per cent, of 
the berry can be converted into liquid. 
The machinery and processes in use 
making sweet apple juice or car- 
bonated apple juice are found to an- 
swer the purpose in making the lo- 
ganberry juice. 

During 1914 the Salem Fruit Union 
will put up about five barrels of 
juice per day, the commercial article 
to then be advertised and sent out 
to the markets as a feeler. 

The problem of labor for harvest- 
ing the loganberry has thus far been 
found to be of small moment. The 
picking season comes on as the 
schools of the state are closing for 
the year, and the loganberry fields 
have been found to be most attrac- 
tive to women and children who like 
outdoor employment, light work and 
good pay while spending a Summer 
vacation. It requires from four to 
six pickers to handle an acre of 
fruit, and, coming just before the 
hop-picking season, the growers have 
been offered many more pickers than 
they could use. The price has been 1 
cent per pound for picking. 



FRUIT DISTRIBUTORS AND BRAND 

The North Pacific Fruit Distribut- 
ors' organization requires no apology 
for its existence. The great majority 
of its membership is well satisfied 
with what has been accomplished dur- 
ing the past two years. Just as soon 
as producers affiliated with it are 
ready to unite on a brand under 
which fruit from any of its districts 
can be standardized and packed, will 
there be a little larger margin of 
profit than can be obtained from han- 
dling a multiplicity of brands. The 
advertising becomes an easier matter 
and the entire output can be handled 
at less expense. This step naturally 
will be taken and the sooner done 
the easier for the managers and the 
better the returns to growers. 



AGRICULTURAL YEARBOOK. 

The Yearbook of the United States 
Department of Agriculture for 1913 
has just come from the presses and is 
now being distributed to Congressmen 
and to correspondents of the Depart- 
ment entitled to receive copies. The 
new volume differs in several respects 
form its predecessors. The articles 
that it contains are in general popu- 
lar and instructive. 

In addition to the Secretary's report 
there are 14 special articles by De- 



partment experts and an appendix 
containing statistics of the principal 
crops; a table of the animals import- 
ed into the United States for breed- 
ing purposes for which certificates of 
pure breeding have been issued, and 
lists of the agricultural colleges and 
experiment stations in the United 
States together with the names of the 
state officials in charge of agriculture. 

The book is- illustrated by 54 full- 
page plates, of which a large number 
are reproduced in colors, and by 21 
tables, maps, and line drawings. 



GRADING RULES 
FOR SUMMER FRUIT, 
PROPER MARKING. 

The following rules generally pre- 
vailing with leading fruit growers 
in the Pacific Northwest are issued 
in a pamphlet form by the Wenatchee 
V. F. Grs. Assn. 

In marking fruit packages, care 
shall be taken that all marks are 
placed in a neat manner in their pro- 
per place. The following rule shall 
be followed: 

Specimen End of Box 

All marks shall be made with a 
rubber stamp. 

Mismarked and unmarked packages, 
or those marked without conforming 
to the above rule will not be accepted 
at any of the warehouses of the 
Association. 

Picking. 

All fruit shall be carefully picked 
at the proper stage of ripeness and 
laid (not dropped) into buckets and 
baskets or into bags that open at the 
bottom. No windfalls or fruit that 
drops from the tree from any cause 
shall be placed with the picked fruit. 

When pouring fruit from the pick- 
ing bucket or basket, into boxes, the 
bucket or basket shall be put down 
into the box until it rests upon the 
bottom of the box. The picker shall 
then place his hand over the fruit so 
as to let it into the box gently, that 
it may not in any way be bruised. 

All wagons used for conveying the 
fruit from the orchard to the packing 
house and to the warehouse must 
be supplied with springs so that there 
will be no jar to injure the fruit, 
and tarpaulins or other covering shall 
be placed over the loads to keep out 
the heat, dust or rain. Uuprotected 
loads will not be accepted. In loading 
and unloading wagons use the utmost 
care in handling packages to prevent 
bruising of contents. 

Cherries. 

All cherries must be carefully pick- 
ed with stems intact. They must be 
sound and perfect in every manner. 
Bings and Lamberts 9x9 and larger 
may be packed in Standard Associa- 
tion boxes. Pack as follows: 

Sort carefully for facing as to size 
and color; place in neatly, one at a 
time, creased side down. Place in 
box so fruit will be in rows both 
ways. Great care should be used in 
grading and placing the fruit so rows 
will be perfectly straight. Filling in 
is of great importance. The fruit 
should be carefully placed in small 
quantities at a time. All corners must 
be carefully hand packed and boxes 
filled slightly above the top and 
rounded full. All cherry boxes shall 
be lined with paper. The bottom of 
each box shall be nailed to the mid- 
dle partition. A box of cherries 
weighing less than 11^ pounds gross 
will not be accepted. All other cher- 
ries will be packed in berry crates 
containing twenty-four cups. Cups 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 127 

The Scandinavian American Bank 

OF TACOMA 

With assets of over TWO MILLION DOLLARS 
invites your business 

DO YOUR BANKING BY MAIL 




COFFMAN, DOBSON & CO., BANKERS 

CHEHALIS, WASHINGTON 

Twenty-eight years without change of management, and every demand 
unequivocally paid with Iiegal Tender. 

Distinctly a Farmers' Bank with thousands of farmers for Its cus- 
tomers. 

Farm Loans for Agricultural Development 



When Attending the Montamara Festo 

AND AUTO SPEED EXHIBITIONS in TACOMA, JULY 3-5, you are invited 
to call at Tacoma's Big Hardware Store and examine their complete line of 
things used on the farm. High in quality, reasonable in prices. Remember — 

Mohr Has IL, 1141-1143 C Street, Tacoma 



One Man Stump Puller 




Farmers and Fruit Growers 

When attending the Montamara Festivities at Tacoma July 
3-5, you are invited to examine the latest and best labor-saving 
tools and implements which manufacturers have put on the 
market and suited to this section. Quality is our motto. 

Poole's Seed & Implement Co. 

1507-9 Pacific Ave. TACOMA, WA8H. 



must be faced by placing the cher- 
ries with the stems down and be filled 
full. Crates weighing less than 30 
pounds gross will not be accepted. 

Peaches. 

Growers should remember that it 
takes from seven to fourteen days 
for peaches to arrive on the market, 
and all peaches should be picked ac- 
cordingly. 

Fancy. — There will be but one 
grade of peaches, Fancy. These shall 
be free from worms, scale diseases, 
blemishes, split pits and picking 
bruises. They shall be sound, firm, 
smooth, true to name and well col- 
ored for the variety. No Elberta, or 
other variety of Yellow Peach will be 
received smaller than 78 to the box, 
excepting Crawfords, which will be 
received up to 84 per box. Elbertas 
shall be packed on their sides. No 
Alexanders, Hale's Early and Tri- 
umphs or other variety of early 
peaches will be accepted smaller than 
90 to the box. All peaches showing 
ripeness shall be plainly marked at 
both ends Tjf each box with a rubber 
stamp, the word "Ripe." Unmarked 
and mismarked packages will not be 
accepted. Each grade and count shall 
be of uniform size, each peach neatly 
wrapped in paper, and boxes carefully 
and tightly packed suitable for long 
distance shipment. 

Diagonal pack must be used in 
packing all sizes of peaches, sides to 
be solid. Each package shall be full 
o that the .cover touches the tops 
f the peaches lightly. 

Suggestions. — Use Association 
standard boxes of correct size. In 
making boxes, use four four-penny 
cement nails for each side, eight 
four-penny cement nails for bottoms, 
six four-penny nails for top, nailing 
through cleats only. Be careful in 
nailing that no points protrude. 
Apricots, Plums and Prunes. 

Growers should bear in mind that it 
takes from seven to fourteen days for 
Apricots, plums and prunes to reach 
the market and all fruit should be 
picked accordingly. 

There will be two grades of Apri- 
cots, Plums and Prunes. Extra Fan- 
cy grade will consist of fruit packed 
5x5 and larger, three tiers to the bas- 
ket. Standard grade will consist of 
fruit packed 5x6 and 6x6. and shall 
contain four tiers to the basket, ex- 
cept Moorparks, which must be pack- 
ed tight. No Apricots, Plums and 
Prunes will be accepted smaller than 
6x6. Fruit must be hand picked, 
sound and free from defects. Crates 
must weigh not less than 27 pounds 
gross. Unmarked and mismarked 
packages and those weighing less 
than the prescribed weight will not 
be accepted. 

Suggestions. — In making crates, use 
four-penny nails on sides and bot- 
toms. Nail through cleats on top 
with four-penny cement nails. Use 
no cleats on bottom. Use prune 
paper, 32x7% inches, between each 
layer and over top. 

Pears. 

Name of variety, grade and number 
of pears shall be plainly stamped on 
end of each box; also grower's num- 
ber. 

Extra Fancy. — Bartlett, Buerre 
D'Anjou, Cornice, Flemish Beauty, 
Buerre Clairgeau, Fall Butter and 
kindred varieties shall be no smaller 
than 2% inches in diameter. Winter 
Nelis pears must be no smaller than 
1% inches in diameter. All pears 
must be packed in Association stand- 



RICHARD LAYRITZ, Victoria, B. C. 
President Pacific Coast Association 
of Nurserymen 



ard boxes and to weigh not less than 
fifty pounds gross to the box. All 
pears to be neatly wrapped in paper; 
shall be free from worms, worm 
stings, scale, picking bruises, blem- 
ishes and evidence of rough handling 
of any nature whatever. 

Standard. — All fruit in this grade 
shall be sound, free from worms, 
worm stings, scale and diseases. 
Slightly misshaped pears or those 
having limb rubs or other slight de- 
fects may be included. No fruit less 
than 2% inches will be accepted. In 
fact, stock in this grade must be only 
a little below Fancy. Must be marked 
"Standard." Unmarked and mis- 
marked packages and those weighing 
less than the prescribed weight will 
not be accepted. 

Suggestions. — In making boxes, use 
eight five-penny cement nails on each 
side, eight five-penny cement nails on 
bottom and top, nailing through cleats 
only. 

Summer Apples. 

Pack only one grade of summer 
apples — Orchard Run. No small or 
imperfect fruit shall be packed. All 
apples shall be sound, free from 
worms, scale or defects. All apples 
shall be wrapped in paper and the 
boxes marked with grower's number, 
grade and variety and the number of 
apples in the prescribed manner. Un- 
marked and mismarked packages and 
those containing more than 175 ap- 
ples to the box will not be accepted 
except Red June and Yellow Trans- 
parent and Jeffries, which shall be 
accepted as small as 200. 

Crab Apples shall be packed in 
Association Standard apple boxes and 
boxes lined. 

WENATCHEE VALLEY FRUIT 
GROWERS' ASSOCIATION. 

By Order of Board of Directors. 



CAULIFLOWER IN COAST SECTION. 



Grown Out Doors the Year Through. 

Cauliflower that will grow out of 
doors all the year and that matures 
before the Christmas holiday season, 
has been grown by Professor John W. 
Hotson of the department of botany 
in the University of Washington, after 
continued experiments. 

Four varieties of the species have 
been found, all of them belonging to 
the family of broccoli. The seed, 
which Profesor Hotson got from 
England, is planted out of doors 
about May 1, is transplanted again 



/ 

I 



the middle of June, and matures for 
the first time about December 15. 
The second date of maturity is some 
time in January. 

The advantage in growing this veg- 
etable, according to Professor Hotson, 
is that the use of greenhouse or hot- 
bed facilities is obviated, all the 
growth taking place naturally under 
outdoor conditions. Professor Hotson 
says the vegetable thrives excellently 
in the Puget Sound climate. 



PRE-COOLING BERRIES FOR SHIP- 
MENT. 

Berries for eastern shipment at Puy- 
allup are pre-cooled with air run 
through pipes into the loaded car from 
the pre-cooling room which measures 
4%xl3x28 feet, containing 3,000 feet 
of 2-inch pipe, through which the brine 
from the ice plant is run. 

A temperature of 40 degrees below 
zero is maintained in the pre-cooling 
room. Fans in the pipes leading to the 
cars below the cold air from the room 
into the cars. The fans, operated by 
a 15-horsepower motor, blow the air 
into the berry cars at a rate of 600 
cubic feet a minute. The fan in one 
pipe is run for about an hour and then 
it is stopped and the other fan start- 
ed, giving an alternating draft. The 
air is blown into the cars between two 
and three hours, or until the tempera- 
ture of the car has dropped to slightly 



above freezing, when the cars are seal- 
ed and shipped. 

By pre-cooling the ripening process 
of the berries is stopped, giving about 
three extra days in transit. This pro- 
cess opens a much larger market to 
the local shippers, as the berries may 
be shipped without fear of spoiling to 
the far Eastern points. Without the 
use of precooling process the Missis- 
sippi river has been a far East dead- 
line for the Puget Sound berry ship- 
ments. 

The pre-cooling plant was built by 
Blodgett Brothers, formerly of Au- 
burn, to handle the Puyallup & Sum- 
ner Fruit Growers' Association ship- 
ments. 



POLLINATION OF THE 
CHERRY. 

The division of Horticulture of the 
Oregon Agriculture College has re- 
cently issued a very interesting bul- 
letin on pollination, entitled "A Pre- 
liminary Report of the Pollination of 
the Sweet Cherry-." The bulletin was 
written by Professor V. R. Gardner, 
associate pomologist of that institu- 
tion. The work covers a period of 
three years undertaken in such 
places as Eugene, Corvallis, Salem and 
The Dalles. The Bulletin takes up 
something of the relative import- 
ance of the cherry pollination prob- 
lem in Oregon and points out why 



128 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 




CHAS. L. TROTTER, Vancouver, B. C. 
Chairman Executive Committee Pacific Coast Association of Nurserymen 



this problem has become acute. It 
takes up in detail the experiments 
which they have been conducting. 
The bulletin is very complete and 
well tabulated. The most startling 
points brought out are that out of 
a large number of cherries that are 
grown in the state, the Bing, Lam- 
bert, Napoleon (known as Royal 
Ann) are not only sterile but are 
intersterile; that is, they will not set 
fruit with their own pollen. It was 
shown, however, that when Black 
Republican, Black Tartarian and Wat- 
erhouse were set with these varieties 
very satisfactory results were ob- 
tained. It would seem from the in- 
formation secured that it would be 
unsafe to plant orchards which con- 
tain nothing but Bing, Lambert and 
Napoleon. It was found that all 
sweet varieties tested were self-ster- 
ile; that other good pollenizers than 
those mentioned are Elton, Wood, 
Coe, Major Francis Early Purple. It 



was also found that seedling trees 
that are found in cherry districts are 
efficient pollenizers for the leading 
varieties. A very interesting thing 
found was that the Duke group of 
cherries are capable of pollenizing 
some of the Bigarreaus and at least 
some of the varieties of sour cher- 
ries are capable of pollenizing some 
of the Bigarreaus. 

The bulletin is spendidly illustrat- 
ed, having in the back a series of 
plates showing the fruit secured from 
the various crosses. This bulletin 
will be mailed free to all in Oregon 
who are especially interested in this 
subject and a limited number" of co- 
pies will be distributed in other por- 
tions of the United States. [The pro- 
cess of pollination of the different 
fruits seems to require more atten- 
tion in a humid atmosphere like that 
of the coast section than is the case 
where there is less dampness during 
the blossoming period.] 



AGRICULTURE 



The Basis of 
Prosperity 



BUTTER, EGG AND POULTRY 
PRICES. 

Prices Paid Farmers for Butter, Eggs 
and Chickens in May. 

The crop reports of the Bureau of 
Statistics (Crop Estimates) of the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture show 
the average prices paid to the farm- 
ers in various States for butter, eggs, 
and chickens, and May 1, 1914, and as 
compared with the similiar estimates 
on May 1, 1913. Apparently farmers 
are obtaining on an average less for 
their butter, and slightly more for 
their eggs and chickens. 

Butter. 

The average price paid to the 
farmer for butter on May 1, 1914, was 
23.8c or 3.2c less a pound than the 
average price paid on May 1, 1913. 
Eggs. 

The farm prices for eggs on May 1 
were 16.8c a dozen or about .7c high- 
er on an average for the country 



than on May 1, 1913, or an increase 
of about 4.3 per cent. In most of the 
States the price was the same, or 
varied only by lc one way or the 
other. In Montana, however, eggs 
on May 1, 1914, were 18c or 4c cheap- 
er than the preceding year, while in 
New Mexico they were 23c or 4c 
higher on an average. 

Chickens. 

The price paid to farmers for chick- 
ens on May 1 was 12.5 or about .7c 
a pound higher in 1914 than in 1913, 
or an increase of about 5.9 per cent. 
The variation in the price of chickens 
was commonly less than lc per pound. 
The principal variations from this 
were Delaware, where there was a 
decrease of l%c a pound to 14.5c, 
West Virginia where there was an in- 
crease of 1.2c a pound to 13.4c, North 
Carolina an increase of 1.5c to 12.5c 
and South Carolina an increase of 
2.3c to 15.c. 



Nontamara Festo 
Visitors 



Are cordially invited to take advantage of onr 
garage and headquarters while in Tacoma. Every 
convenience for the storage of cars, repairing, ad- 
justing and washing will be found here at 

Motor Headquarters 

There will be stenographers, writing desks and 
courteous attendants at your command. 

And then — you can inspect the newest motor ve- 
hicle on the market — the new 3,000-lb. B. A. Gramm 
Truck. This, in itself will more than justify your 
trip to Tacoma. 

All prices will remain at regular schedule. 

It is our desire to be truly your host. 



Gramm-Bernstein Motor 
Truck Co. 

Northwest Factory Branch 
Tacoma, Washington 



Corner 7th and C Sts. 



Phoine Main 3328 




("CORONA DRY" | 

Arsenate of Lead 

Patented June 10, 1913 
Eliminates guesswork. - Standardizes the 
strength of the spray mixture. Saves work 
in mixing — no straining needed. 

Spray 
with a mixture 
that always has the 
same strength. You cannot 
use a paste arsenate and be sure of 
uniform strength. Large and practicaC 
usage in all sections, for all purposes, 
has proved that in "Corona Dry" you 
do get this very thing plus highest 
poisoning power, and absolute safety 
from "burning." 

Largest and Most 
Progressive Growers Everywhere 

say that "Corona Dry" has proved efficient — 
has always the same high efficiency — is more 
simple, cleaner and easier to handle than a 
paste material — is easily mixed and needs no 
straining — can be measured easily and cor- 
rectly. *'Corona Dry" positively kills and 
exterminates Coddling Moth, Curculio and 
all leaf-eating insects of both fruit andshade 
trees. One pound of "Corona Dry 1 * will 
do the work of three pounds of paste and 
doit better. Write for booklet. Ask for 
Corona"TreeInsurance" Policy. Address 

CORONA CHEMICAL. CO. 
Dept.D. Milwaukee, Wisconsin 




Nursery Stock 

FRUIT TREE8 

SMALL FRUITS 

ORNAMENTALS 

The planter always wants the 
very best paying results. There is 
but one way to accomplish this. 
The right start with our guaran- 
teed whole root, non-irrigated stock 
in fruit trees, our splendid two- 
year-old stock in small fruits and 
our unexcelled selection of orna- 
mentals will do it. Beware of poor 
stock. Disappointment Is the only 
result therefrom. 

Send for our catalogue. Agents 
wanted. 

SALEM NURSERY COMPANY 

P. J. Rupert, Mgr. 
8ALEM OREGON 



Please mention tWs paper 




Walnuts 

in the 

Yakima Valley 

Mr. J. B. Elliott, of North Yaki- 
ma, Wash., writes us: 

"I have six walnut trees eight 
years old which have borne a fine 
3rop of nuts for the past two 
years. When these trees were two 
years old the temperature dropped 
to 20 degrees below zero, killing 
peach trees at my place, but the 
walnut trees came through unin- 
jured, ff I had the land, I would 
plant a commercial walnut orch- 
ard, as I believe the walnut is 
going to be a winner in this val- 
ley." The essential feature in a 
successful walnut is hardiness, 
size, quality of meat and regular 
annual bearing tendencies. All of 
these characteristics are found in 
the VROOMAN PURE STRAIN 
FRANQUETTE, unquestionably 
the leading walnut for the North- 
west. Are profitable for nuts, or 
useful as shade trees. Write to- 
day for our free, handsome, illus- 
trated booklet .giving full and re- 
liable walnut information. 

OREGON NURSERY CO. 

Oranco, Oregon 

Competent salesmen wanted. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



129 



Grange Master's Message 



C. B. Kegley's annual address be- 
fore Washington State Grange, North 
Yakima is supposed to express the 
consensus of opinion of members of 
the grange on public questions in 
which this body in concerned. Aside 
from that portion of the address deal- 
ing with the machinery of the organ- 
ization we select for the benefit of 
our readers the following carefully 
considered topics of general public 
interest. 

A Complete Postal Express. 

The Grange demand for Parcel Post 
Improvement will not be satisfied until 
we have established a postal express 
service reaching all rural districts as 
well as the cities, as full and complete 
as that now enjoyed by the cities by 
the double service of the limited Par- 
cel Post and the private express com- 
panies. We have given our support to 
the administration in the improve- 
ments made, and have been satisfied 
with them because we have firmly be- 
lieved they were steps in a well con- 
sidered plan of developing a complete 
service in accordance with the farm- 
ers' desires. If this confidence is 
justified, the time has now arrived 
when we have the right to expect a 
further increase in the weight limit on 
the short hauls to 100 pounds, and on 
long hauls to fifty pounds. I do not 
think that making this test at this 
time can be considered unreasonably, 
for the Postmaster General and the 
Chairman of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission have officially testified 
that the weight limit ought to be at 
least 100 pounds and the general un- 
derstanding has been that such an in- 
crease was contemplated as soon as 
the department had adjusted itself to 
handling the heavier weights. But 
since then powerful interests have 
organized to oppose the extension of 
the Parcel Post beyond the present 
limits. To get the merchants of the 
big cities to support this plan the ex- 
press companies are to give them the 
service that is to be denied to the 
rural districts. In return, these mer- 
chants and the merchants' associa- 
tions of the big cities, are to refuse 
any support for Parcel Post extension 
and bring all their influence to bear 
on the postal administration and Con- 
gress to prevent further extension of 
the Parcel Post. This movement has 
already resulted in two attempts at 
legislation by Congress, and I have 
myself tueard it boasted that the de- 
partment will not oppose the plans of 
such powerful combination. I sin- 
cerely hope that there is no justifica- 
tion for such claims, but it is signifi- 
cant, to say the least, that merchants' 
associations, on whose support we 
confidently counted, have ceased to 
cooperate, claiming that the Parcel 
Post work is completed, and are now 
supporting the non-extension policy. 

The whole animus to this opposi- 
tion is cold blooded indifference to 
the farmers' needs for an improved 
service and determination to ride 
roughshod over his rights. Will it 
prevail? Most assuredly it will un- 
less the farmers themselves see to 
it that their interests are properly 
looked after. This we propose to do 
by reorganization of the Postal Ex- 
press Federation and keeping Brother 
Hampton on the job at Washington 
until all danger is past and the ex- 



tension work has gone so far that 
its completion is certain. The simple 
plan by which this is to be accom- 
plished will be presented to you at 
the proper time and I bespeak for it 
the most careful consideration. 
Postal Savings Bank extension, and 
the People's Pension Fund. 

The attitude of the present postal 
administration to broadening and 
improving the Postal Savings Banks 
service is most gratiying, especially 
in the enlargement of the amount 
that can be carried on individual 
deposit, and the disposition to aid 
the movement to carry into effect the 
Grange resolution for the loan of 
postal savings to farmers. Congress, 
also, in its Rural Credit legislation 
shows a desire to carry this purpose 
into effect. At the outset, however, 
we are confronted with the fact that 
the total savings banks deposites are 
too small to have any appreciable 
effect in supplying the farmers' loan 
needs. But there has lately been in- 
troduced into Congress by Senator 
Owen, of Oklahoma, in the Senate 
OS. 3554), and by Congressman Cal- 
der, of Brooklyn, N. Y., in the House, 
(H. R. 13,769) a bill— they are dup- 
licates — "to authorize the acceptance 
and administration of savings by the 
postal savings bank service of the 
Postal Department for Crescent (Ton- 
tine) Life Annuities." It is pro- 
posed to establish under the full 
control of the Government, absolute- 
ly removed from all possibility of 
manipulation for private gains, a 
People's Pension Fund that will give 
to every one in return for small an- 
nual payments an income that will 
steadily grow larger as the years go 
by, and furnish an ample pension to 
enable old men and old women alike 
to live, independent and comfortable, 
to the end of their days. The public 
welfare importance of such a pen- 
sion system cannot be overestimated 
and the postal savings deposits will 
then be ample to meet every loan 
need of the farmers. The tremend- 
ous importance of this matter has 
grown on me steadily since I first 
studied it, and I submit it to your 
consideration believing that we 
should direct our influence in secur- 
ing the earliest possible action by 
Congress. 

Penny Letter Postage. 

A campaign to secure a reduction 
of letter postage from two cents to 
one cent, is being conducted by an 
association spending $50,000 a year, 
and appealing for support to increase 
the amount to $500,000. This is 
certainly a joke on the wholesale 
and retail merchants supporting it, 
for the great beneficiaries would un- 
doubtedly be the giant concerns 
which conduct their business wholly 
by correspondence, namely the mail 
order houses. Whatever the result, 
farmers are absolutely opposed to 
any reduction on the letter postage 
until the parcel post is fully estab- 
lished, for we do not propose helping 
to create a heavy deficit in the let- 
ter postage, which would be inevit- 
able under penny letter postage, to 
block parcel post extension and other 
urgently needed improvements. 

Direct Trading Between Producers 
and Consumers. 

The Parcel Post has made direct 



A Product Of 
40 Years' Experience 

For 40 years and over we have been successfully 
manufacturing lubricating oils for hundreds of different 
purposes. When the automobile came into use, our 
experts made a thorough study of its construction and 
operation and we produced Zerolene, a special oil to 
meet the exact lubricating requirements of this type of 
gas engine. 

ZEROLENE 

THE STANDARD OIL 
FOR MOTOR CARS 



We therefore recommend Zerolene not merely as a 
good oil, but as actually the best motor oil we can 

make. It is giving satisfactory service to thousands of 
motorists. It keeps the motor cool by perfect lubri- 
cation; cuts down repair costs and lengthens the life 
of the car. 

Dealers everywhere. Ask 
our nearest agency about de- 
livery in bulk. 

Standard Oil 
Company 

(CALIFORNIA) 




BEAUTY IS WEALTH 

THAT WELL PLANTED HOME GROUNDS ABE WORTH SEVERAL 
TIMES THE COST IS A FACT THAT EVERYONE KNOWS. IT IS TO 
YOUR DISCREDIT AND ABSOLUTE LOSS IP YOU DO NOT MAKE 
YOUR PLACE ATTRACTIVE, AS ITS VALUE IS THEREBY GREATLY 
INCREASED. 

High grade fruit trees, roses, shrubbery, etc. 

Fine two-year-old rose bushes delivered anywhere, prepaid, at bargain 
prices. Write for list. 

MITCHELL NURSERY COMPANY 

Larchmont, Tacoma — 5 cent fare 

On Auto Road to prairies and Mt. Tacoma. South 96th and Pacific Ave. 



Producers & Consumers Co-Operative Company 

E. HAZELTON, Pres. & Mgr. 
1114-1116 Western Ave., Seattle, Wash. Tel. Main 3689. 

(1400 Farmers in our Membership) 
We handle all kinds of farm products, making channels between producer and 
consumer as short and inexpensive as possible. If not a stockholder, write 
for our prospectus, also our wholesale provision list. State what you 
have to offer in fruit, potatoes, veal, pork and poultry. Please mention this 
paper. 



THE 

ANNIE WRIGHT SEMINARY 

TACOMA, WASHINGTON 
Thirty-first Year 

An endowed Church School for 
Girls, College Preparatory and 
General Courses. Certificate ad- 
mits to Smith, Wellesley, Vassar 
and the leading State Universities. 

Special advantages in Domestic 
Science, Music and Art. 

ADELAIDE PRESTON 

Principal 



THE "BOSS" 

I REE PROTECTOR 



FARRAR'S LIFE OF CHRIST. 

A book which should he in every 
home, is sent postpaid including one 
year's subscription to this paper for 
$1.25. Northwest Horticulturist & 
Dairyman, Box 1604, Tacoma, Wash. 



Made of Yucca Palm 

Is cheap, durable and 
quickly put on the tree. It 
prevents rabbits from de- 
stroying your trees. A sure 
protection against frosts, 
sunburn, grasshoppers or dry 
winds. Can be easily remov- 
ed; will last for years. Send 
for samples. 

PRICES 

Per 1000 

10 in. long, 7 In. wide $10.00 

12 in. long. 7 in. wide 11.00 

14 In. long, 7 in. wide 12.00 

16 in. long, 7 in. wide 13.50 

18 in. long, 7 in. wide 15.00 




24 in. long, 7 in. wide 
30 in. long. 7 in. wide 



18.00 
21.00 



YUCCA MANUFACTURING CO. 
1380 Willow St., Los Angeles, CaL 

Please mention this paper 



130 

trading a practical possibility on a 
nation-wide scale. Both as your State 
Master and as President of the Con- 
ference of Progressive State Granges, 
I have gone into this matter quite 
thoroughly. We can reach the East- 
ern consumer by the combination of 
fast freight carload shipments and 
delivery to the city cosumer by the 
low rate Parcel Post, and the Postal 
Express if perfected and transporta- 
tion discriminations generally elimin- 
ated, the home market will develope 
rapidly. This matter will be submit- 
ted to you fully during the session 
and I therefore confine myself in this 
address to recommending it to you 
as one of the most important matters 
you will have to consider and urging 
you to give it special attention. We 
have to consider it in its national as 
well as its state aspect. 

Education. 

The foundation on which a noble 
and enduring educational system can 
be built is a thoroughly efficient com- 
mon school system that will guaran- 
tee to every child an education which 
will fit it for the work it has to do. 
For the State to spend money on the 
higher education until that is amply 
provided for, is to rob the many for 
the benefit of the few. Not one out 
of twenty of our school children ever 
enter our colleges, and it costs our 
State about $800.00 per annum for 
each student in our colleges. What 
right has the State to make such ex- 
penditures for the fortunate one who 
perhaps has parents amply able to 
meet the expense, before making ade- 
quate provision to improve the 
schools for the other nineteen who 
must be satisfied with what the com- 
mon schools afford. We are not 
opposed to higher education, but 
patrons, we must see to it that it is 
not at the expense of our common 
schools. We must demand that they 
be first improved so as to provide 
education up to the 12th grade. 
The Seven Sisters. 

The legislative committee will deal 
with the State legislative work and 
I ask you to give the committee's 
report your most careful attention. 
Our present State legislative cam- 
paign, is practically summed up in 
our fight for the "Seven Sisters." 
These are so well known to you all, 
and I have given my views so freely 
in the press and on the platform, 
that it is not necessary for me to 
worry you with repetition here. The 
vital thing is that we must get the 
signatures to the petitions necessary 
to place them on the ballot next 
November. 

Two sisters, Mrs. Selma Hanson, 
Master of South Fork Grange, and 
Mary E. Clark, Secretary of Halls 
Lake Grange, have returned the 
greatest per cent, of signers in their 
localites. Indications are that we 
shall have all the signers we need, 
but it will not do to let up or take 
any chances. It is important, also, 
to keep in mind that the best way to 
insure carrying these measures by 
a big majority at the general election 
is to put them on the ballot with a 
big surplus of signatures. 

I have spoken elsewhere of the 
difficulties we have had to overcome 
in securing signatures to these peti- 
tions owing to the prohibitive restri- 
tions in the law. These restrictions 
must be abolished, but many of our 
friends have overcome these handi- 
caps by the constant sacrifice of their 
time and personal affairs and have 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



kept petitions circulating. Our co- 
workers of the State Federation of 
Labor and of the Farmers' Union are 
especially worthy of praise in this 
connection. This is true, also, of 
those political parties whose aid, 
both by moral support and work, has 
been so effective. I feel that we owe 
a word of praise particularly to the 
Hon. J. C. Lawrence for his faithful 
work for these measures. He opened 
headquarters in Spokane, made daily 
and hourly talk for them and secured 
many signatures, and others who 
went out as a result of his work se- 
cured many more. It is work of 
this kind, brothers and sisters, that 
makes the scheming of our enimies 
fruitless. My appeal to you is not 
to take any chances. We cannot 
afford to. The Fish interests and the 
fake promoters under the guise of the 
"Stop-Look-Listen League" are fight- 
ing the Fish bill and the Blue Sky 
bill bitterly, for they know when 
these measures are enacted their day 
of robbery is ended. Every one of 
the Seven Sisters hits some grafter 
or group of grafters or special priv- 
ilege corporation, and all these are 
leagued together. Combined they are 
indeed powerful, and with unlimited 
funds, workers and ramifying in- 
fluences, they will defeat us if defeat 
is possible. The only thing for us is 
for each and everyone to keep ever- 
lasting at it until the very last mo- 
ment. We fight for the freedom of 
our great state and the liberty and 
prosperity of her people. 

Agriculture. 

The resources of our young state 
are unsurpassed by any State in this 
Union but we should be watchful lest 
with all this great wealth of soil and 
natural resources we, through care- 
less methods of handling the soil like 
our fathers and brethren of the East 
shall rob our soil and in so doing rob 
our pockets at the same time. - 

God gave this State more in nat- 
ural resources than that of any other 
State in the Union and it should be 
our bounden duty to see to it that 
these are not longer filched from the 
people but held as the heritage for 
generations yet unborn. 

We have read much of the aban- 
doned and worn out farms of the 
East. I want to warn you that what 
is true of their conditions will be 
written of ours, rich as we are in 
soil fertility, there is a bottom to 
all soil if farmed on the one-crop 
system. Much has been said of the 
"Book Farmer" but I want to say 
to you that he is making good. Hun- 
dreds of these so-called book farmers 
have taken hold of these abandoned 
and worn out farms of the East and 
have redeemed them and made them 
yield a profit on the labor invest- 
ment. Modern methods and intelli- 
gent cooperation is your salvation 
and this calls for a close study both 
in adaption of crops and methods of 
cultivation. This brings home the 
question of diversification which 
means more live stock and the mar- 
keting of our crops in the concen- 
trates and not in the bag or bale. 
The educational campaign of Prof. P. 
G. Holden in our State last year 
"Alfalfa on Every Farm," caused a 
real awakening, and the beneficial 
effects are alreay being felt, not only 
in Washington but throughout the 
entire Pacific Northwest. 

Patrons, the hope of the farmer in 
Washington lies in two great and 




On Farms Where Efficiency Rules 

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J-M Asbestos Roofing 

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A roofing of everlasting, pliable stone, made of pure Asbestos and 
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buildings cool in summer, 



warm in winter. Affords 
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Proof against every weather con- 
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J- M REGAL ROOFING was perfected to supply 
a demand fora rubber type, wool felt roofing, lower 
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J-M ASBESTOS SHINGLES meet the demand 
for a decorative fire-proof residence roofing that 
never needs paint. 

Your dialer keeps J-M Roofings, or you may order 
direct. Write nearest branch for Book No. 3S 62 

H. W. JOHNS-MANVILLE CO. 

New Orleans 
Omaha 
Philadelphia 
Pittsburgh 
San Francisco 
Seattle 
St . Louis 
Syracuse 2460 




VutCMUJu-b-JLlV, 

asxti a, i?u 

8. t. Jebu-MasTill« Co^onr, 

Btrw York City, law Tor*. 

■Osntlemeai 

f» are using your JUBoto* Roofing on out 
now dairy barn, baring decided to adopt it 
bacauuo ef the satisfaction It ha,* glT«n 
u» on othoi buildings. Our barn and 
oqulpnect are thoroughly ewdern in •vaij 
vajj and our dairy Is tub Cfl ft proflt- 
produolng boats, e& toat the feature of 
ultimate aaviag which can be aade with 
your peroanent roofing *aa an attraotlro 
one. It aleo glvee an etppearanoe of 
ce&tneea, vbloh la very valuable oa ■ 
dairy farm like ouxe. We are glad to 
reooBEfiDd It 

Tours very truly, 
THZ 9EPAR4TQH CO* 



Cleveland Minneapolis 
Dallas New York 



The Sharpies Separator Co. 
Dairy Barn, West Cheater, Pa. 





Quaker Trees 



FRUITS 
ORNAMENTALS 
SHRUBS 



A Fine Stock of Apples, Pears, Peaches, Plums, Prunes, Apricots and 
Small Fruits. 

It Is a good year to increase the ornamental planting. Thousands 
will come to the Pacific Coast seeking homes during the next few years. 
Do you wish to sell any part of your land', or your home place, or do you 
wish to encourage settlers who have some degree of taste and refine- 
ment? Then adorn your home with some ornamental plants, shrubs and 
trees. The cost is trifling compared with the actual value which may he 
derived. Our catalog contains valuable suggestions. 

Write for catalog and price list today. State your requirements. 

QUAKER NURSERIES 



Good Agents Wanted. 



C. F. LANSING, Prop. 



SALEM, OREGON 



WALTER BOW EN & CO., I no. 

WHOLESALE COMMISSION, PBUITS AND PRODUCE 

Phone: Main 59. SEATTLE, WASH. 1111 Western Ave. 

Goods handled strictly on commission. Prompt returns our specialty. 
Wire or write us at any time for market quotations. 

References: National Bank of Commerce, Seattle; Merc. Agencies; Ship- 
pers on Pacific Coast. 

WE CAN SELL TOUB GOODS 




E 

SUPPLIES 



Are standard — the best to be 
had for money-making 
purposes. We are 
Agents for Lewis Bee Ware. 

Send for Catalog. 
Most authoritative Bee Book 
issued, 34 pages of definite 
information. Illustrated. 



TheChas,H.Lilly'Co. Seattle. 



Loganberry Plants 

We have a full line of Loganber- 
ries, Mammoth Blackberries. Also 
other varieties of nursery stock and 
will be pleased to have you make 
your wants known to us. Would 
like ot get someone to act as sales- 
man for us. White for particulars. 

Address 

Albany Nurseries, Inc. 

ALBANY, ORE. 

G. W. Pennebaker, Mgr. 



Pfau Pneumatic 
Water System, 

WATER DIRECT FROM THE 
IA/ELLTO FAUCET: HO STALE, 
INSIPID OR STAGNANT WATER 
FROM Fl LT H Y STORAGE TANKS 

= MODERATE COST 
LESS THAN 5? PER IOOO GALLONS TO 
OPERATE. DOES NOT GET OUT OF 
ORDER. GET FURTHER PARTICULARS FROM 

THOS.J.ROSS 

329 E. Morrison St. Portland, Ore. 



WWARNING 

Homesteads in Western Canada 
160 Acres of Excellent Agricultural Land 
Free on Payment of $1 0 Entrance Fee 

The Canadian government has an authorized agent, 
Jas. N. Grieve, located cor. 1st and Post St*»., 
Spokane, Wash., for the purpose of giving informa- 
tion free regarding the districts in the Provinces of 
Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British 
Columbia, and localities where homesteads are to be 
had. There is no necessity to pay anything more 
than $10 entrance fee when you appear at the land 
agency of the government in Western Canada to make 
entry. 

Warning Is hereby given that none other than Mr. 
Grieve or those authorized by him is permitted to grant 
certificates for reduced rates on the railways. 

Information is absolutely free. Beware of 
those who ask money for this information. 

W. D. SCOTT, Superintendent of Immigration 
For the Dominion of Canada Ottawa, Canada 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



131 



vitally important questions; Coopera- 
tion and Diversification. Coopera- 
tion with your brother farmer in an 
intelligent handling of the surplus 
products of the farm and diversity 
means live stock, and herein lies our 
hope and both are within our reach. 
I commend these suggestions to the 
careful consideration or the Commit- 
tee on Argriculture and Cooperation. 



WESTERN WASHINGTON FAIR. 

For the next exhibition of the West- 
ern Washington Fair Association, the 
president, W. H. Paulhamus, and J. P. 
Nevens, secretary, Puyallup, are re- 
questing special premium contribu- 
tions to be made. The fair is an 
event requiring much attention and 
work on the part of public spirited 
citizens and is carried on for the pur- 
poses of education, standardization 
and for more united efforts on the 
part of producers to attain a high 
standard of production. 



THE SILO AS AN ECONOMIZER 
OF SPACE 

One ton of mixed hay occupies 40 
cubic feet. 

Eight tons of corn silage occupy 
400 cubic feet. 

One ton of mixed hay contains 
1,742 pounds of dry matter. 

Three tons of corn silage contains 
4,224 pounds of dry matter. 

One ton of mixed hay contains 960 
pounds of digestible dry matter. 

Eight tons of corn silage contains 
2,560 pounds of digestible dry matter. 

The silo not only furnishes econom- 
ical storage but it enables the farmer 
to handle his crop cheaper than by 
any other method. 



AGRICULTURAL IM- 
PORTS AND EXPORTS. 

According to the Department pi 
Commerce our agricultural exports are 
decreasing while imports are increas- 
ing. Farmers will figure accordingly 
on prospective markets. Imports of 
foodstuffs in their natural condition, 
including food animals, increased from 
$117,194,237 in the half year ended 
with March, 1913, to $143,421,536 in a 
like period ended with March, 1914, 
and imports of foodstuffs partly or 
wholly prepared for use in the same 
period advanced from $95,744,241 to 
$100,967,378. Thus the increase in im- 
portations of all food products in the 
period named amounted to over $30,- 
000,000, or an average of $5,000,000 per 
month. v 

On the export side the figures are 
even more striking. Of crude food- 
stuffs the sales to foreign countries 
fell off more than 50 per cent., while 
prepared foodstuffs also declined, 
though in smaller proportion. Experts 
of the first-named group fell from 
$115,850,453 in the six months period 
of last year to $55,483,787 in the half 
year which ended with March of the 
current year, and manufactured food 
products from $180,007,422 to $162,022- 
620. 

The articles of food showing the 
largest increase in importations dur- 
ing the six months under review are 
fresh beef, cattle, corn, wheat, rice, 
macaroni, fruits, molasses, and edible 
oils. We imported during the six 
months which ended with March last 
550,000 head of cattle, or more than 
double the number imported in the 
corresponding period a year earlier; 
83% million pounds of beef and veal, 
or over fifty times as much as a 
year ago; nearly 9 million bushels of 



corn, or 30 times as much as in the 
corresponding six months of last 
year; 140 million pounds of rice and 
rice flour, or nearly 50 million pounds 
more than a year ago; and 66 million 
pounds of macaroni, vermicelli, and 
other similar preparations, as against 
53 million pounds in the correspond- 
ing six months of the preceeding 
year. Sugar is a conspicuous ex- 
ception to the rule of increasing im- 
ports of food products. Of cane sugar 
the imports in the six months ended 
with March amounted to 1,650 million 
pounds, compared with 1,809 million 
in the corresponding six months of 
1912-13, while of beet sugar the im- 
ports feel to 1% million pounds, in 
comparison with 182 million pounds 
in the half period which ended with 
March, 1913. 



SMITH LEVER LAW IN 
EFFECT. 

The Secretary of Agriculture has 
written to the governors of all the 
States asking that they designate the 
college or colleges to which the funds 
provided by the Smith-Lever co-oper- 
ative agricultural extension law are to 
go. This is the first step in putting 
into effect this act, approved by the 
President May 8, which provides for 
the granting of Federal funds to the 
State agricultural colleges to aid in 
diffusing among the people useful 
and practical information on subjects 
relating to agricultural and home econ- 
omics and to encourage the applica- 
tion of the same. 

The conditions of the act are that 
each State must duplicate the money 
above $10,000 a year appropriated to it 
by the Federal Government. The 
money raised by the State may come 
from the State, county, college, local 
authority, or individual contributions 
from within the State, for the mainten- 
ance of cooperative agricultural exten- 
sion work. The governor of each State 
in the interval until legislature meets, 
is called upon to designate the agricul- 
tural college or colleges to which the 
Federal funds are to be paid. 

The act provides that each State 
in which an agricultural college is des- 
ignated shall receive as a basic fund 
from the Federal Government $10,000 
annually without additional appropria- 
tion from the State. The act then 
makes provision for additional appro- 
priations to be distributed in the pro- 
portion which the rural population of 
each State bears to the total rural 
population of all the States, as deter- 
mined by the next preceding census. 
To share in these additional funds, 
however, the State, either through 
State, county, college, or local funds, or 
from individual contributions from 
within the State, must duplicate the 
additional amounts granted by the Fed- 
eral Government for the maintenance 
of the cooperative agricultural exten- 
sion work provided for in this act. 



RURAL TRAINING. 



Oak Harbor, Wash. 

To accomplish as much as possible 
for the upbuilding and improvement 
of the community in which it is loc- 
ated has been the aim of the Oak 
Harbor high school. Much has been 
done during the school year which 
has just closed, to bring about hearty 
and mutually beneficial cooperation 
between the school and the people of 
the community. 

The new school building was made 



"Uncle Sam" 
Buys 

The U. S. Department of Agriculture has 
just ordered an Ideal Green Feed Silo to be 
shipped to Glenwood, Hawaii. 

This Ideal Green Feed Silo was purchased 
after fully investigating the merits of all 
other silos, including home-made, re-sawed 
and cement silos. 



On account of the superior work that the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture is doing, it is necessary that they be equipped 
with the best obtainable in order to secure the best results, and 
"Uncle Sam" is a good judge. 

The fact that the U. S. Department of Agriculture have pur- 
chased an Ideal Green Feed Silo for their own use should be 
convincing evidence that it is the proper silo for you to buy. 
Write today for new descriptive folder B for full information. 




ENSILAGE CUTTERS AND ALPHA GASOLINE ENGINES 



DE LAVAL DAIRY SUPPLY CO. 

101 Drumm Street 1016 "Western Ave. 

SAN FRANCISCO SEATTLE 

PACIFIC COAST AGENTS FOR JAMES BARN EQUIPMENT 



Ground Phosphate Rock 

The Natural Plant Food and Permanent Soli Builder 

1000 lbs. per acre once in each four years will cost about $1.00 per acre 
per year. At Penn. State College $1.05 invested in Rock Phosphate gave in- 
creased yields of $5.85 — over 500%. At Mary, land Ex. Station, $1.96% gave 
$22.11 — over 1000%. At Ohio station each dollar paid for itself and gave 
$5.68 profit. At Illinois Station $2.50 gave the same return as $250 invested 
in land. 

Each ton contains 280 lbs. of phosphorous, not rendered available arti- 
ficially by high-i riced destructive acids, but so finely ground as to become 
available in nature's own way. 

UNITED STATES PHOSPHATE SO., Salt Lake City, Utah 

Write for literature. 
"Perfection of fineness In grinding'," our motto. 



Bangholm Rutabaga, Bortfelder Turnips 

Plant during June or July on any rich moist soil, and you have two 
of the best producing roots. 

Price only 50 cents per pound postpaid. Ask for special prices for 
large quantities. We sell only direct to farmers. 

AABLING-EBRJGHT SEED CO. 

85-89 Pike St., SEATTLE 



Headquarters for Oregon Champion Gooseberry 

and Perfection Currant 

Attractive prices made now for Advance Orders 

Also a very complete line of general Nursery Stock, including a 
choice assortment of one-year budded and two-year Apple and Pear. 
Correspondence solicited. 

Portland Wholesale Nursery Co. 



301-302 Stock Exchange Building. 



PORTLAND, OREGON 



The Place to Buy your Supplies 



MONTE VISTA NURSERIES 

PEAR TREES — We have some very choice pear trees in both 1 
and 2-year stock of the following varieties: Anjou, Bartlett, Cornice, 
W. Nelis, P. Barry. 

APPLE TREES — Very fine Jonathans, Rome Beauty, N. Spy, New- 
town, Baldwin, Ortley, Winter Banana, King, Waxen, Gravenstein and 
Red Astrachan. Write for prices. 

A. HOL ADATT SCAPPOOSE, OBEGrON 



132 

possible by the generous donation of 
a beautiful and spacious site of ten 
acres, given by one of Oak Harbor's 
public spirited citizens, Mr. William 
Izett. School has now been conduct- 
ed two years in this building. 

One of the cooperative undertak- 
ings of the present year was the im- 
provement of the school grounds, at 
which pupils and people of the com- 
munity united in conducting a "grad- 
ing bee" for the school. A splendid 
beginning was made and this will be 
added to it is hoped, with each 
succeeding year. 

It is the aim of the school to turn 
out pupils who shall be able to take 
their places in the community as 
leading citizens, who shall by pre- 
cept and example be an inspiration 
and help to their neighbors. For tEat 
reason the training has been planned 
to follow practical lines. In promot- 
ing this object it was necessary to 
turn the attention of the pupils to 
industrial work as well as the regu- 
lar text book work. For this reason 
manual training was decided upon 
although there were no funds to 
provide equipment, and no teacher to 
give instuction in that subject. The 
teacher was supplied by the school 
janitor who is an excellent mechanic 
and a man with much experience in 
handling men. Only less important 
was the question of tools. The 
pupils were called upon to loan all 
they could. The new instructor, 
Mr. A. A. Gray, furnished a set and 
various members of the community 
found they had a few tools to loan. 
Thus a start was made and later by 
means of an entertainment, funds 
were secured for the purchase of 
some of the most essential tools. 
One of the citizens, Mr. James Neil, 
also donated a number of tools so 
that the shop was well equiped he- 
fore the year closed. 

As much attention was devoted to 
the needs of the girls for the in- 
dustrial training and a class in sew- 
ing was begun near the beginning 
of the year. Later a class in cook- 
ing was also started. 

Use has also been made of a 
portion of the excellent school 
grounds, the second largest in the 
state, for gardening and agricultural 
purposes. As this is an agricultural 
community, this will probably be the 
most important department of the 
school activity in the future. It is 
hoped that the high school will send 
large numbers to the State College 
at Pullman to get more of indust- 
rial education. 

This year the Oak Harbor high 
school graduated its first class. The 
class was composed of four hoys and 
one girl, and every member will con- 
tinue his education. The boys are 
all going to college or university, 
and the young lady will take up a 
teacher's course at one of the State 
Normal schools. This is the first 
class and they are setting a good 
example. 

C. L. Hultgren, 
Superintendent. 



TIME TO BUILD SILOS. 



By Geo. Severance, Agriculturist State 
College, Pullman, Wash. 
The time of year is now approach- 
ing when those farmers interested in 
putting up silage must begin making 
arrangements for this work. The 
farmer who is fortunate enough to 
t>e provided with a good silo need 



THE NORTHWEST 

give this matter but little thought 
until his crop is ready for harvest- 
ing. Many farmers, however, realize 
the value of silage but defer making 
preparations for putting it up until 
it is too late each season to con- 
struct a silo. The Experiment Sta- 
tion wishes to urge upon the farmer 
to give the matter of silage use and 
silo construction serious attention. 

Observations the country over re- 
veal the fact that there is scarcely 
any system of farm feeding which 
will add to the profits of the farm 
like the use of silage. Especially is 
this true if dairying is carried on, 
even in a small way upon the farm. 
The advantage of succulent feed at 
all times of year is recognized by all 
who have had any experience in the 
use of silage. It also has the advant- 
age of reducing the amount of con- 
centrated food required by the stock. 
Another advantage that this has over 
other ordinary forage crops is that 
rain or bad weather need not inter- 
fere with the harvesting of the crop. 

The question as to what type of 
silo to construct is a troublesome one 
to many. The answer to this de- 
pends largely upon local conditions 
and the ability of the farmer to im- 
mediately finance the undertaking 
A cheap silo, that is, one costing a 
small amount of money is much bet- 
ter than none at all. However, a 
cheap silo, like a cheap coat, is usu- 
ally the most expensive in the long 
run. A silo constructed of durable 
material which will last for years, of 
course, is the one to be preferred. 
The pit silo, while better than none, 
is the least to be preferred and can 
be regarded as only a temporary 
makeshift f 

The cost of contruction and size 
of silo needed is discussed in Popular 
Bulletin No. 46 of the Washington 
Experiment Station, which will be 
sent free upon application. 

The variety of crops which may be 
used for silage is large — so large, in 
fact, that no farmer is without such 
a crop. Corn is the crop most com- 
monly used. Peas and oats have 
been very popular; also vetch and 
oats; or, instead of oats, barley may 
be substituted with either of the 
above mentioned legumes. Clover 
and corn make a good conbination, 
and some of the dairymen have re- 
cently found one of the best silage 
combinations is wheat anld clover, 
claiming this to be superior to corn 
silage and having the advantage that 
much larger yields per acre can be 
produced. 



HORTICULTURIST 



THE BANGHOLM TURNIP. 

In the coast section are numerous 
localities where the ground is moist 
enough for germination of seed dur- 
ing the summer months. 

Dairymen do not usually have too 
much feed and to many it might be 
advantageous to plant some seed of 
the Bangholm rutabaga or of the Bort- 
felder turnip. The Bangholm has 
purple top, short neck, no branches, 
yields well, is rich in dry matter and 
is easily grown. 

The Bortfelder is long, large nut- 
ritious, easy to grow and harvest, al- 
so has good keeping quality. These 
root crops can be sown any time up 
to August and afford considerable 
feed during the late fall and winter 
months. The seed was introduced 
into this country from Denmark by 
the Aabling Ebright Seed Company, 
Seattle. 




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the cost is nominal the advantage from 
a business standpoint is very material. 
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A. MILLER & SONS, INC.— MILTON, OREGON 
SPECIAL ATTENTION TO COMMERCIAL ORCHARD STOCK IN 

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NURSERY CATALOG FREE 

Full of helpful suggestions to make your place beautiful, —It's up- 
to-date, Instructive. Please mention this paper and write to, 

J. B. PILKINGTON, Nurseryman 
Portland, Ore. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



133 



Qof 
ual if ij 



RED 

CROWN 



—a product of selected grades of California crude 
oil, distilled and re-distilled, treated for the elimi- 
nation of all foreign matter and by means of ex- 
haustive laboratory tests, maintained at the most 
rigid standards of uniformity and high quality — in 
short, the best gasoline the Standard Oil Company 
can make. 

Red Crown signs are furnished to all dealers 
handling Red Crown Gasoline. Watch for the 

Sign or ask our nearest 
agency about delivery in 
bulk. 

Standard Oil 
Company 



(California) 



EEDS That Grow 

CYPHER'S INCUBATORS 

lm S£s£ m Seattle Seed Co., Seattle 




WHEN TAKING OUT STUMPS AND CLEARING LAND USE 

Vulcan Stumping Powder 

The best powder for stump blasting purposes. Low freezing. Made 
on Puget Sound for more than six years and is giving excellent satis- 
faction to thousands of users. Plain directions with every case. If 
you can't get VULCAN STUMPING POWDER from your dealer write 
us. We also sell direct. Please mention this paper. 

Puget Sound and Alaska Powder Company 

419 Commerce BIdg. EVERETT, WASH. 



IRRIGATION 



BETTER FARMING. 



Better Business on the Farm. 

By I. D. O'Donnell, Supervisor of Ir- 
rigation in Reclamation Record. 
The advancement of the interests 
of the farmers in any country depends 
upon the adoption and the_applica- 
tion of the principles of the formulae 
— Better Business, Better Farming 
and Better Living. 

I put the formulae in the order of 
their ranking importance. We are in- 
vesting millions of dollars in teaching 
the science of better farming; we are 
seeking the means of better living for 
the farmer, but, to realize the benefits 
of better farming and better living, we 
must be religious in our efforts to in- 
still in the minds of the American 
farmers the necessity for and the 
means of acquiring and applying the 
principles of better business. 

The science of better farming and 
the plans for better living will not 
avail unless the foundation — better 
business — is carefully ingrained in 
our scheme of agriculture. 

Before the days of our excellent 
transportation facilities each farming 
community could control its markets 
and general business by the applica- 
tion of a very simple system — of ex- 
change, sale and purchase. Since the 
advent of good transportation facilities 
no agricultural community in this 
country is independent of any other 
section of the country or' of the world 
in general. Prices for our products 
are fixed by the prices available in the 
large business centers and our mar- 
kets are open to invasion by farmers 
from other sections who can produce 
our products more cheaply and better 
in quality. 

Better business on the farm reaches 
into every item of farm life. The lay- 
out of the farm with its buildings and 
fields should be planned as a manu- 
facturing plant is planned — for effici- 
ency. The rotation of crops to be 
followed should be planned with an 
eye to definate maximum results; the 
breeds of livestock to be handled 
should be chosen on the basis of po- 
tential profits; the community spirit, 
or the association with fellow farmers, 
should be fostered' in a business-like 
manner because it is good business; 
communitcation with the general busi- 
ness world — or what is generally 
known as boosting — should be done 
aggressively by the farmers, for good 
boosting is good business. 

In the beginning the farmer should 
realize there are certain farm products 
for which there is continuous demand 
in his section of the country and for 
which he can always receive fair 
prices. He should join with his 
neighbors and all should equip them- 
selves to produce those products in 
quanity and of quality that will insure 
good returns. 

Hundreds of farmers in every sec- 
tion of this country are to-day devot- 
ing their time and investments to the 
production of crops which, though 
they yield fairly well, do not bring the 
farmers profits. Farmers should know 
what crops pay and what crops do not 
pay. They should apply to their busi- 
ness of farming the methods that are 
used in successful manufacturing 
plants — they should keep books with 
every department of the farm work. 



Adequate, available moisture 
at all seasons. 



Ascertain what crops or produce pay 
best in your section and then boost 
those products and boost your section 
of the country as the best place on 
earth for those products. Do not be 
afraid to make a noise about your 
products if you have products of the 
right quality. 

The science of successful manufact- 
uring consists of taking raw materials 
and making them into finished pro- 
ducts that are required and desired by 
the public. Every farm should be a 
manufacturing plant. Every farmer 
should market not his raw materials, 
but a finished product that the public 
wants. By so doing he will receive the 
the reward for producing the raw ma- 
terials and the reward for making 
them into the finished product. The 
farmer may produce these finished 
commodities by feeding his grain, for- 
age or root crops to live stock. His 
manufacturing plant may consist of 
dairy stock, hogs, sheep, beef cattle or 
poultry. Or, he may associate with 
his neighbors and operate a canning 
factory, an evaporting plant or may 
organize a creamery and cheese mak- 
ing association. 

The idea of making every farm a 
manufacturing plant is well covered by 
the maxim, "Raise all you feed and 
feed all you raise." 

When the farmers of this country 
become better business men you will 
see them doing better farming and en- 
joying better living. The business 
man on the farm will adopt scientific 
farming methods for business reasons, 
and he will improve his social condi- 
tion for business reasons. The most 
important thing farmers of to-day 
should strive for is better business on 
the farm. 



HOMES ON IRRIGATED 
LANDS. 

A census of the farm units on the 
several irrgation projects of the Gov- 
ernment was taken recently. It show- 
ed that very satisfactory progress is 
being made in securing settlers. In- 
cluded in the 25 projects are approxi- 
mately 26,000 occupied farms varying 
in size from 5 to 160 acres each, and 
454 units of 40 to 80 acres each still 
open to entry. . 

These farms are located as follows: 
Idaho, Minidoka project 58; Mon- 
tana, Huntley project 42; Lower Yel- 
lowstone project 18, Sun River project 
45; Nebraska, North Platte project 23; 
South Dakota, Belle Fourche project 
65; Wyoming, Shoshone project 203. 

These vacant farms offer attractive 
opportunities for settlers with some 
capital to establish homes. The land 
is surrounded by well tilled farms, the 
neighborhood is compact and school 
and social organization are first class. 
The pioneering stage on these projects 
is over and agriculture is on a sound 
and practical basis. On all of the pro- 
jects the transportation facilities are 
good and the farms are all within reas- 
onable distance of towns and shipping 
stations. The average man should 
have about $2,500 in cash and equip- 
ment. While many settlers undoubt- 
edly have started with less and are 
succeeding, experience has shown that 
success is much more easily attained 
by those who start with enough to 



quickly prepare their lands for crops. 
To all inquiries addressed to the Stat- 
istician of the Reclamation Service at 
Washington, D. C, the advice is given 
not to attempt to subdue a desert 
farm without sufficient money to pro- 
vide for the needs of a family for two 



years and for the preparation of the 
land, erection of buildings and pur- 
chase of live stock. Spring crop re- 
ports on all these projects are extreme- 
ly encouraging and indicate the best 
season since water was made available 
for the lands. 



134 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



HOUSEHOLD DEPARTMENT 

— OOsTDUCVID BY MS. O. A. »OMJIIIBO» 




Keep It on the Table 

A tasty addition to every meal; handy and healthy for the children's lunches; 
an economy food. 

ROGERS' NUT BUTTER 

If your grocer hasn't it, write us, giving his name and full address, and receive 
FREE a SAMPLE JAR with BOOK OP RECIPES for dishes made with 
Nut Butter. Mention this paper. The ROGERS CO., TacomQ, Wash. 




/"V 1 • _ WHEAT 

OlymplC HEARTS 

The little hearts of Wheat. A tempting breakfast 
dish, easily cooked. 4 pound cartons. 
Sold by all Grocers. 

The Puget Sound Flouring Mills Go. Tacoma, Wash. 



if s . 

MpalsonTimo Vx^MKn 

A good oil stove gives full heat just 
as soon as it's lighted. There's no waiting 
for the fire to catch up or the oven to heat. 
Meals can he started later and still he served right 
on time. That means less work and less time in 
the kitchen. 

_ New^ Perfection 

OIL COOK STOVE 

burns kerosene, the clean, cheap fuel and gives an in- 
tense heat that can be regulated just as you want it. It 
does all sorts of cooking and baking just as well as a 
wood or coal stove — and without tainting the food. 
Don't cook in a hot kitchen this summer. Don't lug 
coal and wood and ashes. Get a New Perfection. 
It saves all this trouble and it's economical, too. 
Ask your dealer for the New Perfection. 



FOR 

BEST RESULTS 
USE PEARL OIL 



Standard Oil Company 

(California) 



:2 



NORTHWEST 
GROCERY CO. 

TACOMA, WASH. 

Conditions seem to indicate 
that everyone wishes to econo- 
mize and everybody should have 
our catalogue whether they buy 
from us or not. A postal with 
your name and address will 
bring it. 

Northwest Grocery Co. 

13th and Commerce St«. 
Tacoma, Wash. 

Oldest and Largest Mail Or- 
der House in the State. 



THE CHILDREN IN CLOUDLAND. 

They say there's a country in one 
of the stars 
Where the children all have their 
own way. 
There's no one to tell them they 
"mustn't" or "must," 
So they do as they choose all day. 

Rich plum cake and candy and all 
sorts of sweets 
They may eat to their small heart's 
delight, 

Can wear their best clothes every 
day in the week, 
And sit up till all hours of the 
night. 

They don't have to see that their 
faces are clean, 
Or have snarls taken out of their 
hair, 

For grown folks don't live in that 
far-away star, 
So of course there is no one to 
care. 

You'd think that those children of 
Cloudland would be 
Just as happy as birds in the 
spring. 

But, queer to relate, they are just 
the reverse, 
And seem not to be pleased with 
a thing. 

They get into trouble, as all children 
do, 

Who have no one to tell them 

what's right, 
And often, through having their very 

own way, 
Find themselves in a terrible 

plight. 

And somehow they've heard of the 
Earth boys and girls 
Who have love and the tenderest 
care, 

And so, they are crying because they 
don't have 
Any fathers and mothers up there. 

— Mothers Magazine. 



THE SIMPLE LIFE. 



Some of the Rewards That Come to 
Those Who Follow It. 

I am bound to praise the simple life 
because I have lived it and found it 
good. * * * I love a small house, 
plain clothes, simple living. Many 
persons know the luxury of a skin 
bath— a plunge in the pool or the 
wave, unhampered by clothing. That 
is the simple life — direct and im- 
mediate contact with things, life 
with the false wrappings torn away 
—the fine house, the fine equipage, 
the expensive habits all cut off. 
How free one feels, how good the 
elements taste, how close one gets 
to them, how they fit one's body and 
soul! To see the fire that warms 
you or, better yet, to cut the wood 
that feeds the fire that warms you; 
to see the spring where the water 
bubbles up that slakes your thirst 
and dip your pail into it; to see the 
beams that are the stay of your four 
walls and the timbers that uphold 
the roof that shelters you; to be fh 
direct and personal contact with the 

ources of your material life; to 



want no extras, no shields; to find 
the air and the water exhilarating; 
to be refreshed by a morning walk 
or an evening saunter; to find a 
quest of wild berries more satisfy- 
ing than a gift of tropic fruit; to be 
thrilled by the stars at night; to he 
elated over a bird's nest — these are 
some rewards of the simple life. — 
John Burroughs, Quoted in "Our John 
Burroughs", by Clara Barrus. 



WHY ARE WE AFRAID? 

Why are we afraid? What are we 
afraid of? We all have something 
we are afraid of. What it is depends 
on the individual. Some people are 
afraid of the dark; others are not. 
Women are afraid of mice; men are 
not. Some children are afraid of 
dogs; others are not. Some babies 
are afraid of strangers; others are 
not. Some people are afraid of bur- 
glars, others are not. Some are 
afraid to stay alone in a house. Since 
some people fear things that others 
do not, we may safely conclude that 
the cause of the fear is not in the 
thing, but in the person. If the fear 
arose out of the object then all peo- 
ple would be afraid of it. 

What we are afraid of depends on 
us. We can make ourselves afraid 
of anything we want to, be it the fear 
of being poisoned or of being laughed 
at. And since we can make ourselves 
afraid of anything we can cure our- 
selves of any of our fear — our fear 
of the dark, our fear of staying alone 
or any of the others. 

Our fears generally start from 
some past experience, to ourselves 
or to our friends. A friend may have 
been killed on a railroad train, and 
the knowledge of that accident may 
always make us uncomfortable when 
we travel. A relative may have been 
poisoned, and we can think about it 
until we are afraid of being poisoned 
Alone, late at night we read of a 
murder in the paper, and instantly 
we begin to interpret every little 
sound as the stealthy approach of an 
assassin. Stories of goblins told to 
children to keep them quiet may fill 
them with a dread of the dark that 
will persist after they have become 
men. And yet, if we stop to con- 
sider it, we will find most of our 
fears are groundless. We can cure 
ourselves of them by banishing all 
thoughts of them from our minds and 
thinking of something else. 

The fact remains, we are afraid 
of what we allow ourselves to be 
afraid of— Alfred West-fall, Color- 
ado Agricultural College. 



WORRY KILLS. 

"The most terrible tyranny is the 
tyranny of an idea," says Hearst's 
Boston American, in an interesting 
explanation of how science proves 
that worry kills you. "Worry, medi- 
cal science now defines as the domi- 
nance of one idea; the idea crowds 
other ideas from the mind. This one 
idea pounds, hammer-like, upon one 
set of brain cells. It over-stimulates 
them, causing an unusual flow of 
blood to those portions, and a dearth 
of it to other parts of the brain. A 
constant overfeeding of these cells 



A. S. Johnson & Co. 




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JL vC Bee Culture" for 3 months 

Bees make orchards pay better. We make this Special 
Trial subscription offer just to acquaint you with tbe 
standard bee journal. Full of bints on the healthful 
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causes congestion there. The worry 
grows more acute, the pounding of 
the blood against the sides of the 
cells acquires a hammer-like violence. 
The sides of the cells wear thin. A 
cell bursts. There is a so-called clot 
on the brain. Death follows. Refuse 
to worry. Do your best, and, having 
done this, decline as positively to fret 
about the results as you would de- 
cline to drink a draught of poison. 
Worry is a habit, and a habit that 
destroys." 



cook. — 
Leslie's. 



THE NORTHWEST 

Dr. Sarah N. Merrick, in 



HORTICULTURIST 



135 



GOOD ADVICE TO HUSBANDS. 

When your wife is becomingly 
gowned tell her so. 

When she waits dinner until late 
for you, act pleased. 

Call her the "dear" once in awhile 
that you worked overtime before she 
took your name. 

Don't demonstrate your affection as 
if from force of habit. Some men 
kiss their wives in the same manner 
that they glance at the clock before 
leaving for work. 

Don't read the newspaper at the 
breakfast table. 

Go into your own kitchen once in 
awhile. Wash and wipe the dishes, or 
scour the frying pan. Laugh while 
you are doing it. 

Develope a sense of humor. 

Don't complain about your wife's 
cooking, for when a man marries a 
woman he does not always marry a 



WHITE BREAD OR BROWN? 

New York Commercial: White 
bread was said by those who claim 
to be experts to be much superior to 
brown bread and we were told that 
the idea of eating graham bread or 
any bread containing part or all of 
the bran of wheat or other portions 
of the grain which are taken out in 
the bolting process was old fashioned 
and might lead to injury. Now come 
the medical inspectors of the French 
army, a group of very distinguished 
physicians and scientists, who say 
that bolting pushed beyond a certain 
limit eleiminates the useful ele- 
ment of flour in more than one re- 
spect and does nothing but improve 
the color of the bread. When white 
bread is used exclusively they have 
found that the men eat and need 
more meat, but when the flour is 
only partially bolted and only the 
coarser particles of the bran are re- 
moved the soldiers are in better 
health and they eat less meat, which 
results in superior economy and ef- 
ficiency at the same time. The meth- 
od of bolting flour was invented some 
centuries ago and it seems about time 
that the relative values of the white 
and unbolted flour were settled, but 
the doctors can no more agree about 
it than they can about the therapeutic 
value of alcohol. 



DAIRY DEPARTMENT 

Testing Dairy Cows for butter fat records of highest importance. 
Conserve Dairy Energy and figure on the Individual Cow. 



(Address »ny Inquiries about dairying to H. L. Blanchard, Asst. Supt. Exp. 
Station, Puyallup, Wash.) 

WORLD'S RECORD consumer also, regardless of all 

GUERNSEY COW breed questions, hopes it may mean 

to him better and cheaper milk, for 
"May Rilma" Produced 1073 Pounds r, i4 . • ^ . . „_ 

he it is who in the end pays the bill. 

Butter-fat in a Year. Whether it is a Guersey, Holstein or 

a Jersey that holds the pennant for 
production simply shows which breed 
is making the most progress along 
scientiffic lines and showing results. 
That the Guersey leads in the econ- 
omical production of the highest 
grade milk is very generally accept- 
ed. The name of the cow, the breed 
she represents and her wonderful 
record, should be known by all as a 
matter of dairy history. 

May Rilma produced in 365 days 
from May 1, 1913, to May 1, 1914, 
19673 lbs. milk and 1073.41 lbs. butter- 



The Guersey cow"May Rilma 227- 
61," owned and bred by Capt. B. B. 
Cassatt, at his famous Chesterbrook 
Farm, Berwyn, Pa., has just com- 
pleted her official year's work. 

The making of large records and 
the possiblities of the dairy cow, to 
yield maximum results at the pail is a 
matter of more than passing interest 
to her owners. The producer wishes 
to know the cost of production and 
if his margin of profit is being in- 
creased under better methods. The 






FOR BOYS 



Ideally located on picturesque Steilacoom 
lake. A homelike and healthful school. 

TRAINS FOR LEADERSHIP 

To give each boy individual attention, only a limited 
number admitted. Upper school prepares for Colleges 
and Technical Schools. Lower school for younger boys. 

Our 23rd school year opens Sept. 17. Write now for 
our illustrated catalog. 

D. S. PULFORD, A. M., J. R. EDEN, A.B., Principals 
P. O. Address: South Tacoma, Wash. 




SODA 
CRACKERS 

Packed in tins will 
keep crisp — 

TRY THEM 




Guernsey Cow May Rilma, 1260 lbs. Butter in One Year. 



The rural telephone 

Upon its worth in the farmer's 
home vast fortunes depend 

The most important of all the steps, in the 
furnishing of telephone communication in a rural 
community, is the selection of the type of tele- 
phones to be used. Kellogg telephones for this 
work are built for reliable service, clear talking 
and ringing over the longest, heavily loaded 
lines. Kellogg telephones are thoroughly con- 
structed of few parts of the best quality ma- 
terial. They may not be the lowest in first cost 
but they are the most economical. This state- 
ment being proved in thousands of installations 
throughout the country. Kellogg telephones 
are built complete in our own factory — the 
largest independent telephone plant. Our special 
rural line telephone engineers are practicaftele- 
phone men of long experience in this work. 
They can help you in planning your line, tell 
you how to avoid mistakes, help you save money. 
This service is a special feature of our farm line 
telephone and switchboard department Write 
our nearest house if you want information or 
special assistance in the building of your line. 
Our bulletins on construction and telephone ope- 
ration are practical , well illustrated and of value 
to every telephone man. Sent prepaid on request. 

Kellogg Switchboard & Supply Co. 

86 Third Street SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 

Manufacturers of Standard Telephone 
Equipment. "Use is tke Test." 



fat; nearly ten tons of milk and the 
equivalent of 1260 lbs. of butter. 

Her work has been carefully super- 
vised under the Advanced Register 
regulations of The American Guern- 
sey Cattle Club, whose headquarters 
are at Peterborough, N. H. Pennsyl- 
vania Experiment Stations officials 
have conducted the regular tests 
throughout the year; seven outside 
Institutions from as many noted 
Dairy States, and a member of the 
Dairy Division of the U. S. Dept. of 
Agriculture, have sent representa- 
tives to conduct tests for the Club 
and study the work of this wonderful 
cow. No record has been more care- 
fully watched. 

Albert Van Tuinen, who as dairy- 
man, has had immediate care of May 
Rilma, has shown great skill in hand- 
ling and feeding to obtain results. 



Henry Reincke of Lake City, Minn. 
, spenttwo minutes writingout a little 
letter and sending us his carpenter's 
'bill to figure. He saved S225 and got 
fbetter lumber, so that his time was 
' worth $112.50 a minute. You can do as \ 
well as Mr. Beincke. 

Send carpenter's list 
now for quick prices 

Our estimating department will send 
you quotation, freight charges included, 
the same day we get your bill. We'll 
work overtime or all night, to make 
good on our word. 

Buy direct from the mill — 
save the middlemen's profit 

Deal direct with the lumber producers. 
Through our officers, vvecontrol forests 

— of old growth Douglas fir, 

logging railroads, saw- 



Here's a letter 
from Mr. Reincke 

Hewltt-Lea-Funek Co. 
Gentlemen: 

Tha. 1 umber arrived 
in good condition. 
You have saved me 
about 8225.00 and the 
lumber is betterthan 
I could buy herefrom 
ourlocal dealers, lam 
very thankful to the 
company and willhelp 
you get some more 
customers out of my 
neighborhood. 

Henry Reincke, 
Lake City, Minn. 
March 31, 1911. 



mills and millwork fac- 
tories. We sell by mail 
only, pay no commissions 
—sell you at the whole- 
sale mill price, lumber 
that's clean, fresh and 
guaranteed true to grade. 

Quick delivery- 
satisfaction guaranteed 

We have on hand a big 
supply of lumber and 
millwork. We will ship 
your order within 48 
hours. Delivery usually 
made within two weeks. 
We guarantee satisfac- 
tion or money refunded. 
Allow inspection of 
lumber before accept- 
ance. Sevd that lumber 
list and do it now. 




Plan Book 10c - Catalog FREE 

I A better book than sells usually for 50c to 82.00. 

100 homes pictured, with floor plans and cost. 
Our millwork catalog and lumber price list Is 
free. Write for It. 

Seattle Silo fe'S 

One-piece, Douglas Fir Staves. Quick detachable 
door bars and hoop bars form strong ladder. 
Long tongues, extra deep grooves. Guaranteed 
not to blow down. Sold ready to erect. No extras. 
Lasts for years. Write for folder and freight 
paid price, mentioning height and diameter of 
silo desired. 

Hewitt-Lea-Funck Co. 

493 Crary Bldg., Seattle, Wash. 



YOU CAN EARN $5jj QQ PER DAY 

±-~--*>st* w with tha' 

^Gearless Improved Standard 
Well Drilling Machine. 
Drills through any formation. 
Five years ahead of any other. 
Has record of drilling 130 feet 
and driving casing in 9 hours. 
Another record where 70 feet was drilled on 2 'A gal. distillate 
at9cpergal. One man can operate. Electrically equipped for 
running nights. Fishing job. Engine ignition. Catalogue W10 
REIERS0N MACHINERY CO., Manfrs.. Portland, Ore. 



Lewis County Farms 

We make a specialty of Lewis 
County lands. The best for farm- 
ing, dairying and stock raising 
in Western Washington. Well im- 
proved farms that raise 100 to 
120 bu. oats, 35 to 50 bu. wheat 
or 5 to 6 tons of bay per acre. 
On daily mail, milk and cream 
routes, phone line, etc. Close to 
good market, railroad and 
schools, $50 to $100 per acre, in- 
cluding stock, tools and machin- 
ery. Write for our list. 

ACME REALTY COMPANY 

401 Equitable Bldg, Tacoma, Wn. 



Chesterbrook Farm milk retails for 
twelve cents per quart, and this cow 
shows a gross earning capacity of 
nearly $1200 for one year, an income 
equal to that of many men. 
— American Guernsey Cattle Club, 
Peterborough, N. H. 



136 



BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS. 



Farmer's Concerned in Control. 

In a discussion of the control or 
Bovine Tuberculosis, by W. J. Lang- 
don, of Sumner, before the Convention 
of Northwest Milk Inspectors, at Seat- 
tle, he stated that E. G. Hastings, of 
the Wisconsin Agricultural College, is 
authority for the statement that it is 
believed 25C£ of tuberculosis in chil- 
dren under 5 years of age is due to 
infection from bovine sources and that 
the danger is confined practically to 
children. Numerous other authorities 
were quoted to show the danger of 
infection through milk from the cow 
to the youth. 

Investigation indicates that about 
14'; of the cows in Washington are 
reactors and it would require at least 
$1,500,000 to replace them. The farm- 
ers cannot shoulder this burden alone, 
neither the cost of testing. Where 
that has been tried 'dairying is a 
decreasing industry. The control of 
this disease only can be done gradual- 
ly, both education, an even distribu- 
tion of the load and considerable time 
being necessary. But it is doubtful if 
it can be entirely eradicated. Some of 
the suggestions are, tests to be done 
by the state, which also should share 
half the loss; stop the transfer of dis- 
eased cattle and pasturize the skim 
milk. Consumers should be educated 
to pay the increased cost of about 2 
cents per quart for the clean milk 
from healthy cows. 



SURE CURE FOR MILK FEVER. 

Mr. D. Mclnnes, ex-president of the 
Washington State Dairymen's Associ- 
ation, gives Fruit and Farm particu- 
lars of a remedy for milk fever that 
he has tried effectively and never had 
failed him. Soak as many grain sacks 
as necessary or convenient in boiling 
water — using the hog boiler or any 
other vessel of sufficient capacity — 
and lay the steaming sacks over the 
loins of the cow. Have the sacks 
as hot as the cow can bear, but not 
hot enough to scald, or take the hair 
off. Put dry sack on top in order to 
keep the heat in as long as possible, 
and change sacks continually until 
the fever abates. Mr. Mclnnes states 
he has found this treatment to suc- 
ceed when the air treatment has 
failed. 

As a preventative of milk fever, Mr. 
Mclnnes recommends giving the cow 
three or four cupfuls of epsom salts, 
dissolved in water about 48 hours 
prior to calving. By thus cleaning 
out the bowels the chances of milk 
fever are reduced to a minimum. 



QUALITY COWS PAY WELL. 

Some twelve years ago Mr. H. W. 
A. T'ranim, of Adna, Wash., was in- 
duced to take some Holstein cows at 
$50 a head — a long price at that time 
— but assuming the correct way was 
to buy a purebred sire with good 
record and breed up that plan was 
adopted. Some good milk and but- 
ter records was the result in a few 
years, and now to get a good pick 
from his herd of cows will require 
$350 a head, for they are making 
good in actual production on that 
principal sum. He is milking at pre- 
sent 28 cows, says the Bee-Nugget, 
and selling 1,000 pounds milk a day. 
He recently paid $500 for a 2-year 
old Holstein bull out of high record 
dam and grand dam, in his opinion, 
and no doubt correct, a good invest- 
ment. Here is another practical de- 



THE NORTHWEST 

monstration that it pays to breed up. 
He planted cabbage last fall and 
sold this spring at the rate of $50 
per ton, only one of the examples of 
good farming operations. 



HORTICULTURIST 



CHICONA FARM GUERNSEYS. 

Some of the pure bred cows on 
Chicona Farm, A. L. Gile, Mgr. Chin- 
ook, Wash., are under test and show- 
and good work. Margaret of Chi- 
cona has produced 168 pounds of but- 
ter in eighty-one days, a little over 
two pounds per day. Hazel's Girl of 
Chicona, on test eighty-nine days, has 
171 pounds of butter to her credit. 
Needius of Chicona, 142 days on test 
has produced 227 pound of butter. (La 
Verne of Chicona in thirty-nine days 
has sixty-seven pounds of butter. The 
above are all mature cows. The fol- 
lowing are each two years old, as 
reported in "Rural Spirit": 

Algoma of Holden has 255 pounds 
of butter in 188 days; Lucilla of Chi- 
cona, 100 pounds in eight-four days; 
Butter Queen of Willowbrook, fifty 
pounds in forty days and Billy's 
France Lucy of Friebaton, thirty-two 
pounds in twenty-five days. 

These cows run on the same pas- 
ture and receive the same treatment 
as the balance of the dairy herd. 

One of the Sire's dams has a 
remarkable record of 16,099.7 pounds 
milk and 781.51 pounds fat, or 938.3 
pounds of butter as a three-year-old. - 

Mr. Gile has rich soil producing 
150 bushels oats per acre and a pro- 
fuse clover crop for pasture. 



GUERNSEYS ARE WANTED. 

It is difficult to keep any young 
stock on ha>d so great is the demand 
for purebred Guernseys is the report 
of Mr. S. M. Shipley, Seattle, one of 
our advertisers. One of the buyers 
this spring was J. B. Farrell who took 
over the young sire, Mythop's Sequel. 
The Farrell herd is kept purely for v 
milk producing purposes, winning the. 
high scoring marks of certified milk. 
Mr. Shipley recently bought from 
the Chestnut Hill Farm, Ohio, the 
young sire, Gulnor's Billey Sequel, 
whose sire is Galexy Sequel, being in 
line with his own established herd. 
Galexy Sequel has 30 A. R. O. daugh- 
ters and Mashers Sequel, his sire has 
50 A. R. O. daughters. The dam of 
the young sire bought by Mr. Shipley 
is Imp Gulnor 20th, which produced 
7800 pounds milk and 405 pounds but- 
ter in her two-year-old form. Her 
sire is Fleur de Lys, backed by noted 
records. 

Mr. Shipley is figuring on bringing 
out other purebred Guernseys but 
whether or not they will be brought 
to Vashon Island where his present 
herd is kept, depends somewhat on 
the prospective interest the people 
there are preparing to show in this 
rich butter producing dairy breed of 
cattle. 



BREEDING UP PAYS WELL. 

My butter is up to a high standard 
quality and I get from 30 to 45 cents 
per pound in the home market, keep- 
ing the skim milk for feeding the pigs 
says Mr. E. L. Lloyd, Monroe, Wash, 
proprietor of the Rocky Run Jersey 
Herd. There are 17 registered Jer- 
seys and 6 good grades in my herd. 
For some years of careful work in 
breeding up with registered sires of 
satisfactory records has been the 
practice with results showing that 
it pays well to adhere to that system. 
On this farm, Oats, hay, kale and 





as superior to other 
separators as other 
separators are to 
gravity creaming 



WHY STOP HALF WAY IN BUYING 
A CREAM SEPARATOR? 



THE ABOVE HEADING SUMS 
UP the cream separator case, 
as it concerns every prospec- 
tive buyer of a separator and 
every user of an inferior sep- 
arator, in as few words as it 
could well be put. 

OTHER SEPARATORS SKIM 
cleaner than is possible on the 
average with gravity cream- 
ing, and De Laval Separators 
skim as much closer still than 
other separators, particularly 
under the harder conditions of 
cool milk, running heavy 
cream or separating the milk 
of stripper cows. 

OTHER SEPARATORS PRO- 
duce a cream superior to grav- 
ity creaming, and De Laval 
cream is smoother, less frothy 
and so much better than the 
cream of other separators that 
De Laval made butter always 
scores highest in every im- 
portant contest. 

OTHER SEPARATORS SAVE 
time and labor over gravity 
setting or creaming of milk, 
and De Laval Separators by 
reason of their easier turning, 
greater capacity, easier clean- 
ing and easier handling save a 
great deal of time and labor 
over other separators. 

OTHER SEPARATORS SAVE 
their cost every year, as a 
rule, over gravity creaming, 
and De Laval Separators save 
their cost every year over oth- 
er separators and last from 
ten to twenty years, or on an 



average five times as long as 
other separators. 
DE LAVAL SEPARATORS 
cost a little more than other 
separators, but very little, and 
they soon save that small dif- 
ference and go on saving it 
every few months, as other 
separators would go on wast- 
ing it, for all the years they 
last. 

WHY THEN BUT HALF SOLVE 
the problem of best results 
and greatest economy in dairy- 
ing by the purchase of an in- 
ferior separator or go on 
dairying with this important 
problem but half solved if you 
are already using an inferior 
separator that you might so 
easily replace with a De 
Laval? 

THE SEASON OF GREATEST 
production is now at hand 
when all these differences 
count for most with every user 
who should have a separator 
and is trying to get along 
without one. No other dairy 
question is of anywhere near 
as great dollars-and-cents im- 
portance. 

WHY NOT SOLVE IT NOW 
in the only sure and safe way 
possible? If you haven't a 
separator buy a De Laval. If 
you have a poor separator, a 
De Laval. If it is not conven- 
ient to pay cash you may buy 
a De Laval on such liberal 
terms that it will actually save 
and pay for itself. 



Every De Laval local agent is glad of the opportunity to 
prove every claim here made. It will cost you nothing and 
may save you much to give him the opportunity. If you 
don't know the nearest De Laval agent simply address the 
nearest main office, as below. 

De Laval Dairy Supply Company 

165 BROADWAY 101 DRUM M STREET 1016 WESTERN AVENUE 

NEW YORK SAN FRANCISCO SEATTLE 

50,000 BRANCHES AND LOCAL AGENCIES THE WORLD OVER 



A. J. C. C. JERSEYS 

Big Producer* 

For Sale— A fine bull calf, sired by Gertie's Stoke Pogis 33rd, 
out of Dixie Bertha, a sister of Morrow's Select, which made 826 
pounds butter in one year. A bargain at my price, considering 
quality. Have both Island and American bred. Ancestral records 
of the very best. Particulars on application. 

J. B. EARLY 

Grandview, Wash. (Yakima County) 



BULLS FOR SALE from A. R. 0. COWS 

Home of K. P. Sanesta Topsy, only daughter of King of Pontiacs 
on the Pacific Coast, Ophelia Sanesta Pauline official record of 29. 46 lbs. 
butter 7 days and 20 others. 

WRITE FOR PRICE AND PARTICULARS 

CALVIN PHILIPS, Pres. GUY M. RICHARDS, Gen. Mgr. 
Greenbank Farm, Greenbank, Island County. Wash. 



HOLSTEIN HOME 

Home of Maldeta Canary Mercedes, grand champion at Washington State Fair 
1913 and the record price cow ($1800) west of the Rockies. If you want a 
bull 'of the producing and show kind to head your herd let me tell you about 

some of my young ones. 



E. B. MARKS. Proprietor 



North Yakima, Washington 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



137 



roots are the crops raised and the 
concentrates are purchased. To deter- 
mine the value of each cow, the milk 
is weighed and samples taken at 
intervals, for testing. This serves 
to give the approximate worth but 
not so close an estimate as would be 
obtained by community testing. 

Mr. Lloyd states he cannot afford 
to make complete tests alone and 
would willingly become a member 
of the necessary number to form a 
cow testing association for he realizes 
the value of keeping only the profit- 
able cows both for himself and for 
others of his community. 

Among his registered cows, 2 are 
in the Register of Merit. One heifer, 
first calf, gives 36 pounds milk a 
day with 4.4 percent, fat. This is 
one of the dairy farms which has 
the correct foundation as to system, 
plans and equipment demonstating 
that it pays to breed up. 



ANNUAL MEETING OF AMERICAN 
GUERNSEY CATTLE CLUB. 

The recent annual meeting of the 
American Guernsey Cattle Club was 
held in New York City and showed a 
remarkable growth in the Guernsey 
interests. 

The advance of the Guernsey in 
public favor has been noted many 
times during recent years, but the 
report of the work of the Herd Regis- 
ter for the year ending April 30th, 
showed a remarkable gain for this 
year. During the last 20 years the 
number of Guernsey registrations and 
transfers has increased ten-fold and 
no small percentage of this is due to 
this last year. 

The membership in the Cattle Club 
has increased from 131 to 591. 

The American Guernsey Cattle Club 
is now in a very prosperous condi- 
tion. This last year's business show- 
ed an income of $76,448.83 with a 
balance on hand of $4,056.03. This, 
together with the invested funds, 
office building and invoice of fixtures 
and Herd Books on hand, makes a 
present worth of $41,419.56. 

During the year there were im- 
ported 1150 head of Guernseys. Two 
bulls and 120 cows of these came 
from Alderney; 41 bulls, 881 cows 
from Guernsey; 6 bulls, 100 cows 
from England. 

The work of The Advanced Regis- 
ter showed 1100 cows, owned by 193 
breeders and representing 27 states, 
were on test. 

Officers for 1914. 

The following officers were elected: 
-Pres. Emeritus, James M. Codman, 
Brookline, Mass.; President, James 
Logan Fisher, Philadelphia, Pa.; 
Vice-Presidents, Ex-Gov. W. D. Hoard, 
Fort Atkinson, Wis., and Ezra Mich- 
ener, Lumberville, Pa.; Sec. and 
Treas., Wm. H. Caldwell, Peterbore, 
N. H.; Executive Committee, F. Loth- 
rop Ames, North Easton, Mass., F. G. 
Benham, Canadiagua, N. Y., Wm. H. 
Caldwell, Peterbore, N. H., James 
Logan Fisher, Philadelphia, Na., E. T. 
Gill, Haddonfield, N. J., Charles L. 
Hill, Rosendale, Wis., W. W. Marsh, 
Waterloo, Iowa, M. T. Phillips, Pom- 
eroy, Pa., Robert Scoville, Chapin- 
ville, Conn., S. M. Shoemaker, Eccles- 
ton, Md., Howard B. Tuttle, Nauga- 
tuck, Conn. 

The evening previous to the an- 
nual meeting, a Guernsey Breeders' 
Conference was held at which time 
Prof. T. L. Haecker, of Minnesota, 
gave an excellent address on "The 
Relation of Food Product to Milk 



Production," and Capt. Cassatt told of 
the wonderful work of May Rilma. 
This proved very pleasent and in- 
teresting occasion to the many breed- 
ers who were present. 
Peterbore, N. H., May 29, 1914. 

Wm. H. Caldwell, Sec'y. 



GUERNSEY SIRE MELBA'S PRINCE. 

The Guernsey Sire Melba's May 
Prince in the Registered Guernsey 
herd of Augustine and Kyer, Seattle, 
and advertised in this paper was 
taken over recently by Elmer Lenfest, 
President of the Snohomish Land Co., 
at Snohomish. Mr. Linfest is devel- 
oping a fine pure bred herd and was 
particular in his choice of sires. 

Quite a number of our readers are 
figuring on the problem of increasing 
the production of butter, aiming also 
for a higher quality of product, and 
are endeavoring to obtain Guernsey 
sires for use in their herds of com- 
mon grade cows. 



PUGET SOUND HERD SALES. 

Wm. Rudolf, of Yamhill, Ore., pur- 
chased a yearling bull "Sir Inyo Jo- 
hanna." His sire is a full brother, to 
the world's record milk cow "Margie 
Newman." His dam is a 13.3-lb. 
daughter of the great imported bull 
Karel Bos, whose dam and granddam 
hold the two largest records made in 
Holland. 

O. E. Lewis, of Seattle, Wash., pur- 
chased a bull one year old which is 
sired by Quirinus Cornucopia, whose 
dam has a record of 30.7 lbs. butter 
in seven days, and his highest official 
tested sisters have records of over 30 
lbs. butter in seven days. The dam 
of this young bull is a heifer with a 
record made at the age of two years 
of 15.7 lbs. butter in 7 days; she is 
also a sister to Hazelwood Aaggia De 
Kol, who has a record of over 34 lbs. 
butter in seven days. 

Hugh Nisbit, of Chimacum, Wash., 
purchased the fine young cow Cascade 
Violet Cornucopia 2d. She is soon due 
to freshen and has every indication 
of making a good record. 

J. D. Gay, of Port Townsend, Wash., 
bought the young bull calf from a good 
producing daughter of Karel Bos, and 
it is sired by Violet Blossom Sir 
Fayne, whose 15 nearest dams have 
records averaging over 25 lbs. butter 
in seven days. 

John C. Burnam, of Snohomish, 
Wash., got the large well built young 
cow "Aaggie Cornucopia Marie De 
Kol." She has an official record made 
at 3 years of age of over 18 lbs. butter 
in seven days. She is a granddaugh- 
ter of Aaggie Cornucopia Johanna Lad 
who has almost 100 A. R. O. daugh- 
ters. 

George Ford, of Elma, Wash., got a 
young bull 10 months old. This calf 
is an extra fine individual, and his 
breeding is hard to beat, as his de- 
scendants on both sides of his family 
are closely related to the heaviest pro- 
ducers of the breed. 

Herman H. Kuenzi, of Silverton, 
Ore., has made two different pur- 
chases during the last five years, re- 
turned again and selected three young 
heifers to add to his already fine herd 
of Holsteins. 

H. L. Hansen, of Port Townsend, 
Wash., who has a small herd of Hol- 
steins, purchased the fine young cow 
"Ononis Lady May." She has a good 
A. R. O. record and is well bred also. 

Wm. Cook, of Ludlow, Wash., pur- 
chased a fine well-bred bull "Sir Inyo 
Korndyke." He is sired by a full 
brother of the world's record milk 



THE WORLD'S RECORD DAIRY COW 

THE GUERNSEY COW 



MAY RILMA 



Gives 



19673 lbs. milk 




Containing 1073.41 lbs, butter fat 

IN 365 DAYS may rilma 22761; a. r. 1726 

MAKING HER THE CHAMPION DAIRY COW OF ALL BREEDS 

Write for the story of this cow's work and receive with it 
general literature about the breed 

Box N. W. Peterboro, N. H.- 



AMERICAN GUERNSEY CATTLE CLUB 



Registered 
Guernseys 

and 

Registered 
Holsteins 




Our registered Guernseys are being selected by leading dairymen, 
but there remains some good grades of this breed for selection at this 
time, and we are in position to take orders for very choice Guernseys, 
both grades and pure breds. 

Write your wants for this breed. 

In Holsteins we have heifers and some cows 2 to 4 years old, nearly 
all fresh cows of excellent dairy type and good yielders. Our young 
calves are attracting much attention, and most of them can hardly fail 
to make noted records, for they have high record breeding and correct 
form. 

We can supply both Registered Holstein service bulls and bull 
calves and fresh cows for immediate orders, but would advise early 
application for those requiring them now or in the near future. 

Please write specifying wants or make appointment to call. 

FRYAR & COMPANY 

SUMNER, WASH. 



Please Mention 
This Paper. 



Registered f-fOLSTEIN 

1 1 CATTLE 

Our next shipment of registered Holsteins and two carloads of 
very choice young grade cows will arrive about the last of June. We 
have 100 yearling heifers and bulls on hand, but they are very choice 
and will make excellent foundation herds, to be delivered in early fall. 
The kind of stock we sell is such as will produce about three times as 
much profit as ordinary cows. In proportion to the actual net income 
they cost dairymen less money and less labor than ordinary stock. 

Write me for particulars as to pedigree and prices at once. 
Please mention this paper. 

H. S. ROYCE 



Savage-Scofield Bldg., A St. 

TACOMA, WASH. 



Please mention this naver 



Breeders of 

Pure Bred 



Cattle 



Meadow Brook Farm 



We have for sale some very choice pure bred bulls, 
ranging in age from three months to three years old, 
from the choicest strain of Ayrshire Cattle. We have 
the only herd in the State of Washington that Is tested 
under supervision of the U. S. Government. With ev- 
ery animal we furnish a certificate from the govern- 
ment that he is free from tuberculosis or any other in- 
fectious disease. Address all correspodence to 



A. P. Stockwell, Aberdeen, Wash. 



138 

cow "Margia Newman." His dam is a 
prize winning young cow that has a 
2-year-old record of 19.04 lbs. butter 
in seven days. She is also a grand- 
daughter 01 the old noted foundation 
cow -Bell Korndyke." 

WM. BISHOP. 

Chimacum, Wash. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



GOOD BUTER SCORES. 

The butter-makers of Washington 
are trying very hard to make a high 
standard quality of butter, and it be- 
hooves each dairyman to render ev- 
ery aid possible by couforming to 
correct sanitary methods in the han- 
dling of milk and cream. If the en- 
tire output of butter scored near the 
95% mark it would mean larger pro- 
fits for each dairy farmer. 

The butter scoring contest held at 
Seattle recently under the direction 
of the Washington Creamery Oper- 
ators and Buttermakers' Association, 
was declared a decided success, espe- 
cially from the standpoint of the 
quality of the samples of butter en- 
tered in the contest. As a whole the 
score was very good, the fourteen 
samples tested averaging 94%, or 94 
out of a possible 100 points. The 
Winlock Co-operative Creamery Co. 
obtained the highest award by a score 
of 96. Tse lowest score was 92. 

The fourteen creameries contribut- 
ing samples are to be highly com- 
mended both upon the quality of 
their product and upon their spirit of 
progress which prompted them to 
make their entries of samples, thus 
making the contest possible. It is 
hoped that by the time of the next 
scoring contest, which will be held 
at the time of the State Fair, many 
more creameries will avail them- 
selves of the opportunity of placing 
their butter in scoring competition 
with that of other creameries, thus 
finding out any defects which their 
product might have, knowing which it 



will be possible for them to do their 
part in raising the standard of quality 
of one of the greatest products of the 
State. 

The scoring was done in a very 
efficient manner by Prof. A. B. Ny- 
strom, who is head of the dairy de- 
partment of the Washington State 
College at Pullman, Wash. 

Following is the complete list of 
entries with the scores, as given in 
Daily Produce Reporter: 
Winlock Co-operative Creamery. 96. 

J. Benedickson, Spanaway 95.75 

Tenino Creamery 95.5 

Washington Harbor Creamery. . 95.0 
Spring Creek Co-op. Creamery. 94.75 
Arlington Co-op. Creamery Co... 94.25 
Stanwood Co-op. Creamery Co.. 94. 

Montesano Creamery Co 93.5 

G. A. Hall, Chehalis 93.5 

Anacortes Creamery & Prod. Co 93.5 
Laurel Co-op. Creamery Co. . . . 93.25 
Capital City Creamery, Olympia 92.75 

Lynden Creamery Co 92.75 

Swift & Co., Seattle 92. . 



GUERNSEY SALES. 

Augustine & Kyer, Seattle, Wash., 
report the sale of their noted herd sire, 
Melba's Prince, to Elmer Lenfest, of 
Snohomish, Wash. Mr. Lenfest has 
been laying the foundation for a good 
pure bred Guernsey herd for some 
time and anticipates making some at- 
tractive records in the near future 
from his Geurnsey breeding and sel- 
ections. 

The Geurnsey young sire Carney of 
the Willows was sold by Augustine & 
Kyer to Ralph Totten, Falls City, 
Wash., and several other applicants 
are pending for some of their choice 
young male calves. 

The youny Duroc pigs are coming 
on in fine shape. With plenty of clover 
pasture, peas, some mixed grain of 
wheat, oats and some barley, hog rais- 
ing is a valuable adjunct to the Geurn- 
sey dairy farm of Augustine & Kyer. 




Mortgage Lifters 

Have You a Mortgage on Your Farm? 

IF SO OR NOT 
BUY HIGH CLASS GRADE HOLSTEIN DAIRY COWS 
FROM THE 
SPOKANE GRAIN CO. 
THE COWS WILL DO THE REST. 
IF YOU CANNOT BUY COWS, BUY HOLSTEIN 
CALVES. WE HAVE BOTH FOR SALE, AND GOOD 
ONES. COME AND SEE US. IF YOU CANNOT COME, 
WRITE US. 

The May shipment of high class cows is ready for imme- 
diate delivery. 

Spokane Grain Company 

Phone Sidney 444 4915 Eighth Ave. So. 

SEATTLE, WASH. 



Waikiki Farm 



IRA P. WHITNEY, Supf. 



Breeders of 

JERSEY and AYRSHIRE CATTLE 

iiUROC JERSEY SWINE 
SHROPSHIRE SHEER 

Route 7, Spokane, Wash. 



Silos and Ensilage Crops 



By H. L. Blanchard, Asst. Supt. W. 
W. Exp. Sta., Puyallup, Wash. 



The following table shows the ca- 
pacity of silos of several different 
sizes; the estimate of the number of 
cattle to which each size is suited is 
based on feeding each animal 40 
pounds of silage a day for six 
months: 

Estimated 
Diameter, Height, Capacity, No. 
Feet. Feet. Tons. Cattle. 

10 20 30 7 

10 26 40 10 

12 24 55 14 

12 30 75 18 

14 26 80 20 

14 30 100 25 

16 30 120 30 

18 32 162 40 

20 32 200 50 

The Stave Silo. 
The following patent round wooden 
stave silos are being sold within our 
State — all are correct in principle and 
when properly erected will give sat- 
isfactory results; they are in quite 
general use in the Northwest and no 
doubt are as durable as any stave silo 
made: Crown silo, Holland-Cook 
Mfg. Co., Tacoma, Wash; Winner silo, 
Pacific Tank & Silo Co., Chehalis, 
Wash.; Ideal Green Feed silo, De 
Lava! Dairy Supply Co., Seattle, 
Wash.; Weyerhaeuser silo, Weyer- 
haeuser Lumber Co., Everett, Wash.; 



Seattle silo, Hewett-Lea-Funck Co., 
Seattle, Wash. 

There may be other makes of pat- 
ent wood stave silos Deing sold in 
the State that the writer does not 
know about. The silos are sold as- 
sembled, ready to erect and an ex- 
pert may be furnished by the com- 
pany to superintend the erection. 
The foundation for the silo is pro- 
vided by the farmer. The cost is 
from about $200 up, depending upon 
the size and foundation construction. 
The value of a stave silo is measured 
by the quality of the material that 
enters into its construction. Oregon 
fir, when creosoted or painted with 
a wood-preserving paint, should last 
for a long term of years. Every 
stave, however, should be sound, 
straight grained and free from sap 
wood or bark. The purchaser ought 
not to accept a silo that has a defec- 
tive stave. 

The tar or preservative paint 
should be applied hot when possible. 
Dipping is the best method, but ap- 
plication with a brush will do. The 
staves should be well seasoned and 
when the brush is used two applica- 
tions of the tar or paint should be 
made, that the material may pene- 
trate the wood as much as possible. 
A good job means that the life of 
the silo will be greatly prolonged. 
Home Made Stave Silo. 
In the case where the construction 



Brady 

Farm 

Guernseys 



We have for sale several fine heif- 
er calves from two weeks to six months 
old. Also one bull calf from a fine 
producing cow. 

E. R. BRADY 

Satsop, Wash. 



Pure Bred Holstein Records 

Our herd bull is Johanna Colantha Champion, grandson of Colantha 
Johanna, also grandson of Sir Fayne Concorda, full brother to Grace 
Fayne 2nd Homestead. His dam is Johanna Colantha, 26% lbs. butter in 
7 days. Her daughter J. Colantha 2nd made 32.85 lbs. butter in 7 days. 
Two of our 5-year-old cows each made over 27% lbs. butter in 7 daye. 
3-year-olds 20 to 23 lbs., and a 2-year-old 17 lbs. 

A few bull calves 5 months old and younger, out of these heavy 
producers for sale. Write at once for prices. 

WILLIAM TODD & SONS 

NORTH YAKIMA, WASH. 



AYRSHIRES 

Herd of 300 registered animals to select from. Has made three 
World's records for production. Write for catalog and prices. 
J. W. Clise, Owner WILLOWMOOR FARMS, 

Redmond, Washington 



CASH FOR. CREAM 

Highest market price. Guaranteed test. Prompt cash payment 
for each shipment. We are also in the market for eggs. 

MILLER BROS. CO. 

1532 Commerce St., Tacoma, Wash. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



139 



of a stave silo is being considered 
and where the saving of from $50 to 
$100 becomes a deciding factor we 
would say to the farmer: Rather 
than do without a silo, build one 
yourself. We know that many writ- 
ers discourage the construction of 
home-made silos, claiming that they 
are less durable than the purchased 
silo, and therefore more expensive in 
the end. There are ample proofs of 
home-made silos, of the stave type, 
made of our fir lumber, that are a 
success. Some silos that are sold 
from the factory are not a success by 
reason of defective material and es- 
pecially poor staves, and therefore 
can not possibly last very man) 
years. There is no difficulty about 
infringing on any patent in building 
a home-made stave silo ordinarily, 
as the patent cover only the special 
frames and doors. The farmer who 
has decided to build for himself 
ought first to select a location con- 
venient to the stable. If possible 
have the silo outside the barn a*nd 
in line with the feeding alley of the 
stable. Put in a concrete foundation. 
Excavating three or four feet below 
the surface will add materially to the 
capacity of the silo. Bring the con- 
crete wall up to six inches or a foot 
above the ground level. The follow- 
ing concrete mixture is recommend- 
ed: To one part of cement add two 
parts washed sand and four parts of 
gravel or crushed rock. 

Crops, Handling and Mixing. 
Practically all of the grass crops, 
corn, wheat, oats, peas, clover, etc., 
that are grown in Western Washing- 
ton can be made into good silage, as 
has been demonstrated on many 
farms. Poor silage is evidence of 
mistakes and wrong methods some- 
where in the operation, or a poor silo. 
The most of the hay made in West- 
ern Washington is poor stuff, yet the 
farmers do not say that the grasses 
and clovers are not good for hay. 
There is a reason for both poor 
silage and poor hay. That we find 
first-class silage made from all the 
crops mentioned proves such to be 
the fact. The way to get good silage 
from corn, clover, or any other crop, 
is to follow correct methods, other- 
wise inferior silage will be the result. 
These are a few self-evident truths 
that need to be repeated occasionally, 
since the farmer in his haste is apt 
to forget. 

We must not cut our corn into the 
silo before it has become sufficiently 
mature. There is much evidence that 
corn in this State should pass the 
glazing stage and have about begun 
to ripen for the best ensilage. No 
doubt the quality of our corn silage 
will continue -to improve from year 
to year as certain varieties become 
more and more acclimated. The best 
method of planting— in hills or in 
drills— will need to be worked out 
under the varying conditions. We 
find that among our most successful 
corn growers some plant one way and 
some the other. Under the drill plan 
an earlier maturity will follow when 
the plants are not too thick in the 
drill. Thinning to 10 to 12 inches is 
recommended with rows not closer 
than 30 inches apart. Under the 
other plan the hills may be 36 inches 
apart and be thinned to three good 
stalks. 

It has been demonstrated that the 
cutting of clover or some legume into 
the silo with the corn improves the 
feeding value of the ensilage, by giv- 
ing the feed nutrients a better bal- 



ance, also clover containing consid- 
erable timothy or some other grass 
gives a better quality of silage than 
will straight clover, owing to the fact 
that clover is deficient in sugar. By 
mixture clover with such crops as 
corn, rye, wheat, timothy and the 
like, all of which are high in sugar, 
the entire mixture will be well pre- 
served and palatable. The legumes 
being low in sugar do not have 
enough to prevent the fermentation 
of their high protein content which 
results in the objectionable smell of 
legume silage. 

It is entirely practical in Western 
Washington to have a crop of rye, 
wheat or barley just entering the 
dough stage at the time when clover 
is first ready to cut and to cut the 
same into the silo with the clover, in 
the proportion of one ton of rye, 
wheat, etc., to two tons of clover or 
alfalfa. Some legume crop may also 
be seeded for the purpose of being 
cut into the silo with the corn crop 
and thus increase the feeding value 
of the corn silage. 

The following crop mixtures for 
silage may be recommended: Fall 
seeded rye and vetch, corn and the 
third crop of clover or fourth crop 
of alfalfa, corn and oats and vetch, 
barley and oats and vetch, clover and 
mesquite or timothy or rye grass or 
orchard grass, clover, oats and vetch, 
wheat and vetch, oats and vetch or 
peas, straw and clover, or alfalfa in 
the proportion of one to four have 
been used with good results. The 
better practice would be to cut them 
into the silo together as well mixed 
as possible, rather than cutting in al- 
ternate layers. 

When to Cut, Filling. 

When the crops are approaching 
maturity they are ready to be cut for 
the silo. Corn should be cut well 
along in the glazing stage, the cereals 
in the dough stage, and the meadow 
grasses and clover well in bloom. 
Peas and vetch are ready when the 
first grains begin to harden. 

By running the crops through a cut- 
ting box one increases the quantity 
that can be stored in the silo. The 
silage being packed better keeps bet- 
ter and with a greatly diminished per- 
centage of waste, all of which more 
than offsets any difference in cost per 
ton. When the crop is put in uncut 
a horse fork is generally used for. ele- 
vating to the top of the silo when it 
is either dropped into the center of 
the silo or onto a platform where a 
man forks it into the silo by hand. 
A better job may be done under the 
latter plan. 

The equipment for cutting the crop 
into the silo consists of a power, eith- 
er electric, gasoline or steam, a cut- 
ting box, and elevator, either endless 
chain or blower. The equipments are 
put out of a capacity sufficient to 
meet the requirments. A surplus of 
power and capacity is much more de- 
sirable than not enough. Wherever 
the cost of such an equipment makes 
its use impractical or prohibitive, it 
will become necessary for the farmers 
of a community to band together for 
its purchase and use. 

Cost and How Used. 
The cost of getting the crops from 
the field to the silo depends greatly 
upon conditions. Here is where the 
farmer can' display his executive abil- 
ity, and management. There need 
be no great haste or excitement about 
filling the silo. It dose not need to 
be filled in a day or two. The cut- 
ting box should be adjusted so as to 




Do You Wish to Succeed? 

Stock improvement is necessary if you would show the greater profit 
in the dairy industry. Select Holstein cows that produce and herd sires 
backed by the best families and breeding known to the breed. 

We Deliver the Goods 

Cows, heifers and bulls. We carry in stock at all times a herd from 
which you may select stock that will meet all requirements. We invite 
you to call and inspect our offerings at all times. Write us for informa- 
tion and make appointment. At the present time we are selecting 
Registered and High Grades in Eastern Holstein centers, due to arrive 
about July 10th. Our name stands for merit, honesty and a square 
deal, endeavoring to help build up a practical dairy industry. 

VAN WOERDEN & FISHER 

Seattle Phone, Sidney 767. THOMAS, WASH. 

On Interurban, half way between Tacoma and Seattle. 
Please mention this paper 



Registered Guernseys For Sale 

During the past month we have supplied several dairymen 
with choice pure-bred Guernsey sires. We have yet some fine 
young bulls of noted breeding to offer which we believe will 
prove to be valuable for dairymen seeking to increase the revenue 
of cream and butter from their herds. 

Write us for particulars and prices. 

Seasonable terms to responsible parties. 



Augustine & Kyer 



115 First Street 
Seattle, Wash. 



Live Stock Market 

Send for our quatations on cattle, hogs, sheep, poultry and hides. 
We buy stock cattle. 

Try the parcel post service for our meats; anything in the packed 



line. 



Occasionally we have some good dairy cows. 
Write, giving particulars. 



1508 Pacific Ave. 



Tacoma Meat Company 

TACOMA, WASH. 



Turner <fc Pease Co., Inc. 

8 1 3-8 15-817 Western Ave. Seattle 

Leading Manufacturers of Butter in the State 

We pay cash for butter fat and eggs at 
correct market prices. 



C 



Flies Can't Stand It 

but it doesn't hurt the milk — use 
Jli!^ KILLER 

freely on your stock — it'll save you 
money which means making money. 

All Dealers 35c quart, 
'Don't Sitonthe Cow's Tail" $ 100 gallon, $3.50 for 5 gallons. 

The CHAS. H. LILLY COMPANY, Seattle 




140 

cut the crop of corn in one-half inch 
lengths and all other crops in one 
inch lengths. A great deal of care 
should be xercised to have the sil- 
age well mixed, either with a dis- 
tributing device or by hand. If corn 
leaves or any other light material 
accumulate in one place in the silo it 
will spoil. An effort should be made 
to keep the silo well tramped, per- 
ticularly around the wall. It is best 
to have one man in the silo all the 
time during filling and if the silage 
is being put in rapidly and the silo 
is large there should be two men in 
the silo. It is not necessary to fill 
the silo in one day but it is best to 
put some silage in the silo every day 
until the job is finished. It is a good 
practice to put a load or two of low 
grade fodder or straw on top of the 
silage and to tramp well. If this is 
properly done there will probably 
not be more than two or three inches 
of silage spoil during curing. 

During fermentation or curing 
the silage becomes quite warm and 
later cools out partly or altogether. 
This fermentation or curing is not 
necessary in order to prepare the sil- 
age for feeding. A person can suc- 
cessfully feed silage from the silo as 
soon as the silo is filled, but it will 
be necessary to feed three or four 
inches a day off the top of the silo 
for the first week. On the other hand 
well-preserved silage in a good silo 
will keep indefinitely. 

The silo is often just as useful and 
just as necessary in the summer sea- 
son as during the winter; in fact, it 
may be made an all-year-round in- 
surance against shortage of succulent 
food. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



chine, Silo, manure spreader, and all 
modern tools with full equipment. The 
registered sires used have excellent 
ancestral records the breeding being in 
line to get the full future herd into 
the A. R. O. class. 

The feed raised consists of 10 acres 
corn for ensilage, 20 acres oats and 
vetch, also raise barley and vetch and 
a large acreage of good clover pasture. 
The feed bought is alfalfa hay and 
oil meal. 

The herd is tuberculin tested every 
six months, no reactors allowed in 
the herd. The cows are also being 
carefully tested as to individual pro- 
ducing capacity. 

There is no cow testing association 
at this point but Mr. A. E. Smith would 
be glad to join such an association and 
boost for good cows in that district. 
The movement requires an initiation 
in which the state should be the lead- 
ing factor for co-operation. 



REQUIREMENTS FOR 
CREDIT. 

In Purchase of Dairy Cattle. 

The committee on Cooperation and 
extention work, appointed at the last 
meeting of the Washington State 
Dairymans' Association has under con- 
sideration a practical credit guide 
for the purchase of dairy cows. The 
object being to establish specifica- 
tions for its use by the borrower 
while safe to the lender of the funds. 

The following outline has been sug- 
gested by Prof. A. B. Nystrum of this 
committee which invites comment pro 
and con also asks for further sugges- 
tions. There is considerable idle mo- 
ney in the banks and hands of indiv- 




Gerben Queen Johanna No. 85580, Grand Champion of Colorado 1911-1912- 
1914. She is a 100-pound-milk-per-day daughter of a 100-pound dam. For so 
great a producer she carries a wonderfully well developed flesh type indicative 
of great endurance. She is one of the few in which both the dairy and beef 
forms are exceptionally well developed, well up at the head of her breed. She 
is owned by the Woodcroft Farm, Pueblo, Colorado, indicating the kind of 
registered Holsteins bred at this noted farm. 



REGISTERED A. R. O. HOLSTEINS. 
Owned by A. E. Smith, Sumas, Wash. 

The excellent pure bred and regis- 
tered Holstein herd of 100 cows owned 
by A. E. Smith, Sumas, Wash'., is in 
fine condition. 

There are 20 A. R. O. Cows, (no 
grades) and all making a good margin 
in profit in production of milk and 
cream which is shipped to Bellingham 
every day. 

The farm consists of 160 acres most- 
ly cleared bottom land, 2 good modern 
barns, up-to-date Sharpels milking ma- 



iduals in this state which might be 
used in the developement of the dairy 
industry providing a proper and safe 
system for its use in this direction is 
established. 

The outline following sets a pretty 
high score. Any party of good 
character who can conform would 
certainly be a safe credit risk within 
reasonable bounds. On the other 
hand, those in position to offer loans 
can make deductions from this high 
standard to meet a local require- 
ment as conditions may warrant. 



mm 



&3K 



UNDER the glass, that 
smooth looking spin- 
dle is as rough as sand 
paper. That is why we put 
ground mica in 



MICA 

Axle Grease 



The mica fills up these microscopic cracks and 
pores and with the high grade grease forms a 
smooth, perfectly lubricated bearing surface for the 
wheel. That is why Mica Axle Grease makes 
loads pull so much easier with less strain on horses and 
harness. No other grease will go so far or last so long. 
Ask your dealer for it 

Standard Oil Company 

(California) 



J 



ERSEY 
COWS 

Some of the greatest pro- 
ducers in the world. 

Buy 20 young cows or heif- 
ers from me and I'll head 
them with a Great Young 
Bull— FREE. 

E. L. Brewer 

Satsap, Wash. 



Electric Light Farm 

A. J. C.C. Jerseys 

FOR SALE 

Son of Gertie's Brown Lad whose 
dam has official record of 653 lbs. 
butter in one year. The dam of 
this 5-months-old calf made over 
10,000 lbs. milk and 595% lbs. but- 
ter with first calf. Solid color, mul- 
berry fawn, priced at $100.00 for 
quick sale. 

Burt Pease Ellensburg, Wash. 



PUGET SOUND HERD 

Holstein-Friesian Cattle 
Duroc Jersey Swine 

Home of Sir Chimacum Wayne, the 
world's greatest milk and butter bull; 
"Chimacum Wayne Boon" (dam of the 
above) A. R. O. record at 4 years 33.69 
lbs. butter in 7 days, 137.26 lbs. in 30 
days, and full sister 'Alice Veeman 
Hengervelt," butter at 4 years 28.04 
lbs. "Doris King of the Pontiacs," the 
best bred daughter of "King of the 
Pontiacs" in the West; she is sister 
to the 44-lb. cow. 

75 A. R. O. cows in herd. All bulls 
for sale are from official tested dams. 

Wm. Bishop, Chimacum, Wash. 



FOR SALE 

Guernsey Bulls 

Strongly bred from highly test- 
ing ancestors. Writ* for Particulars 

Plateau Farm 

VASHON, WASH. 

8. M. SHIPLEY, Proprietor, 
Haller Bldg., Seattle. 



Holstein-Friesian Bull s 1°e 

— Hazelwood Hartog Lad, No. 
73638, 3 years and 5 months old, whose 
dam Bonnie Lass Pauline No. 96724 has 
a record of 515.4 lbs. milk nad 3S.788 
lbs. butter in seven days, and was a 
prize winner at the National Dairy 
Show at Chicago in 1912. For particu- 
lars write or come to see him. Tramm 
& Wackerbarth, R. D. 1, Box 57, Che- 
halis, "Wash. 



^Calves Without Milk\ 

Cost only half as much as the milk 
raised calves. Increase your 
profits by using 

Blatchf ord's Calf Meal 

The perfect milk substi- 
tute— the best since 1800. 

Write today for free 
book, "How to Raise 
Calves." Your name and ad- 
dress on a postal is enough. 

Blatchf ord'» 
Calf Meal 
Factory 

Waukegan, III 



FOB REGISTERED DUROC JERSEY 

bred sows and male pigs, write McK. 
Edwards, Valley, Wash. 

Please mention this paper 




CHAS. H. LILLY CO. 



Seattle Wash. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



141 




GREAT PRODUCING COWS 

Those desiring to obtain Hol- 
stein cows producing milk well up 
to the 10,000-pound-per-year mark 
will do well to write, or call and 
see us, as we are in position to 
supply individuals or group lots 
of this class. Are you making 
preparations to buy, will you then 
please write us about your facili- 
ties for dairying, your plans of 
operation as to feeding, etc. The 
benefit of our experience to in- 
sure success is at your command. 
Under proper conditions and care 
dairymen are bound to succeed 



HOLSTEINS 

JOHN F. JANSSEN, 
523 Bailey Building 



and financing is less difficult in 
frequent cases than may at first 
appear. We desire to make pro- 
gressive dairymen realize that our 
interests are mutual. 

Our Holsteins are selected 
with great care and intelli- 
gence and are offered primarily 
for foundation herds or as an ac- 
quisition for already established 
herds to such owners who know 
the value of "pure" stock. We 
buy the very best the Eastern 
market affords and prospective 
customers in buying of us have 
the certainty of satisfaction. 200 




PURE BRED 



head to select from. Liberal terms 
to responsible parties. 

"The Quality Buyer" 



Phone Elliott 710 



Seattle, Wash. 



HEALTH— Only sound, healthy cat- 
tle to be bought with a certificate 
showing they have passed the tuber- 
culin test within ten (10) days of the 
time of purchase, tests made under 
the direction of the State Veterinary 
Department. The utmost care should 
be exercised in seeing that the cows 
are not selected from herds having 
in them contagious abortion, nor hav- 
ing been exposed to it within nine 
months, and free from all other dis- 
eases. 

COWS — Only cows that show evi- 
dence of being capable of producing 
300 pounds of butter fat in a year 
and have an average test of not less 
than 3% are to be purchased. 
Heifers to be eligible to purchase 
must be from dams producing not 
less than that specified for cows, the 
heifers to be sired by pure bred bulls 
of one of the six dairy breeds (Hol- 
stein, Jersey, Guernsey, Ayrshire, 
Brown Swiss, or Dutch Belted). 

If the cows are grade dairy cows 
they must be bred to a sire of the 
breed which predominates in the 
cow; other cows may be bred to a 
pure bred sire of one of the six 
dairy breeds. 

CONFORMATION— Constitution to 
be shown by large heart girth, large 
barrel; and mammary system should 
also show good developement, large 
milk veins, large udder with well 
placed teats. 

BULL — In order that a bull be elig- 
ible to purchase, his dam and sire 
must be one of the six dairy breeds, 
and the dam must have produced not 
less than 450 pounds of butter fat in 
a year, or show evidence of being 
able to produce that amount. No 
bulls over ten years of age are to 
be purchased except in the ca&e of 
an old bull which is a sure breeder 
and has daughters which have pro- 
duced as much as the minimum re- 
quirement of his dam, in which case 
there shall be no age limit. 

BREEDING OF COWS— All cows 
purchased must be bred to a bull that 
will meet the above requirements. 

The owner of the bull is to be 
allowed to use the bull on any cows 
provided the bull is properly disin- 
fected with a suitable solution after 
each service of a cow of which the 
owner of the bull is in doubt as to 
her freedom from contagious abor- 
tion, or other disease which may be 
transmitted through service. 

GENERAL CARE OF STOCK— The 
stock are to be housed in the winter 
time in a comfortable, dry, well 
lighted, and properly ventilated barns 
and also to be housed during any 



cold rains. Stock in pasture should 
have access to shelter and water at 
all times. 

MANURE — Proper disposition will 
have to be made of the manure stf 
that the cows are kept clean, and the 
land receive the fertility before it is 
allowed to leach away. The cows 
must receive good treatment at all 
times. 

FEED — If possible all the roughaga 
should be raised on the farm, and 
this roughage should consist of the 
leguminous hays as far as possible, 
and some succulent crop, such as is 
suitable for silage, or roots, etc. Only 
such feeds as are necessary to bal- 
ance the ration should be bought. 

The farmers should co-operate 
whenever advisable in purchasing 
sires, feed, in organizing dairy as- 
sociations, creamery organizations, 
and in stimulating interest in dairy- 
ing. 



CARLOAD OF HOLSTEINS FROM 
ILLINIOS. 



Choice High Grades Shipped to H. S. 
ROYCE. TACOMA. 

The True Republican of June 6th 
published at Sycamore, Illinios, states 
that Mrs. M. H. Stevens sold and 
shipped a carload of high grade 
Holstein cows and heifers, that week, 
to H. S. Royce, Tacoma, Wash., who 
personally selected the cattle 

Ther.e were 22 head in the consign- 
ment. All were well marked and 
large, and it was probobly the best 
carload of milch cows ever shipped 
from Sycamore. They were not only 
pretty, but they showed that they 
were as good as they looked. A large 
number of the mature cows have pro- 
duced as much as eight gallons of 
milk daily with only ordinary care. 
The average price paid was $100 per 
head. 

These cows were shipped via Chi- 
cago by express to the coast. The 
express charges were $700. 



DAIRYING IN THE PALOUSE. 

Mr. J. C. Graham, near Palouse, 
Wash., living in a grain district con- 
cluded he would break away from 
the grain farming monotony. This 
required a smaller farm than was 
necessary for wheat growing, then he 
bought 28 head of stock which look- 
ed something like dairy cows as pic- 
tured in his mind. 

Besides making a fine revenue 
from milk and cream sold during the 
first couple of years his land in- 
creased in fertility. 

According to Prof. A. B. Nystrum, 



reporting to Hoards Dairyman, his 
oat crop yields ninety bushels to the 
acre, while his neighbors get but 
thirty; and although six tons of 
corn for silage is considered a good 
yield on average Palouse land, Mr. 
Graham gets ten tons. Yields from 
other crops are in the same propor- 
tion. 

He now owns 200 acres, of which 
about 140 are fit for cultivation, the 
rest being the side of a butte, good 
only for pasture during the spring 
months. In 1913 these 140 acres yielded 
200 tons of hay, 550 sacks of oats 
and barley, 100 tons of ensilage, 400 
sacks of potatoes, and nearly $230 
worth of fruit, besides producing all 
the fruits and vegetables used for 
maintaining the household. The grain 
and hay is all used for feeding the 
stock on the place, most of it being 
fed to cows. 

His herd consists of forty cows, of 
which four are pure-bred Holsteins, 
and twenty-seven head of young stock. 
From the forty cows he shipped a 
total of 44,700 gallons of milk dur- 
ing the past year for which he re- 
ceived $8,940. Besides this he raised 
twenty calves, and supplied his family 
with milk and cream. From the sale 
of calves he recieved $486, making a 
grand total, including the fruit, of 
$9,656. 

While the gross income seems low 
in comparison with the returns from 
140-acre farms in older dairy districts 
yet when we consider that the neigh- 
boring wheat farms yield an aver- 
age of twenty bushels of wheat to the 
acre, bringing a gross return only of 
$240 for a farm of this size, we can see 
a big advantage in dairy farming. 



LIME FOR STOCK. 

Experiments with stock feeding in 
the Pacific Northwest has led the 
State Veterinarian, S. B. Nelson, to 
determine lime should be added to 
the feed of stock. He recommends, 
according to an exchange, that stock 
raisers mix one part of lime and two 
parts of magnesium sulphate, feeding 
a half teaspoonful to a sow per day, 
and a whole teaspoonful to a mare. 
This has been found ample to re- 
move most of the troubles relating to 
raising young stock which suffered 
from weak bones and hairless skins. 



GLEN TANA SALE. 

The 189 pure bred and grade 
dairy stock of the Glen Tana Farm 
near Spokane was sold at auction by 
Limbarger & Gue for an average of 
about $60 each. About 40 per cent, 
of them were calves. 



HOLSTEIN BULL FOR SALE 

Chimacum Aaggie Cornucopia No. 
64100, H. F. H. B., bred by M. S. 
Nye, Preble, New York. Calved 
August 15th, 1909. His grandam 
Aaggie Cornucopia Pauline is a 34- 
1b. cow. Sired by Aaggie Cornu- 
copia Johanna Lad Junior No. 36,- 
974 H. F. H. B. Dam Onda Doro- 
thy Concordia Paul No. 67853 H. F. 
H. B. A splendid animal, his 
youngsters are making excellent 
records. 

A few choice cows for sale. Write 
for prices or call. 

F. I. MEAD 
524 California Bldg. Tacoma 



O.I.C.Hogs 

English Shire 
Horses 



Pigs farrowed in May, 
from my Champion 
and Grand Champion 
sows at 1913 Washing- 
ton State Fair are now 
booked to fill orders at 
weaning time. An 
stock sold strictly 
first class. English 
Shire stallions 1 to 3 years old. Write for price. 
A. L. PIERCE, Granger. Wash. 




A herd of the best blood of the best 
strains headed by Champion of the 
Northwest No. 107287, a boar that has 
never been outclassed at any age. 
Write for prices. 

THE E. N. PEASLEE CO., 
Clarkston, Wash. 



Purebred Durocs 
and Berkshires 

Very choice young Duroc pigs of- 
fered at reasonable prices. Early 
application should be made. 

Berkshires — We are closing out 
some good breeding sows to make 
room for others. Under proper care 
and feeding we would like an oppor- 
tunity to buy them back in the 
shape of good hams. Write today. 

AUGUSTINE &KYER 
1 1 5 First St. Seattle, Wash 



Berkshires 

Very prolific, early maturing 
stock of high quality. Some fine 
youngsters ready for delivery. Sat- 
isfaction assured. 

PETER HANSON, 

Box 62, East Stanwood, Wash. 



THE REIERS0N SP RAYER Saves Time, Trouble and Till* 
Won blue ribbon, high- 
est award, oror all com- 
petitors at Salem Fair in 
1911 —1912. Has a 2 1-2 
H. P. 4-cycle Waterloo 
Gas Engine. Speoial lat- 
est triplex eprav pomp. 
SWill maintain 250pot;nai 
Write for ^Jfi||i5i§S\preBsnre. There ii moN 
Catalogue S7 ^^^^^^Sf'yon onght to know. 
REIERSOHIflACHIHERYCO. ^ LIQHTEST, MOST COMPACT 
182-4-G Morrison Street. Portland, Oregon 




142 

SUCCESSCUL CO-OPERA- 
TIVE CREAMERY. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



A Year's Demonstration at Lynden 
Washington. 

As evidence of what one of the suc- 
cessful creameries in the State of 
Washington has done the past year, 
G. Van der Griend, secretary of the 
Lynden Creamery Co. gives the fol- 
lowing report which appeared in 
Hoard's Dairyman: 

Resources 

Real estate $ 8,293.10 

Machinery and fixtures 4,145.93 

Supplies, butter, etc 3,727.51 

Accounts receivable 11,843.40 

$28,009.94 

. Liabilities 

Capital stock $ 2,970.00 

Bills payable 12,544.00 

Accounts payable 124.07 

Surplus 12,371.87 

$28,009.94 
Lbs. 

Cream received 2,807,692 

Butterfat 703,324 

Butter churned 692,680 

Butterfat sold in sweet cream 138,690 

Average test 25% 

Average overrun 23% 

Gross Receipts 

Butter $221,732.63 

Sweet cream 56,803.21 

Buttermilk 1,601.94 

Eggs 12,734.05 

Sundry 609.36 



$293,481.19 
Cost of hauling, 1.2c per lb. fat. 
Cost of manufacturing and selling, 
1.6c per lb. fat. 
Freight, express, etc., 0.4c per lb. 
Received for butter, 32c per lb. 
Paid for fat, 36.5c per lb. 
Increase over 1912 in volume of 
business, 30%. 

Number of patrons, 533. 
"The Lynden Co-operative Cream- 
ery nas been in operation for eleven 
years, and each year has proved to be 
better than the preceding one. The 
18 persons who held their first meet- 
ing March 4, 1902, and who had to 
dig down in their own jeans to pay 
for the rent of the hall, certainly 
never dreamed that in ten years' 
time a business amounting to nearly 
$300,000 would be the outcome of that 
meeting. They were only plain farm- 
ers of mixed nationalities — Ameri- 
cans, Scotchmen, Germans, Swedes, 
Hollanders. They had only just ar- 
rived from the Eastern states, and 
had invested their all in land. 

"The condition of the roads and 
the distance from the railroad made 
it imperative at that time that they 
market their crop in the lightest pos- 
sible package. Not alone did they 
see the necessity of marketing their 
crop in a small package, but in order 
to have any returns worth while they 
had to cut out all possible middle- 
men. They well understood that in 
co-operation lay their only chance for 
success, and that 'united we stand, 
divided we fall' was the keynote to 
successful co-operation. 

"The records show that the first 
year after the creamery was organ- 
ized the patrons received tv/o cents 
less per pound butter fat than market 
price. The board of directors econ- 
omized on every possible thing, in- 
cluding the buttermaker, and in this 
last economy we made our biggest 



mistake. But although they econo- 
mized on every possible thing, yet 
the minutes show that a resolution 
was passed to send a sum of one-half 
cent for every cube of butter manu- 
factured to the National Dairy Union 
in order to help fight the oleomargar- 
ine people. 

"The patrons, however, stood loy- 
ally by the creamery. They had con- 
fidence in their directors and the big 
majority of them understood that the 
mistakes that were made were mis- 
takes of the head and not of the 
heart. Many worthy and well-man- 
aged co-operative enterprises disinte- 
grate and fail because the members 
fall to criticizing the management, 
bickering and quarreling follow, and 
the enterprise goes to pieces. 

"We struggled through the next 
two years, and gained enough ground 
to enable us to pay market price for 
butterfat. From then on we increased 
in number of patrons and number of 
cows with leaps and bounds. Each 
year saw new improvements. A new 
location was secured and a new cem- 
ent block building was erected, which 
two years after its completion again 
proved inadequate. At present we are 
housed in a first-class building 44x104 
feet, have two 1,000-pound churns 
and four 500-gallon ripeners. 

"We employ seven men inside the 
creamery, have 15 wagons gathering 
cream, and a pay roll of $1,200 a 
month. We are buying our supplies, 
such as salt, butter boxes, and cream 
cans, by carload lots. We are having 
a refrigerating plant installed that 
will cost in the neighborhood of $3,- 
000, and we are practically out of 
debt. 

Confidence and Education. 

"Now, what has contributed most 
to the success of this co-operative 
creamery, outside of the natural 
adaptibility of this country to dairy- 
ing, is the confidence which the pat- 
rons have had in their board of di- 
rectors. This confidence was gained 
by the directors being open and 
above board with their patrons at all 
times. If mistakes were made they 
did not hide them, but they took the 
patrons into their confidence and told 
them all about it. They asked their 
opinions; they tried, above all things, 
to have them understand it was their 
creamery, and no big moves were 
ever made without first consulting 
them. No stock was sold for invest- 
ment, but it was placed among the 
dairymen, preferably only one ten- 
dollar share to each man. No matter 
how many shares of stock one man 
had (they were limited to 10 shares) 
each man had only one vote. Only 
a 10 r / o dividend was paid on the capi- 
tal stock, and all profits made went 
back to the man who milked the 
cows. A sinking fund of one-half 
cent a pound butterfat was establish- 
ed at first, one-fourth cent later, and 
even less at the present time; out of 
which fund all machinery was kept 
in good repair and the needed im- 
provements were made. The man who 
delivered the most cream paid the 
most in keeping up the cream plant, 
irrespective of whether he owned 
capital stock or not. 

"The directors hold a meeting ev- 
ery month and no bills are paid until 
after the directors have placed their 
O. K. on them. The manager meets 
with the directors and brings all im- 
portant matters before them. The 



HAMPSHIRE SWINE 



"THE HOG WITH- 
OUT A HOLLOW" 

Has them all beat for rustling and making the most meat at the least 
cost. It is the bacon hog for the Coast section. Large litters. Get 
your foundation stock from 

W. P. TYLER, 



Route 1, Granger, Wash. 



directors receive a semi-monthly 
statement of all the business done 
during the _two weeks, which shows 
the details of the management; where 
the butter, sweet cream, buttermilk, 
and eggs were sold; gains and losses; 
cream received; average test; over- 
run; number of patrons, etc. 

"The creamery has always been 
progressive. It has always tried to 
help educate the cream-shipper, for 
ignorant and unenlightened people 
have no place in a co-operative move- 
ment. For the last seven years the 
creamery has sent two or more of its 
directors to atttend the meeting of 
the State Dairymen's Association, and 
through its efforts the meeting Has 
once been held in our own city of 
Lynden. The year following, an agri- 
cultural school was held where we 
all were taught how to judge cattle 
for dairy type. Institutes were held 
and a demonstration train from the 
Washington College has stopped at 
our station and taught needed les- 
sons. The dairymen were given ev- 
ery opportunity to learn and im- 
prove, and the creamery throve and 
reaped the benefit in bigger loads of 
cream. 

"Every patron shipping cream was 
entitled to have samples of milk 
tested free of charge and a great 
many made use of that privilege, un- 
til they saw the necessity of owning 
their own tester and keeping a record 
of each individual cow. When two 
years ago an effort was made to or- 
ganize a cow testing association, it 
was discovered that so many did their 
own testing and kept their own rec- 
ords that not enough were left over 
to successfully have such an asso- 
ciation." 

Duroc Jersey Hogs 

Some Young Stock for Sale. 
W. C. P. Rocks and 8. C. W. Leghorns 
Winner of the Egg Laying Contest 
1913 State Fair. 
H, W. TURNER 
Sunnyside, Wash. 

English Berkshires 

Sunset Duke the 4th, 156579, heads 
my Registered Herd. Champion Sow 
1912-13 State Fairs. 
Write for prices and particulars. 
J. A. SIMONSON, 
North Yakima, Wash. 



BERKSHIRES 

Write us for Spring Pigs, Bred 
Sows and Gilts, 

WOODLAND FARM, 
Lacey, Wash. 



BERKSHIRES 

Choicest Stock—All Ages 
NEWTON H. PEER 

TACOMA or QUINCY, WASHINGTON 



Warranted to Give Satisfaction. 

Gombaulfs* 

Caustic Balsam 




Has Imitators But No Competitors. 

A Safe, Speedy and Positive Cure for 
Curb, Splint. Sweeny, Capped Eock, 
Strained Tendons, Founder, Wind 
Puffs, and all lameness from Spavin, 
Ringbone and other bony tumors. 
Cures all skin diseases or Parasites, 
Thrush, Diphtheria. Removes all 
Bunches from Horses or Cattle. 

As a Human Remedy for Rheumatism, 

Sprains, Sore Throat, etc., it is invaluable. 

Every bottle of Caustic Balsam sold Is 
Warranted to give satisfaction. Price $1.60 
per bottle. Sold by druggists, or sent by ex. 
press, charges paid, with full directions for 
its use. t»*Send for descriptive circulars, 
testimonials, etc. Address 

«kfhe Lawrence-Williams Co., Cleveland, 0, 



H A CV LOSSES SURELY PREVENTED 

1 1 Al,|4 by Cutter's Blackleg Pills. Low- 
'M^tWfMM. priced, fresh, reliable; preferred by 
Western stockmen, because they 
w «■ m ysu protect where other vaccines fail. 
M m a ^ Write for booklet and testimonials. 
W* B >h 10-dose pkge. Blackleg Pills $1.00 
£oJ JLmd 50-dose pkge. Blackleg Pills 4.00 

Cutter's Blackleg Pill Injector 1.50 
Discounts: 250 doses, 10 p. ct. : 500 doses, 20 p. ct. 
Use any injector, but Cutter's simplest and strongest. 
Every package dated, unused pills exchangeable for 
fresh after date on package. Do not use old vaccine (ours 
or any other), as it affords less protection than fresh. 

Insist on Cutter's. If unobtainable, order direct. 
Send check or M. O. . we pay charges and ship promptly. 
THE CUTTER LABORATORY, Berkeley, California. 



Oregon Collie Kennels Established 42 

years. 

Choice Puppies 

(either sex) 
Breeding Pairs 
Bitches In 
whelp and stud 
togs for sale. 

6end 2c stamp 
for illustrated 

catalog. 

C. D. NAIRW 

Sbadelaad 

Farms 
B. P. D. I 
Amity, Oregon 

GOOD REGISTERED BEBKSHIRES — 

Choice pigs, $10 each at weaning time. 

W. D. GOOD. Mt. Vernon. Wash 




UROC PIGS 



D 

M M REGISTERED and REA- 
SONABLE. EITHER SEX 

J. HANKS & SON, Ellen.burg. Wash. 



Registered Jerseys 




^, WlltK FOR CATALOd 

? M CHAS.M.T 
R 



1 Box 3 



IRCH FAB 

iHIRE, 



TALMAD G 
NEWPORT. WKJ 



BERKSHIRE 
SWINE 

Some choice cattle out of St. Lam- 
bert and Adam Stevens breeding. Pure 
bred, prize winning Berkshires, Shire 
horses and pure-bred poultry. Write 
for prices. 

A. G. WOODWARD 
Route 1, Box 12 Fairbanks, Wash. 

REGISTERED DUROCS 

(Immune to Cholera) 

All ages for sale, male or female, from 
prolific families. 

Shamrock Wander heads the herd. 
Shamrock Daisy farrowed 12 pigs. 
Shamrock Rose farrowed 14 pigs. 
Selah Agness farrowed 16 pigs. 
Write for prices. 
A. H. IRISH. Wapato, Wash. 

SOLID LIGHT COLORED JERSEY 
BULL CALF 

Born October 10th, 1913; sire one of 
the best sons of Eminent; dam an Amer- 
ican bred cow strong in the blood of 
Tormentor and Pedro; this cow is on 
test for the Register of Merit and in 
first six months produced 5665 lbs. milk. 

Price of calf $75, registered and 
crated. 

DAVID C. DILW0RTH Opportunity, Wash. 



"DAY'S BIG FIVE" Overalls— Shirts— Pants, are the working men's favorite, on account of their long wear. Every pair guaranteed. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



143 



DANISH CO-OPERATIVE SYSTEM. 

The developement of the Co-oper- 
ative system in Deniark has been re- 
markable. The Danish farmer buys 
his household supplies from a co- 
operative store, another association 
furnishes concentrated feeds, his 
milk is sold to a co-operative cream- 
ery, his pigs to a co-operative pack- 
ing house and he borrows money 
through a co-operative loan associ- 
ation. This system, says L. A. Rog- 
ers, of Washington.D. C. , or perhaps 
more properly the enterprise and 
self-reliance which come with it, is 
no doubt responsible for the pros- 
perity which is very evident with 
the Danish dairy farmers. The 
Danish farmers as a rule are large 
borrowers, but the loans are on very 
long period of time, interest rate 
very low and their income exceeds 
the expenditures, so that , the interest 
and a small part of the principal is 
being paid each year while the farm- 
ers are enjoying the full benefit of 
the completely equiped plants and 
their co-operation system through 
which their prosperity has been ac- 
complished. 



HOGS IN THE COAST SECTION. 

Mr. Plinney Shepardson, Kelso, 
Wash., is developing a fine lot of 
Berkshire hogs, realizing a good pro- 
fit from a marketing stand-point as 
well as by selling pure-bred stock. 
Mr. Shepardson's practical demon- 
stration with hogs is proof that 
Southwest Washington will some day 
produce great quantities of the clov- 
er — pea-fed bacon hogs. Barley and 
wheat and mixed grain will be used 
also in fitting for the market. 



The "Seven Sisters" might have 
included some provision for reduc- 
ing the number making up the legis- 
lative assembly, to provide for short- 
er sessions or less frequency of 
meetings. But the proposed mea- 
sures serve well for educational pur- 
poses in the main. At present, our 
political propaganda has in a large 
measure lost its educational features. 



STABLE FLY. 
An Effective Mixture to Repel It. 

A mixture of fish oil (one gallon), 
oil of pine tar (two ounces), oil of 
Pennyroyal (two ounces), and kero- 
sene (one-half pint) was found very 
effective in keeping the flies off live 
stock when applied lightly, but thor- 
oughly, to the portions of animals not 
covered with blankets or nets. 



HOG RAISING INFORMATION. 

One of the best recent hog bulletins 
of the United States Department of 
Agriculture is No. 68, issued, under 
date of February 25, 1914, written 
by Byron Hunter, Agriculturist for the 
Department of Farm Management, and 
is intended to encourage hog raisers 
in the Pacific Northwest, especially in 
the states of Oregon, Washington and 
Idaho. The title is "Pasture and 
Grain Crops for Hogs in the Pacific 
Northwest." This bulletin should be 
on the desk of every farmer in this 
section of the country and is to be 
had free by writing to the United 
States Department of Agriculture. The 
summary of the bulletin follows: 

"During recent years the hog indus- 
try in the Pacific Northwest has been 
inadequate to supply the local de- 
mands for pork and pork products, 
is has caused the average price of 



pork to be relatively high and has 
made it necessary to ship a large per- 
centage of the hogs slaughtered and 
bacon consumed from east of the 
Rocky mountains. 

"It Is possible to provide pasture 
for hogs in most of this region during 
much of the year. In most localities 
it is also possible to provide crops 
that may be hogged off during sev- 
eral months of the busy season. The 
crops generally used for this purpose 
are wheat, field peas, corn and bar- 
ley. By supplementing well managed 
pasture with the proper grain rations 
and utilizing the ability of the hog 
to harvest grain crops for himself, 
the average cost of producing pork 
may be materially reduced. These 
conditions offer an opportunity for 
profitable pork production in the Pa- 
cific Northwest on a much larger 
scale than at present practiced." 



TO CONSTRUCT A POULTRY 
HOUSE. 



Department of Agriculture Issues 
New Bulletin That Should Be of 
Interest to Poultrymen. 

Poultry houses may be built more 
open and consequently less expen- 
sively in our Southern States than in 
the North, according to investiga- 
tions of the U. S. Department of Ag- 
riculture. However, a house which 
gives satisfaction in Maine will also 
give good results in Texas or Cali- 
fornia. The best site for a poultry 
house in any location is one where 
good water and air drainage are 
available. The floor and yards will 
then be dry. The house should not 
occupy a low hollow in which cold 
air settles. Wherever possible, a 
southern or southeastern exposure 
should be selected, although this is 
not essential if there is any good 
reason for facing the house in a 
different direction. 

"Poultry House Construction" is the 
title of the Department's new Farm- 
ers' Bulletin (No. 574), in which are 
explained the main features that 
should be considered, and in which 
pictures and plans of satisfactory 
houses are shown. Every poultryman 
who contemplates erecting new poul- 
try buildings is urged to write to the 
Department for this bulletin, which 
will be sent him free on application, 
as long as the Department's supply 
lasts. 

The "Intensive System" and the "Col- 
ony System." 

There are two popular ways in 
which to raise poultry, the "intensive 
system" and the "colony system." The 
first of these aims to save steps, and 
accomplishes this puropse. Long sta- 
tionary houses are used. It is easier, 
however, to keep the birds healthy 
and to reproduce the stock under the 
second system. 

Under the colony system, the birds 
are allowed free range, the houses, 
which hold about 100 hens each, being 
placed from 200 to 250 feet apart, so 
that the stock will not kill the grass. 
This system may be adapted to se* 
vere winter conditions by drawing 
the colony houses together in a con- 
venient place at the beginning of 
winter, thus reducing the labor dur- 
ing the cold months. The first sys- 
tem is more suited for hens used 
solely for the production of market 
eggs than for those used to breed 
stock. 



E. A. SHARP 

Breeder of 

Progressive Royal White Wyandottes 

America's Best Production 

Toppenish, Wn., Apr. 24, 1914. 

Northwestern Produce Company, 

North Yakima, Wash. 
Dear Sirs: 

Please ship us half-ton of the Albers Bros. Progressive Mash Mix- 
ture, one sack of hen grit and two sacks of Developing Food. I am 
going to try and work up a trade of this Albers Bros, goods among the 
local boys here and we may get together and use it exclusively. I am 
satisfied that I am getting better results from it than anything else 
that I have used. 

Yours very truly, 

(Signed) E. A. SHARP. 
This letter was unsolicited 

ALBERS BROS. MILLING CO. 

Tacoma Largest Cereal Millers in the West Seattle 



Raise Pigeons 

They Pay Dollars while 
Chickens pay cents 

The young, 20 to 25 days old, sell for 
40 to 60 cents each (according to the 
season). The city markets are al- 
ways clamoring for them. 

Each pair of Pigeons will raise 

18 to 22 young a year. 
They will clear you, above all expen- 
ses, $5.00 a year per pair. They 
breed the entire year. Twenty min- 
utes daily will care for 100 pairs. 

Always penned up out of the way 

Very small space required. 
All this' is fully explained in this 
month's issue of our Journal; send 
for it; price 10 cts. 

Reliable Squab Journal, Versailles.Mo. 



S. C. Black 



MINORCA 
SALE 



For Particulars write 

BLANCHARD 

Poultry Yards 

C. Westergaard, Mgr. 

Hadlock, Wash. 



THE TRAP NESTED WHITE 
LEGHORNS 

Nine years continued trap-nesting 

PULLETS 



FOUR MONTHS OLD 

THREE MONTHS OLD 

EIGHT WEEKS OLD 

THETANCRED FARMS 

Box 225 Kent/Wash. 



Partridge Plymouth Rocks 

We introduced this breed in the Pa- 
cific Northwest from Michigan 6 years 
ago. Beauty of the Rocks, great lay- 
ers .excellent for meat. Write for 
prices on young stock and eggs. 

MRS. X.. M. HALL 

Puyallup, Wash. 



The Vashon Island strawberry 
Growers give annual strawberry fest- 
ivals inviting the people of Tacoma 
and Seattle to partake of strawberries 
and cream to their heart's content. 

June 20th at Lisabeulla the event 
will be held this year as an expres- 
sion of good will and kindly feeling 
of the Island residents towards their 
city cousins. 



SOUTHWEST WASHINGTON FAIR. 

The Southwest Washington Fair will 
be held between Chehalis and Cen- 
tralia, August 24-29. The premium list 
is available on application to G. R. 
Walker, Sec, Chehalis, Wash. 



DUCKS 

The Best In 
White Runners 

WE ARE NOW OFFERING FOR SALE 

Drakes, Trios & 
Breeding Pens 

Bred from the Best American Strain 

Write for prices and booklet 

E. E. BLOOMFIELD 



Hlllhurst, Wash. 



Box 22D 



EGGS and BABY HICKS 

Leghorns, Wyandottes, Minorcas 
and Barred Rocks. Day Old Chicks' 
Leghorns, Brown, White and Buff, at 
$15.00 per 100. Choice males offered. 
»« EGGS from an y of above breeds, 
$2 per setting or $8 per 100. 

Write for mating list and grit ma- 
chine circular. 

FRED A. JOHNSON 

518 35th St., Tacoma, Wash. 



Rocks 



BARRED WHITE, 
PARTRIDGE and BUFF 



Choice cockerels at $5 each, prize win- 
ning stock, good layers. Eggs $2.50 for 
setting. Special prices on lots. 

MRS. D. P. AIi WARD 
Orting, Wash. 



White P. Rocks 

First old and first young pen, Ta- 
coma Show. Five blues at King Coun- 
ty Fair. My large flock is a leader 
both in standard and prolific quali- 
ties. Write for prices on Eggs and 
Stock. 

WM, SMITH 
Bremerton, Wash. 



ANCONAS — Hardy, vigorous, easy to 
raise, great layers, large white eggs. 
My Anconas lay at 5 months ande are 
prize winners. Hatching eggs, $2 per 13 
or $10 per 100. POULSON'S POULTRY 
YARDS, 7312 22nd Ave. N. W r ., Seattle, 
Wash. 



REGISTERED DTJROC JERSEY SWINE 

— Bred sows and gilts; serviceable 
males and fall pigs; both sexes. E. N. 
Martin, Sunnyside, Wash. 



Please mention this paper 



A blue cross mark (X) opposite 
name on label of this paper indicates 
that renewal is now in order. The 
annual subscription is 50c, or three 
years for $1.00. On the three-year 
term the cost is less than 3 cents per 
copy. Can you afford to miss a single 
number? 

N. W. HORTICULTURIST, 

Box 1604. Tacoma, Wash. 



THE NORTHWEST 



HORTICULTURIST 




Professor 
Blanchard says: 



"The first requisite of a good silo is good lumber." 
What the Professor says is true with emphasis on 
first which implies that there are other requisites. 

"We agree with the Professor and insist that good 
lumber comes first and foremost in the construction of 
a silo. This is why we are very careful to select the 
very choicest logs we can find for silo purposes, and 
after sawing these into staves, they are air-dried for 
six months or more. If you know anything about lum- 
ber, you will know what this means. 
In the final manufacturing operations, this silo stock is carefully 
graded, according to our own strict grading rules always under the 
most rigid inspection, after which it is carefully milled into fine silo 
stock. 



THE 



OUR SILO STOCK IS AIR-DRIED 

Irrespective of the guy lines and other hardware trimmings, the 
Weyerhaeuser Silo is just so much air-dried lumber of a superior grade — 
clear, one-piece fir staves — which can only be secured by purchasing 
the WEYERHAEUSER SILO, complete in one shipment. 

The second important requisite of a good, air-tight silo is a convenient, 
labor-saving, time-saving, door that does not stick and is not lost around 
the farm. THE WEYERHAEUSER DOOR is just this and the small amount 
that it adds to the purchase price is very small indeed. 

The third requisite is a reasonable price for this choice grade of AIR- 
DRIED lumber. Our well known superior advantages and facilities permit 
us to make lower prices than any other concern in the Northwest. 

If you can use a two-piece stave silo — either in the clear high-grade 
fir described above or in our "select" we can name you still lower prices. 
In fact these prices are so low that any farmer feeding ten or more cows 
positively cannot afford to be without a silo. The splines are guaranteed to 
make the stave as rigid as any one-piece stave. 

The scientifically designed and guai-anteed anchorage system, the tested 
steel hoops and lugs, the malleable compound pressure latches and the easy 
swinging doors, the safe tread ladders — extremely valuable as they must be 
to you — add but very little to the price of the silo, as fully nine-tenths of 
the cost of the Weyerhaeuser Silo is in the exceptionally fine quality of 
lumber and the AIR-DRYING process — absolutely essential to a good silo 
and the first requisite, as a silo made from inferior lumber will not last any 
length of time. 

GET IN TOUCH WITH OUR REPRESENTATIVES IN YOUR 
LOCALITY 

They are prepared to give you prices on the size silo you require, 
based on carload freight rates, and can therefore save you money. They 
will also tell you about our easy terms of payment. 

FOB WHATCOM AND SAN JUAN COUNTIES: Boyal Dairy Co., Bel- 
lingham, Wash. 

FOE JEFFERSON AND CLALLAM COUNTIES: G-Iendale Creamery Co., 
Port Townsend, Wash. 

FOB SKAGIT COUNTY: Clear Lake Lumber Co., Mt. Vernon, Wash. 

FOB WESTEBN OREGON AND NORTHERN CALIFORNIA : Booth- 
Kelly Lumber Co., Eugene, Ore. 

Write them for prices based on carload freight rates, if you live in these 
counties. Mr. Robert Burt is our field representative. Address 1009 Western 
Ave., Seattle. 

Weyerhaeuser Lumber Co., Everett, Washington 






AUTO RACES 




Readers driving their cars to Taeoma have the privilege of 
our garage at special rates during the Montamara Festo cele- 
bration. Register or leave your card at the office. We will call 
for or deliver your car on request. 

ALL TIRES SOLD AT WHOLESALE PRICES 

At the speedway road races you will see some fast driving. 
The little Hudson which finished in one hour fifty-one minutes 
and sixteen seconds last year, winning third prize, run against 
much larger cars, will be replaced this year by the PACIFIC 
CAR COMPANY SPECIAL, owned by Terrien & Field, and built 
by the Pacific Car Company complete in their own shops. 

This car is entered for the Chancelor & Lyon trophy, to be 
awarded for the fastest car between Seattle and Portland. Also 
entered for Montamara Festo races, Tacoma, July 3 and 4, and 
at Portland June 13 and 14, excellent showing was made. It is 
also entered for Dominion Day, the last of July. 

Watch for results both in speed and endurance, for the 
Pacific Car Company is constantly a leader with these attain- 
ments in view. 



BIG BARGAINS in 

AUTOMOBILES 

Here are a few bargains in used cars. Ask for special prices 
on others and on trucks. 

One 1912 Chalmers, 5-passenger, self-starter — $975. 

One Franklin, 5-passenger, in Al condition, guaranteed — $800. 

One Franklin, 5-passenger, guaranteed — $750. 

One 3-passenger Ford — $250. 

One 1912 Cadillac, electric lights and self-starter— $1,000. 
The above cars are guaranteed to be just as represented by us. 
Terms if desired. 

REMEMBER THIS IS THE HOUSE OF SERVICE 

Pacific Car Co. 



USED FROM OCEAN TO OCEAN FOR 29 YEARS. 
Sold by Seed Dealers of America. 

Saves Currants, Potatoes. Cabbage, Melons, Flowors, Trees I 
and Shrubs from Insects. Put up In popular packages at popular] 
prices. Write for free pamphlet on Bugs and Blights, etc., to ' 
B. HAMMOND, » - Fishkill-on-Hudson, New York. 



North Second and Q Streets 

(Point Defiance car line) 



TACOMA, WASH 



COLL 




Twenty-seventh Year 



TACOMA AND SEATTLE, WASH., JULY, 1914 



No. 7 



Apple Grading Rules 

Adopted by Leading Shipping Asso- 
ciations. 

Apples will be classified in three 
principal gardes which may be known 
by packers as No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3. 

These gardes to be designated by 
distinct bands for each garde or by 
brands in Blue, Green, etc., or by the 
terms Extra Fancy, Fancy, "C," etc. 

Specifications of each grade are as 
follows: 

Grade No. 1 or Extra Fancy. No 
varieties shall be admitted to this 
grade except those of recognized in- 
trinsic quality. 

Physical Requirements. Apples 
must be properly matured, clean, of 
natural color, shape and condition 
characteristic of the variety, sound, 
smooth and well formed, free from 
insect pests, disease, blemishes and 
injuries; worms, wormholes, stings, 
scale, scab, sun scald, dry or bitter 
rot, decay, fungus, water core, spray 
burn, limb rub, skin punctures or 
skin broken at stem. 

Color Requirements. All red or par- 
tially red varieties must have at least 
76 per cent of good natural red color, 
except Rome Beauty and Gravenstein, 
which shall show at least 50 per cent, 
red color. Banana and Red Cheek 
Pippin must have a distinctly colored 
cheek or blush. Yellow and green 
varieties must show the characteristic 
color of the variety. 

Size Requirements. Apples in this 
grade shall not be smaller than 150 
except the following, which may be 
admitted as small as 163: Graven- 
stein, Grimes, Jonathan, Spitzenburg, 
White Pearmain, Yellow Newtown 
and Winesap. 

Yellow Newtown and Winesap, 
when packed specifically for export, 
may be as small as 200. 
Grade No. 2 or Fancy. All varieties 
may be admitted to this main crop 
grade, with the same physical require- 
ments as grade No. 1, except that 
slight deviation from proper form may 
be admitted, but not when clearly 
mis-hapen. Slight blemishes, such as 
limb rub, scratches and russetting 
may be admitted provided that no 
apple shall show aggregate blemishes 
of over one-half inch in area. 
Color Requirements. Solid Red var- 
ieties must be at least one-third good 
red color. Striped or partially red 
varieties must be at least one-fifth 
good red color; provided that Rome 
Beauty and Gravenstein may be 
packed with a minimum of 10 per 
cent red color if marked "Light — 
Fancy." 

Yellow, Green and blushed varieties 
must show the characteristic color 
of the variety. 

Size Requirements. Apples in this 




Lily of Willowmoor, the world record Ayrshire cow, 22,106 pounds milk 
in one year, owned by J. W. Clise, Willowmoor Farms, Redmond, Wash. 



grade shall not be smaller than 175 
except the following, which may be 
accepted as small as 200 if of color 
requirements of No. 1 grade: Aiken, 
Fameuse, Jeniton, Jonathan, Jefferies, 
King David, Missouri, Mcintosh, Spitz- 
enburg, White Pearmain, Winesap, 
Yellow Newtown. 

Grade No. 3 or "C." This grade 
when used, shall be made up of all 



merchantable apples not included in 
grades 1 and 2. 

Apples shall be well grown speci- 
mens of one variety, reasonably uni- 
form in size, properly matured, practi- 
cally free from dirt, insect pests, 
diseases, bruises and other defects 
except such as are necessarily caused 
in the operation of packing. Apples 
shall not be smaller than 150 size. 




Ensilage This Season 

More ensilage is being fed this sea- 
son in the Northwest than ever be- 
fore and the farmers who have made 
preparation for a good quality find it 
an excellent substitute for the pasture 
now getting short on account of warm 
and dry weather. 

At the Western Washington Experi- 
ment Station, Puyallup, the Crown 
silo was opened about July 1st, the 
oats and vetch had been kept in good 
condition. The corn put into the same 
silo last fall was also in excellent 
shape and relished by the stock. The 
corn, oats and vetch grown and made 
into ensilage in a good silo is one 
of the most valuable demonstartions 
the station could have made for the 
promotion of the dairy industry of 
this section. 

Years ago many silos were erected 
in Western Oregon, but more than 
half of them were failures because 
they were not air-tight. The result 
was lost enthusiasm, a backset to this 
system of peserving the feed. While 
a good silo may cost a little more 
at the beginning than a poorly con- 
structed one, it is the cheaper of the 
two and the only practical one. Had 
the farmers of Oregon built air-tight 
instead of leaky silos in the first 
place their dairy and live stock indus- 
try would have been far more profit- 
able to them than at the present 
time. 

The Experiment Station at Puyal- 
lup will continue to work out the 
problem of feed growing for silage 
purposes, such as the best combina- 
tion of corn, vetch, clover, the pro- 
portions of each and the varieties for 
greatest efficiency in making up ra- 
tions, either for the dairy cow or the 
feeder. 



The berry crops of the Coast valleys of Washington are large and 
find wide markets this season. 



PROSPECTIVE POULTRY INDUS- 
TRY 

There never was a better opportun- 
ity to get started in the poultry in- 
dustry for egg production than the 
present fall. Some good pure bred 
stock is on the market at reason- 
able prices and feed is cheaper than 
for several years past. Eggs will 
not be less next year in price than 
has been the average for the past 
three seasons. 

It is a good time to get into the 
game for those who plan to provide 
all necessary requirements and de- 
tails to make the venture profitable. 
Learn all the rules essential for suc- 
cess and then by experience only can 
the exceptions, about ten to every 
rule, be ascertained. The locality, the 
time and the surrounding conditions 
all figure in the exceptions which 
cannot be taught in rules. The mas- 
tery of all these will pay well for the 
prospective poultry industry from the 
egg producing standpoint looks good. 



_ 



150 

NORTHWEST 

HORTICULTURIST 

Agriculturist and Dairyman. 

O. A. TONNESON, 
Editor and Proprietor. 

Subscriptions 60 Cents per Tear when 

PaM in Advance. Otherwise 75 Cents. 

Six Months, 80c. Three Months, 20o 
in Advance. 

Canadian, other foreign, also when deliv- 
ered y carrier In Tacoma, 75c a year. 

Subscribers will Indicate the time for 
which they wish the paper continued. 

Payments are due one year in advance. 

Address all Communications to the 
Tacoma Office 
■OBTICULTUKIST, Box 1804, Tacoma, 
Wash. 

Office, 511 Chamber of Commerce 
Building-, Tacoma, Wash. 

Seattle Office 

420 Globe Bids-, Constantino Advertising Agency 
Established October, 1887. 
Entered as Second Class Matter at the 
Postofflce at Tacoma, Wash., under Act 
Of March 3, 1879. 

EDITORIAL STAFF CONTRIBUTORS 

Geo. Severance, State College Agri- 
culturist. 
Byron Hunter, Agriculturist. 
W. A. Linklater, Supt. Exp. Sta. 
H. L. Blanchard, Poultry and Dairy. 
J. L. Stahl, Horticulturist. 
S. O. Jayne, Irrigation, Dept. Agr. 
S. B. Nelson, Veterinarian. 



Business with farmers promises to 
be very brisk during the fall months. 



This being a busy month for many 
of our readers, in their harvest fields 
we have condensed to 16 pages for this 
issue. 



Several of our advertisers are offer- 
ing some good opportunities to buy 
dairy cattle. Those interested will 
carefully peruse their offerings. 



When farmers really want adequate 
rural credit facilities on an extensive 
scale they will get together, frame up 
what is required, and then demand 
legal enactment. 



Political rural credit schemes may 
serve theoretically and for entertain- 
ment, but as yet they have not quite 
touched the spot to afford satisfaction 
for the farmer in broad terms. 



UPLAND COAST FARMING. 

Farmers of the upland Coast sec- 
tion are gradually making dairying a 
leading feature of their industry. Lit- 
tle cleared-up tracts of logged-off land 
are producing clover, peas and vetch; 
they have enough orchard to supply 
fruit for home use; some poultry and 
there is a regular income, even 
though small in many cases at first, 
it is a gradual increase and the home 
is made comfortable. While land 
clearing is expensive there are many 
natural advantages on this part of the 
Coast, such as mild climate through- 
out the year, abundance of fuel, veg- 
etables and fruits without fail when 
properly planted and cultivated. In 
many cases while only a small 
amount of money is handled the liv- 
ing and the home have afforded 
health and considerable enjoyment. 
The increase in revenue from produc- 
tivity of the soil is through correct 
methods of dairying, poultry raising, 
in some cases greenhouse products, 
and some of the fruits. Commercial 
pear growing is one of the promising 
experiments. With world-wide mar- 
kets through the canal, the Coast 
fruit growers will find better sale for 
both canned and dried fruits. 



THE NORTHWEST 

COUNTY ADVISORS AND STAND- 
ARDIZATION 

The difficulty with the County ad- 
visors as expressed by some of our 
leading farmers is that the plan under 
which they work does not permit of 
promoting organizations which are 
necessary to standardize the products 
of the district or county. As an ex- 
ample, at the present time strawber- 
ry and raspberry growers don't need 
to be shown how to increase the. 
yield, but it would be money in their 
pockets to be taught how to make a 
standardized by-product out of these 
fruits which cannot be marketed in 
fresh form. 

Dairymen don't need to be shown 
how to grow cow feed, but they 
should have more cow testing asso- 
ciations and the promotion of or- 
ganized efforts for a higher standard 
quality of butter. As an estimate 
one might venture the assertion that 
less than 10% of the butter produced 
in the Northwest would scorn 90 or 
above, perhaps more than 80 per cent, 
falls below 80 as compared with the 
choice rated at 95 points. This and 
next year is the psycological time to 
get dairymen into harmonious con- 
certed activity for a higher standard 
product Without further prelimin- 
ary survey let the county man give 
so much of his services as the law 
will allow, in the foundation work 
for cooperative efforts to obtain 
standardization and high quality of 
product. 



COAST NURSERYMEN'S CONVEN- 
TION 

The twelfth annual meeting of the 
Pacific Coast Association of Nursery- 
men held at Vancouver, B. C, last 
month was well attended by nursery- 
men and horticultural officers. 

The leading position which the nur- 
serymen have taken in the matter of 
inspection and standardization was a 
surprise to some of the government 
officials. Instead of resistance to rules 
and regulations the nurserymen fav- 
orded all measures which are practical 
and in case of reasonable doubt where 
stock is under inspection the nursery- 
men showed a willingness to suffer 
loss rather than to be the cause ot 
any injury to the fruit industries. 

The convention wanted clearly de- 
fined lines in terms and definitions of 
what is clean and what is infected 
stock and a thorough adherence de- 
sired on the part of inspectors to 
adopted rules regulations with fairness 
and justice to both branches of the 
horticultural industry. 

Uniform laws and methods through- 
out all the states and provinces is the 
aim and object for which the coast 
nurserymen are working. Standard, 
ization — a definate system, a definate 
mode of procedure and a definate pro- 
duct is necessary to eliminate needless 
waste and expense and to afford a 
reasonable margin of profit in the nur- 
sery as well as in the fruit or the 
dairy industry and that is the basis 
on which concerted action will be con- 
tinued by the horticultural official and 
nurserymen as a result of this meet- 
ing. 

The British Columbia cousins en- 
tertained most royally and high tri- 
bute was paid to the industry of pro- 
pagating that which brings forth the 
best in fruits and flowers by the lead- 
ing provincial and city officials ot 
British Columbia. All members part- 
icipating were inspired by renewed 
zeal and courage for continued and 
more skillful efforts. 



HORTICULTURIST 

ALFALFA AND CORN GROWING 

Corn growing has become a fixed 
staple with farmers in the irrigated 
districts of the Northwest. The 100 
bushel per acre yield is frequently 
obtained where the land has been in 
alfalfa, for several years. After grow- 
ing corn for a year or more and the 
plan is to crop again with alfalfa seed- 
ing may be done between the rows 
of corn about the last of July but 
the ground in the cornfield should 
be made thoroughly level or there 
will be difficulty in cutting the alfalfa. 



COAST FRUIT MARKETING 

The Puyallup Valley berry growers 
are evaporating red raspberries, black 
berries, and will evaporate some 
pears, prunes and apples. 

The plants have canned a large 
amount of berries and cherries and 
the shipments of fresh fruit to east- 
ern sates were larger than for any 
past season. The markets are con- 
stantly increasing. A high standard 
quality has been the aim in every 
line and pack put on the market. 



FRUIT RATES VIA PANAMA 

The direct water rate through Pan- 
ama from north Pacific coast points 
to New York will be 37% cents per 
100 lbs. for dried fruit and canned 
goods. The apple rates to the eastern 
seaboard and to Europe will be an- 
nounced in a short time. The rate 
by rail on dried and caned goods to 
the eastern or coast points was $1.00 
per 100, while the water rate with 
dock and all other changes will not 
exceed 40 cents per 100 lbs. 



ORGANIZATION FOLLOWED BY 
STANDARDIZATION 

"Standardization is as necessary as 
organization in solving the marketing 
problems of the Northwest fruit men," 
says Professor C. I. Lewis, who has 
labored for eight years in the Agricul- 
tural College and among the growers 
of Oregon to bring about organiza- 
tion. This organization has been ef- 
fected by forming "local associations 
that are affiliated with vast distribut- 
ing associations powerful enough to 
care for the growers' interests. But 
the work of standardization has only 
just begun. 

"We must find out what standards 
are wanted by the trade, and then es- 
tablish them accordingly. When once 
established, they must be rigidly 
maintained, so that dealers and con- 
sumers may know precisely what they 
will get when they put in an order. 
In fact it is only the standards that 
the trade cares anything about, and 
if it could standardize fruit through 
individual growers in sufficient quant- 
ities, it would be satisfied. But or- 
ganization makes the establishment 
and maintenance of standards pos- 
sible and the growers are now in a 
position to proceed with standard 
ization. 



TUBER MOTH AND INSPECTION 

State commissioner A. J. Cook, of 
Sacramento, Calif., has called a 
convention at Stockton, September 8 
and 9 for the purpose of adopting 
measures to control the tuber moth 
infesting potatoes. California pota- 
to growers are being deprived of 
markets from all outside sates. It 
looks as though this will compel Cal- 
ifoinians to inspect their out going 
products as well as those being 
shipped into their state. In this 
particular the Washingtonn laws en- 



force several years ago, but now in- 
adequate, were in the lead of any 
state in the union. 

The last legislature state of Wash- 
ington in attempting to concentrate 
the rural interests so changed the 
horticultural law that it becomes 
inadequate. 

Comissioner Morrison, and his depu- 
ties are seriously handicapped in their 
efforts to clean up infected orchards 
and will request several needed chang- 
es when the law makers are in ses- 
sion again. 



FRUIT GROWERS INTERCROPPING 

On the Lewiston Land and Water 
Company orchard tracts where the 
fruit trees are now in bearing, enter- 
crops are grown this year of alfalfa, 
on some, peas on others and corn 
again on other parts. Both the main 
crop of fruit and the secondary legume 
or corn are doing well according to a 
statement by Prof. W. S. Thornber, 
The corn is the White Windus Dent. 

The tendency among all fruit grow- 
ers of the Pacific Northwest on both 
sides of the mountain ranges is to 
plant fruit trees in orchards farther 
apart and to grow one of the legume 
between the rows, in the irrigated 
district either alfalfa or peas, in the 
coast section, clover, peas or vetch. 
Then at certain interval years rotate 
with corn. By this means the fruit 
grower has a second source of rev- 
enue in case of partial or wholly a 
failure of his fruit, besides the soil 
is being kept in fertility with nitro- 
gen. 



PREPARING FOR APPLE CROPS 

The large shipping associations of 
the Northwest are directing attention 
to the needs of warehouse and cold 
storage plants to handle apples in re- 
frigeration. 

"The boxes used this year in Cash- 
mere district, according to Mr. Sugrue, 
president of the Cashmere Fruit Grow- 
ers Union, are the best that will go 
out from the Northwest. Heavier tops 
and bottoms. Six-penny nails will be 
used instead of five, as heretofore. 
Altogether the shipping will be more 
efficient. The heavier box will arrive 
at market without breaking, or bruis- 
ing the contents." 



WASHINGTON CREAMERY ASSOCI- 
ATION 

The Washington Creameries Associ- 
ation is composed of 50 county cream- 
erymen with office at 1114 Western 
Ave., Seattle, O. C. Van Houten, Mana- 
ger. 

Mr. Van Houten is of the opinion 
that the best weapon with which to 
counteract the importation of butter 
is to raise the average quality of the 
Washington product. 27% cents will 
hardly bring the best of the New Zea- 
land and the highest scoring butter 
of the coast will sell above that figure. 



THE VALLANCE NURSERY 

The C. C. Morse & Co. of San Fran- 
cisco, Calif, have disposed of their 
nursery department to Messrs John 
and James Vallance, who have man- 
aged and conducted the nursery since 
it was started 7 years ago. The new 
firm will be known as the Vallance 
Nursery, Oakland. 

The Vallance brothers have been 
engaged in the nursery business for 
25 years in California and will con 
tinue in the same high class line ot. 
work as has been their custom for 
the many years past 



HORTICULTURIST 151 

TSss Scandinavian American Bank 

OF TACOMA 

With assets of over TWO MILLION DOLLARS 
invites your business 

DO YOUR BANKING BY MAIL 



COFFMAN, DOBSON & CO., BANKERS 

CHEHALIS, WASHINGTON 

Twenty-eight years without change of management, and every demand 
unequivocally paid with Leg-al Tender. 

Distinctly a Farmers' Bank with thousands of farmers for Its cus- 
tomers. 

^^^JJjajj^n^Lo^n^for^AgHcult^ 



EGGS ADVANCING 

And the moulting season is coming on — It is essential that you 
use the very best mash food obtainable. 

Albers Progressive Mash Mixture contains Kaffir Corn 
Meal, Proteina, Oat Meal, Barley Meal, Corn Meal, Bone Meal 
Pea Meal, Wheat Meal, Rolled Oats, Linseed Oil Meal, Charcoal 
Salt and Blood Meal, 

Albers Progressive Scratch Food is different from other 
scratch foods — It contains Kaffir Corn, coarse \ Proteina, Hulled Oats 
Potted Barley, Cracked Corn, Ground Bone, Sunflower Seed, Peas 
and Wheat. 

These two feeds fed with Oyster or Clam Shells and green stuff 
is all a hen requires. 

Albers Progressive Poultry Foods are rich in Hulled 
Oats and Oat Meal. 

ALBERS BROS. MILLING CO. 

TACOMA :: Largest CereallMillers in the West :: SEATTLE 




Mr. John Vallance, Oakland, Calif., 
President Pacific Coast Association of 
Nurserymen, 1914-15. 



PANAMA-PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL 
EGG LAYING CONTEST 

By I. D. Graham, Assistant Chief of 
the Department of Livestock. 

Among all of our domestic animals 
and fowls there is perhaps nothing of 
real worth to humanity that comes 
more closely in contact with men to 
his profit than does the helpful hen. 

Useful for food and as a producer 
of food; able to care for herself and 
yet responding to human attention as 
does few other living things; gather- 
ing of the waste products and destroy- 
ing our insect enimies, the hen is at 
once a conserver and a producer of 
wealth and her daily tribute is an im- 
portant item in our agricultural pros- 
perity. 

The hen is the creator of approx- 
imately six hundred millions of dol- 
lars of new wealth each year in this 
country and is a potent factor in the 
economy of all countries. 

One of the chief features of the 
great poultry show to be held in con- 
nection with the Panama-Pacific Inter- 
national Exposition, as planned by 
Chief D. O. Lively of the Department 
of Live Stock, will be the Internation- 
al Egg Laying Contest which will be- 
gin on November 1, 1914 and con- 
tinue for twelve full months. This 
contest will be conducted by the De- 
partment of Live Stock and under 
the supervision of the Poultry Divi- 
sion of the College of Agriculture of 
the University of California thus giv- 
ing it the most expert supervision as 
well as placing it under a recognized 
authority. 



H. West, Scappoose, Oregon, re- 
turned recently from the British Isl- 
ands with 32 head of Guernsey and 
Jersey cattle. The importation of these 
dairy breeds has been heavy this 
spring. Most of the stock was select- 
ed for leading dairymen near Portland, 
Mr. West retaining but four cows and 
one bull of the Jerseys. 



THOMPSON'S SALE OF HOLSTEINS 

In another column is advertised 
the sale of Holsteins on the Thomp- 
son farm near Mt. Vernon, Wash. 
The offering includes a large list of 
registered stock the breeding records 
of which may be ascertained by 
the pedigrees. 

Auctioneer Geo. A. Gue states: 
The Registered cattle in a large part 
are direct decendants, from the noted 
herds of the Pierce Land & Stock Co., 
of San Francisco, Cal., in fact many 
of the females to be offered, are grand- 



THE NORTHWEST 

daughters of Beryl Wayne Korndyke 
of Riverside; whose sire was Beryl 
Wayne's Paul De Kol, and his dam, 
Belle Korndyke's daughter, the best 
daughter of Belle Korndyke. 

"In talking with Mr. Thompson, rela- 
tive to his sale, he tells me that they 
are an exceptionally fine lot of individ- 
uals, and in compiling the pedigrees, I 
am very well pleased with the lines of 
breeding represented, as some of our 
most note-worthy animals, appear in 
these pedigrees." 

"This would seem to me to be a 
splendid opportunity, for the dairymen, 
who is desirous of laying the founda- 
tion for a registered herd; also for 
the breeder, who wishes to build up 
his herd, with some finely bred young 
cows." 



QUALITY HOLSTEINS WANTED 



Noted Purebreds and High Grade 
Stock Handled by Mr. Royce 

While attending the noted auction 
sale of Holsteins at Chicago in June, 
H. S. Royce, of Tacoma, bought 8 
registered Holsteins ranging in price 
from $300 to $800 each. Included in 
the lot brought home is Lady Reka 
Mooie 4th and her 16 months old 
heifer. She is a daughter of Lady 
Reka Mooie first at Wisconsin sate 
fair last fall and 2nd at national 
Dairy show against 17 aged cows 
competing. Mr. Royce also brought 
home Mutual Piebe de Kol, the nine- 
year old bull, a son of Mooie Mutual 
de Kol. One of his brothers heads 
the herd of Wm. Evers & Sons, 
Lake Mills, Wisconsin. As an indication 
that stock of this class of breeding and 
authenticated records is in demand 
Mr. Royce has made numerous sales 
during the past month. Among them, 
5 high class cows were taken by a 
leading dairyman east of the Cas- 
cades. One of the pure bred bulls 
was shipped by express to a Holstein 
breeder at Milton, Oregon. 

With alfalfa hay and other feed at 
lower prices than for some years past 
the dairy industry will now develope 
more rapidly is the opinion expressed 
by Mr. Royce and he is pleased to 
note from inquiries coming that a 
larger proportion of prospective buy- 
ers than formerly want pure bred 
sires and cows both purebred and 
high grade with good authenticated 
records as that is the proper founda- 
tion for satisfaction to dairymen. 



WESTERN WASHINGTON FAIR 
SPECIALS 

Among the many valuable "Special 
Premiums" offered at The Western 
Washington Fair, Puyallup, Sept. 29 
to Oct. 4, inclusive, are the following. 

By The C. H. Lilly Co., Seattle, one 
Auto-Spray outfit (gasoline power) for 
the largest and best exhibit of tree 
fruits, by individual grower uniformly 
in size and color, and freeness from 
blemish to be particularly considered. 

By Northern Pacific Railway Co., set 
(4 volume) Bailey's Encyclopedia of 
Agiculture, for the largest and best 
School Exhibit, as a whole skill and 
taste in arraignment to be considered 
as well as the exhibits themselves. 

By Shute Incubator Co., Seattle. One 
50-egg, Model A, "Simplicity" Incubat- 
or, for the best essay on incubation. 

For other "Special Premiums" see 
regular Premium List, which may be 
had by addressing J. P. Nevins, Secre- 
tary, Puyallup, Wash. 

OFFICERS PACIFIC COAST NURS- 
ERYMEN 

The retiring President, Richard Lay- 
ritz and his co-workers, Will A. Ellet- 
son, Secretary., Chas. T. Trotter, and 
other members of the executive com- 



THE TRAP NESTED WHITE 
LEGHORNS 

Nine years continued trap-nesting 

PULLETS 

FOUR MONTHS OLD 

THREE MONTHS OLD 

EIGHT WEEKS OLD 

THETANCRED FARMS 

Box 225 Kent.Wash. 



mittee were generously faithful in as- 
sumed duties at the convention. 

Mr. John Vallance, Oakland, Calif., 
was elected president. Executive com- 



S. C. Black 

MINORCA 
SALE 

For Particulars write 

BLANCHARD 

Poultry Yards 

C. Wester gaard, Mgr. 

Hadlock, Wash. 



mittee, D. W. Coolidge, Pasadena; 
John Gill, West Berkeley, and F. H. 
Wilson, Fresno; C. A. Tonneson, Sec- 
retary-Treasurer. 



Field Experiments with Crown Gall 

A Preliminary Report to the Pacific Coast Association of Nurserymen. 

By H. S. Jackson, Plant Pathologist, Oregon Agricultural College. 

On account of the increased appreciation on the part of plant pathologists, 
as well as the orchardists, of the importance of preventing the spread of plant 
diseases through the dissemination of bulbs, cuttings, seeds, nursery stock, etc., 
there has been a growing tendency towards a much more rigid inspection of 
such commodities in recent years than was formerly the case. The reports 
of the results of research work that has disseminated in regard to crown gall 
has led to a better knowledge on the part of growers, so that in general they 
have become more familiar with its appearance as well as the serious nature. 
This has resulted in a strong sentiment on the part of the growers against 
planting diseased stock, and justly so, in view of present information. All 
this has contributed to the result that the nurseryman, who must needs 
destroy all diseased trees has suffered appreciable losses. 

On account of the nature of the diseases it is necessary from the practical 
standpoint to study it with reference to its effects upon each particular crop. 
It is not possible to generalize, since there is a great difference in the degree 
to which the different crops are attacked. It is well recognized, for example, 
that stone fruits are more seriously affected than pome fruits, and that there 
is a greater difference in the amount of infection on certain kinds of stone 
fruits than on others; also that the disease is more important in certain sec- 
tions of the country than in others. 

There has long been a feeling that the disease was not as important on 
apples in the orchard as supposed by some workers. The experiments of 



132 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



Hedgecock as reported in Bulletin No. 186 of the Bureau of Plant Industry 
have indicated that the disease is not in general a very serious orchard 
disease. It is, however, very common in the nursery, and conscientious nur- 
serymen destroy, in many cases, a large percentage of their trees, due to the 
attacks of this disease. On account of this fact, the writer was urged by Mr. 
MacDonald, of the Oregon Nursery Company, to take up an experiment with 
them to demonstrate just what would occur under certain definite conditions. 

Accordingly an experiment was arranged in co-operation with Mr. Mac- 
Donald and the Oregon Nursery Company with the Oregon Experiment Station. 
Under this agreement Mr. MacDonald furnished the land and the Oregon 
Nursery Company the labor necessary to plant and care for the trees, and the 
writer, acting for the Oregon Experiment Station is to take charge of the ex- 
periment and to give a limited amount of time to observations and reports on 
the condition and growth of the trees from time to time. 

The purpose of this experiment is not to question the advisability of pre- 
venting nurserymen from selling infected trees, but rather to get at the facts, 
or, at least, to contribute something definite to our knowledge of just what 
damage occurs in the orchard from planting diseased trees. 

In planning this experiment it was recognized that in order to obtain any 
definite results it would be essential to work with a large number of trees. 
Accordingly arrangements were made with the Oregon Nursery Company to 
save their cull trees for this experiment. It was decided to work with as 
large a number of trees as possible and to plan the work so that the experi- 
ment could be conducted for a period of years, carrying the trees well into the 
bearing period if it later seemed desirable. 

The land donated by Mr. MacDonald was a piece which had been cleared 
a year or two before from a rather dense stand of second growth fir. The land 
had not been previously used for any crop. Due to various delays the first 
planting was not made until very late. The trees, however, had been kept in 
storage and were in good dormant condition. Plantings were made on April 
24th and 25th. The trees were planted in rows seven and one-half feet apart 
and about three feet 7 inches in the row. Alternate rows of healthy and 
diseased stock were planted in each case. The diseased trees were carefully 
sorted as to the kind and degree of infection. Trees affected with hairy root 
were kept by themselves; crown gall trees were sorted into two grades: (a) 
bad, and (b) medium to slight infection, and in some cases a separate grade, 
known as woolly knot was made. This form is in appearance a sort of a com- 
bination between hairy root and crown gall. 

Eighteen varieties of apples were used in the experiment in varying quan- 
tities. The trees were planted 45 to the row, and 48 rows were included in the 
experiment. Over about one-half of the ground additional trees were also tem- 
porarily planted between rows with the idea of taking them up after growing 
them two years. In all 2920 apples were planted from the Oregon Nursery, and 
a few trees were also received from other nurseries, and included in the tem- 
porary planting between the rows. These were, however, not in sufficient 
numbers to make a good experiment. The nurseries contributing the trees 
mentioned above were the Milton Nursery Co., Milton, Oregon; Quaker Nursery 
Co., Salem, Oregon; and the Southern Oregon Nurseries, Yoncalla, Oregon. 

Unfortunately, it was found in the summer of 1913 that a connecting 
switch between the Oregon Electric Railroad and the United Railways, which 
come together near Oronco would necessarily have to pass through the ex- 
perimental plot. Accordingly on September 29, the writer visited the ex- 
periment and removed rows 9 to 17 inclusive, in order to make way for the 
railroad trestle. 

At that time the trees showed that they had made a very good growth, 
but on close observation no appreciable difference between trees which were 
diseased when planted and those which were healthy could be observed. In 
taking up the trees notes were made upon various rows. The following are 
extracts from notes made at that time: 

Row 9, 45 healthy Winter Banana trees. — All trees free from crown gall. 
Good growth on roots and tops in general. Four trees in this row died at the 
roots from causes which could not be determined. 

Three trees died at the top, roots still alive. 

One tree showed no development at top but was still alive. 

Row 10, planted with 45 Winter Banana trees showing medium crown gall. 
These had made good growth, were all alive, both roots and tops. 

No difference in growth could be observed between rows 9 and 10. 

Row 11, 45 healthy Winter Banana trees. 

No hairy roots or galls developed on these trees, but six trees were found 
dead at the root due to causes not known. 
One tree was missing. 

All trees had made very little growth in top or roots, cause not clear. 
Row 12, planted with diseased Winter Banana trees. 
Twenty- five crown gall, slight to medium; 10 with woolly knot; 10 crown 
gall bad. 

Of the twenty-five trees one showed new gall on roots, one tree was dead 
at the top, roots alive, cause not known; one dead at the roots but apparently 
not from any bad case of crown gall, cause not clear. 

Of the ten woolly knot trees it was noted that very little growth had 
been made below the galls; good growth of roots at the end and above. 
There was some new gall tissue. Trees made healthy growth at top. 

Of the ten trees with bad crown gall, two showed new growth of tissue 
on the old galls, some showed development of new galls. All made good root 
growth above the galls, but very little below, good top growth. 

Row 13 was composed of 45 healthy Gano trees. 

Four trees in this row showed slight development of gall-like tissue at 
the ends of the old roots, possibly some of this may have been due to abnormal 
callus; otherwise the roots were healthy, and the trees had made good growth 
at the tops. 

Row 14, planted with 45 Gano trees affected with hairy root. Trees in 
general showed good growth; majority of the old hairy roots were dead. Some 
new hairy root development evident, but in general not as abundant as pre- 




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for price on lumber 



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Folder Bent for 4 cents. 



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Send that material list for delivered price. No 
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Automatic Sprinklers for Irrigating 

Gardeners and fruit growers who have piped their places for overhead 
watering are in need of automatic sprinklers. To those making inquiry 
where this device can be obtained the reply is — "HOHB HAS IT." 

Write for prices. 

1141-43 C Street 
Tacoma, Wash. 



Henry Mohr Hardware Co. 



FRUIT AND POULTRY 

We have facilities to handle quickly and advantageously 
YOUR FRUIT, POULTRY AND EGGS 
We make prompt returns of proceeds on all consignments. We answer 
promptly all inquiries as to market, prices, or of any other nature. 
Twenty years of satisfactory service to growers our best recommendation 
923-5 Railroad Ave. CHAS. UHDEN SPOKANE, WASH. 



IMPORTANT 

To Dairymen and Stock Feeders 

WHEN YOU BUY 

DRIED BEET 
PULP 

BE SURE YOU GET 

LARROWE'S 

— The kind that is light in 
color; never blackened 
or burned. 

Just like roots -it mikes mote milk. 
Horses, Toultry^ Pigs. -;i!>o thire '>n it 

ORDER FROM \0'JP DEALER - 

For feeding insttuction* and information address: 

Larrowe Milling Co., i^E^&'^j! 



X THE "BOSS" ri 

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Is cheap, durable and 
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prevents rabbits from de- 
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sunburn, grasshoppers or dry 
winds. Can be easily remov- 
ed; will last for years. Send 
for samples. 




PRICES 



10 in. long, 
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14 in. 
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18 in. 
24 in. 
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long, 
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Loganberry Plants 

We have a full line of Loganber- 
ries, Mammoth Blackberries. Also 
other varieties of nursery stock and 
will be pleased to have you maka 
your wants known to us. Would 
like ot get someone to act as sales- 
man for us. White for particulars. 

Address 

Albany Nurseries, Inc. 

ALBANY, ORE. 

G. W. Pennebaker, Mgr. 



YUCCA MANUFACTTJBING CO. 
1380 Willow St., Los Angeles, Cal. 



Lewis County Farms 

We make a specialty of Lewis 
County lands. The best for farm- 
ing, dairying and stock raising 
in Western Washington. Well im- 
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120 bu. oats, 35 to 50 bu. wheat 
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schools, $50 to $100 per acre, in- 
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ery. Write for our list. 

ACME REALTY COMPANY 
401 Equitable Bldg, Tacoma, Wn. 



Nursery Stock 

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result therefrom. 

Send for our catalogue. Agents 
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SALEM NURSERY COMPANY 

F. J. Rupert, Mgr. 
8ALEM OREGON 



EGGS and BABY CHICKS 

Leghorns, Wyandottes, M.inorcas. 
md Barred Rocks. Day Old Chicks, 
Leghorns, Brown, White and Buff, at 
$15.00 per 100. Choice males offered. 

EGGS from any of above breeds, 
$2 per setting or $8 per 100. 

Write for mating list and grit ma- 
chine circular. 

FRED A. JOHNSON 

518 35th St., Tacoma, Wash. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



153 



viously. In general, good root growth had been made with some slight ten- 
dency to sprout at the root, particularly at the base. Apparently no new growth 
of galled tissue except one trees which showed some new tissue, but was appar- 
ently a woolly knot type that had become mixed with the others. 

Row 15, planted with 45 healthy Gano trees; showed no gall development. 
Good growth on roots and tops. 

Row 16, planted with 25 diseased trees showing Crown Gall slight to medium 
and 20 with woolly knot. 

These trees showed good top growth, fairly good root growth, but very 
slight development of roots below the galls. 

Row 17, planted with 45 healthy Stayman Winesaps. These trees showed 
no development of galls and in general were in good condition. 

The orchard was again examined on June 13, 1914. In the meantime the 
trees had been heavily and uniformly cut back. The new growth was, in gen- 
eral vigorous, and no difference could at this time be noted between healthy 
rows and diseased rows of trees. In all the remaining planting there was found 
to be 47 trees which had died. Many of these had died from the top. 

The writer found no correlation between the number of dead trees and 
their condition when planted, but in one case found the difference was in favor 
of the diseased trees, since 8 trees were found missing in one row of healthy 
Winter Bananas, and only 1 tree missing in a row which when planted was dis- 
eased. Other causes, however, may have accounted for this trouble since these 
trees were in the vicinity of the trestle work and might have been injured at 
that time as the construction work was in progress. 

It is evident that it is too early to attempt to draw any conclusions from 
this experiment at the present time, but it is hoped that more definite data 
may be obtained within another year. It is the plan at the present, to take up 
half the orchard during the fall of 1914 and carefully examine the condition 
of the roots and top. The orchard is so planted that equal number of both 
healthy and diseased trees can be taken up leaving the trees on a square 7y 2 
feet apart. It is planned to take up the trees as they become crowded in growth 
and note the relative root development. 

Suggested Experiments. 

Beside the type of experimental work as indicated in the above report 
there are several suggested lines of field work with crown gall that it would be 
advisable to take up as opportunity offers. Obviously the solution of a problem 
of this sort would be the obtaining by selection or otherwise of resisant vari- 
eties. Since practically all of the serious trouble with crown gall on trees oc- 
curs below the surface it is obvious that the search for disease resistant stocks 
is the logical method of attacking the problem along this line. The writer un- 
derstands that Prof. 0. O. Smith, of the University of California, located at 
the Whittier Station is investigating the disease resistance of various species 
and varieties of stone fruits in an effort to find a stock which may be to a large 
degree resistnat to crown gall. It is reported that his results so far obtained 
give promise of culminating in something of great practical value. 

It has already been shown by Hedgecock and others that there is a great 
difference in the susceptbility of different varieties of grape to Crown Gall, and 
that in sections where Crown Gall is serious on the grape very great beneficial 
results have been obtained by using stocks which are relatively resistant. 
Results of this work have been reported in U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
Bureau of Plant Industry Bulletin 183, and in New Mexico Experiment Station 
Bulletin No. 85. 

It is possible that something in the same line might be attempted with 
pome fruits in an effort to find stocks that are more resistant than those which 
are in use at the present time. 

Experimentation looking towards the best methods of preventing infection 
in seedlings would be a profitable line of investigation, inasmuch as it has 
been shown that the larger part of the infection in nurseries begins in the 
seedlings. 

Experiments in the treatment of seedlings planted for budding purposes 
might be conducted in an effort to determine whether the amount of the disease 
could be reduced in this way. It is also believed that a study of methods em- 
ployed in nursery practice at present should be conducted in an effort to deter- 
mine if there are any methods by which the amount of Crown Gall and Hairy 
Root could be reduced. 

Experiments looking toward the best cure for diseased trees would lead 
to valuable data. It is possible, also that methods might be devised by which 
the diseased trees could be treated in some way, that would render them suit- 
able for planting. 



AGRICULTURE 



The Basis of 
Prosperity 



TILE FOR DRAINAGE. 



Cement Disintegrates in Acid Soils. 

Last fall I hauled up forty odd 
loads of sand; ordered a tile making 
machine on ten days option and got 
ready to put in a mile of cement 
tile. However, just before my ten 
days option had expired, I found 
that cement tile went to pieces on 
my neighbors' farmers, and so ship- 
ped the machine back. Being of 
interest to farmers generally I will 
give a history of the matter up to 



date with added information as it 
comes to hand. 

Cement tile, being alkaline, is dis- 
solved by acids. I have dissolved 
one in five minutes with muriatic 
acid; over night in vinegar; in three 
months in a peat soil. It is well 
known that silos either solid or 
plastered with cement, need to be 
re-coated every time the silo is filled, 
as the acid generated by the ensilage 
eats away the cement. 

The Litmus Paper Test. 

Before laying any cement tiling a 
farmer should get a nickle's worth 




NORTHERN 
PACIFIC RY. 

Is selling daily to Septem- 
ber 30 

EXCURSION 
TICKETS 
EAST 

Low fare to any Eastern 
point. Stop-overs given. Re- 
turn up to Oct. 31. 

Daily Through Trains 

From Pacific Northwest 
TWO TO CHICAGO via MIN- 
NEAPOLIS-ST. PAUL 
ONE TO ST. LOUIS 

Our usual high class ser- 
vice, with Northern Pacific 
Superior Dining Service. 

Yellowstone Park 

Season to September 15 




Tickets and all information 
C. B. Foster, City Pass. Agt. 
925 Pacific Av., Tacoma, Wn. 

A. D. Charlton, A. G. P. A., 
Portland, Oregon 



of blue litmus paper at the drug store 
and test his soil. If there be acid 
in the soil it will turn blue litmus 
paper red— AND CEMENT TILE 
WILL GO TO PIECES! In some 
parts of Whatcom county the soil is 
sweet, and cement tile lasts. But in 




Walnuts 

in the 

Yakima Valley 

Mr. J. B. Elliott, of North Yaki- 
ma, Wash., writes us: 

"I have six walnut trees eight 
years old which have borne a fine 
^rop of nuts for the past two 
years. When these trees were two 
years old the temperature dropped 
to 20 degrees below zero, killing 
peach trees at my place, but the 
walnut trees came through unin- 
jured. If I had the land, I would 
plant a commercial walnut orch- 
ard, as I believe the walnut is 
going to be a winner in this val- 
ley." The essential feature in a 
successful walnut is hardiness, 
size, quality of meat and regular 
annual bearing tendencies. All of 
these characteristics are found in 
the VROOMAN PURE STRAIN 
FRANQUETTE, unquestionably 
the leading walnut for the North- 
west. Are profitable for nuts, or 
useful as shade trees. Write to- 
day for our free, handsome, illus- 
trated booklet .giving full and re- 
liable walnut information. 

OREGON NURSERY CO. 

Orenco, Oregon 

Competent salesmen wanted. 



154 

my neighborhood all soils are sour. 
Peat is of course the worst, some- 
times eating up cement tiles in three 
months — how much sooner we do not 
know, as they were not dug up (or 
rather dug "for") until three months 
had passed. At that time there was 
nothing left except a streak of sand. 
In clay they last six months to two 
years. 

Even in gravel they go to pieces. 
In one case there could have been no 
seepage of peat water, as the tiles 
were laid just below a gravelly knoll 
— lasting only a year. 

Can Anything be Done? 

At my request the State University 
took the matter up, sending up Dr. H. 
K. Benson. After a thorough investi- 
gation we all agreed that the acidity 
of the soil was the cause of the 
trouble. 

Next several cement companies 
sent up an expert. He dug up half 
dissolved cement tiles; took samples 
of the soil for chemical analysis and 
reported his findings. 

Finally the State University and 
Mr. A. F. Krabbe, of the Bellingham 
(Balfour) Portland Cement Co. ar- 
ranged for a series of formulas, seven 
in all I believe were agreed on. 
There were different sorts of cement; 
also various ingredients, as stearic 
(waterproofing) acid; oiling; cover- 
ing with naptha, etc. These seven 
sorts of ceemnt tile will be marked 
by fastening a brass tag to each tile; 
then laying them in peat in order 
No. 1; No. 2; No. 3; and so on; then 
beginnng with No. 1. and repeating. 
2,000 feet of such tile have been made 
and will soon be laid. 

The aim is to find something that 
will last and still be cheap. 

Mr. Jones, of Seattle, hearing of 
our experiment, has sent me some 
conduit piping, made of paper pulp 
saturated with naptha. This also 
will be laid with the cement tile and 
tested out. 

It will probably be a year or more 
before the final report will be made; 
but it is safe for farmers to test 
their soils and NOT use cement tile 
when the wet soil turns blue litmus 
paper red. 

Why Use Cement Tile. 

There have hitherto been two rea- 
sons urged for using cement tile: — 

1. It is POROUS, letting water 
THROUGH THE TILE as well as 
through the joints between the tiles. 

2. Cement tile can be made at 
home, saving the hauling and so 
made is much cheaper than clay tile. 

Here on the Coast. 

As to the first reason it is void, 
for all cement manufacturers advise 
making a 1:3 mixture, which when 
rightly made is practically imper- 
vious to moisture. A 1:4 mixture, 
when made fairly dry, will permit 
water to run THROUGH the body of 
the tile; but such tile goes to pieces 
very quickly in a moderately acid 
soil. In the proposed trials there 
will be no 1:4 mixture used . 

Exorbitant Price for Clay Tile on 
Puget Sound. 

Regarding the second point, cheap- 
ness, we are still at sea, as we do 
not know just what the various mix- 
tures will cost; but we do know that 
clay tile, here on Puget Sound is 
wholly out of keeping with prices 
in the East. 

In Iowa, Illinois, Minnesota the 
price of 3" clay tile is usually $2 
above the price of brick. That is if 
rick is $10 then 3" clay tile will 
robably be $12. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



It is this RELATION to which I 
wish to call attention. Labor is bet- 
ter paid here than in the East and 
we who are not acquainted with the 
details of the business are not in a 
position to determine the cost; but 
what I have never yet had explained 
to me is why there should be MORE 
DIFFERENCE between brick and tile 
here than there. 

Here brick is about the same as in 
Iowa. In Bellingham we can get 
brick for $10 just as we did at Cedar 
Rapids, Iowa. 

There 3" clay tile was $12— here it 
is $27! 

I have talked with quite a number 
of manufacturers about this point. 
They always get away from the 
point of RELATIVE PRICE. They 
talk about wages and space and 
sundry costs ALL OF WHICH ARE 
WHOLLY BESIDE THE POINT! 

A 3" tile is no bigger in Washing- 
ton than in Iowa. Presumably a 
Washington man will make as many 
brick and as many tile in a day as 
will an Iowa workman. 

Then why a difference between 
brick and 3" tile of $2 in Iowa with 
a difference of $17 in Washington. 
$42.50 Per 1,000 for 4" Tile. 

This is the local price. Buying 
in carload lots (and standing all 
breakages) one can get lower figures. 

Those tile are not well made. 
Very many are broken at the ends; 
are rough at the ends (stopping the 
flow of water) and are not specially 
hard burned. $32.50 in car lots is 
the best I had for a long time, (this 
firm would give a written guarantee 
to RELAY any tile going to pieces 
within five years). Finally I had 
an offer of $27.00 for 4" tile. But 
this is still out of all reason. 
Need of Tiling. 

Here in Whatcom county we have 
the latest spring of any county on 
Puget Sound, being the farthest 
north. In order to get crops harvest- 
ed before fall rains we need to get 
them started as early as possible. 
So that in addition to the usual 
reasons (greater root development, 
evenness of tilage, etc.) which influ- 
ence other sections we have this 
above all others — to beat the fall 
rains. 

Miles upon miles of cement tile 
have been laid — and much of it has 
gone to pieces — all of it where soils 
are acid. 

Individual farmers will have to lay 
3 miles to ten miles each; just as 
soon as they can get good tile at a 
fair price. 

$20 for 4" Tile. 

I have yet to see any reason why 
good 4" tile cannot be sold at a 
profit for $20 per 1,000 ft. Consider- 
ing the vast demand for tile it should 
be furnished at this figure and stil 
leave a fair profit for the manu- 
facturer. 

There is consideable talk of a co- 
operative tile factory here in What- 
com county. All that is necessary is 
a man to spend a little time getting 
farmers together, through the Grange 
or otherwise. 

The paper-naphta tiling has the 
very great advantage that there will 
be no breakage (buying clay tile by 
the car load one has no assurance 
as to what he is getting, as he has 
to stand all broken tile) ; and also 
that the paper-naphtha tile is very 
light — about one pound per foot for 
3" tile. 

It has not been tested as tiling, 
but has stood well for sewers. 



Alpha Gasoline Engines 



Sizes from 

2 to 
WO H. P. 



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Portable 
or 

Stationary 



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THE ALPHA GAS ENGINE doesn't need a skilled mechanic. It is 
so well built that it plugs right along like a steady well-broken horse. 

THE ALPHA IS A GOOD ENGINE for any purpose, and because there 
is no mystery in either its construction or operation, it is an ideal engine 
for ranch use. 

IT ISN'T BUILT OF ROUGH castings and bolted together. It is made 
from the best of material, and the workmanship and design are high grade 
in every particular. 

THE ALPHA ENGINE STARTS AND RUNS on a slow-speed, high- 
grade, built-in magneto, which is a big item as it means no batteries, no 
coils, no trouble. 

Every rancher needs an "Alpha." 

Write for new illustrated Alpha Catalog A. 

De Laval Dairy Supply Company 



165 BROADWAY 



101 DRUMM STREET 



1016 WESTERN AVENUE 



NEW YORK SAN FRANCISCO SEATTLE 

We Manufacture the Ideal Green Feed Silo 



Milton Nursery Co. 

A. MILLER & SONS, INC.— MILTON, OREGON 

Pear, Cherry, Apple, Prune and Peach 

Full Line Shade and Ornamental Stock 

Quality in Nursery stock is a condition, not a theory; it is something 
we put into our trees, not say about them. Thirty-five years' experience 
enables us to do this. 

A Catalog and Special 

Salesmen wanted. Prices on Request. 



BIG BARGAINS in 

AUTOMOBILES 

Here are a few bargains in used cars. Ask for special prices 
on others and on trucks. 

One 1912 Chalmers, 5-passenger, self-starter — $975. 

One Franklin, 5-passenger, in Al condition, guaranteed — $800. 

One Franklin, 5-passenger, guaranteed — $750. 

One 3-passenger Ford — $250. 

One 1912 Cadillac, electric lights and self-starter — $1,000. 
The above cars are guaranteed to be just as represented by us. 
Terms if desired. 

OVERLAND • PACKARD • HUIS0N New cars and supplies complete always on hand. 

Pacific Car Co. 

North Second and Q Streets 

(Point Defiance car line) 



REMEMBER THIS IS THE 
HOUSE OF SERVICE 

TACOMA, WASH. 



WALTER BOW EN & CO., inc. 

WHOLESALE COMMISSION, FRUITS AND PRODUCE 

Phone: Main 59. SEATTLE, WASH. 1111 Western Ave. 

Goods handled strictly on commission. Prompt returns our specialty. 
Wire or write us at any time for market quotations. 

References: National Bank of Commerce, Seattle; Merc. Agencies; Ship- 
pers on Pacific Coast. 

WE CAW SELL TOUK GOODS 




TRADE MM 1 * 



USED FROM OCEAN TO OCEAN FOR 29 YEARS. 
Sold by Seed Dealers of America. 

Saves Currants, Potatoes. Cabbage, Melons, Flowers, Trees 
and Shrubs from Insects. Put up in popular packages at popular 

prices. Write for free pamphlet on Bues and Blights, etc., to 

B. HAMMOND, « - Fislikill-on-Hudson, New York. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



155 



Who Knows? 

It will be a year or possibly more 
before we know the cost of cement 
tile that will stand up in our acid 
soils. Meanwhile who knows exactly 
what clay tile should cost? I do not 
profess to know anything beyond this 
fact — that in Iowa 3" clay tiling com- 
monly sold for $2 more than the 
price of brick at the same plant. Will 
some of our Puget Sound manufac- 
turers explain why 3" clay tile costs 
$17 to $20 more than brick here on 
the coast? 

There is a $1,500 machine that 
will dig 60 to 100 rods of brick a 
day BETTER THAN CAN POSSIBLY 
BE DONE BY HAND. All we now 
need is a fair priced tile; either acid 
proofed cement, or clay. Can any 
reader of the N.-W. HORTICULTUR- 
IST furnish the needed data. 

W. H. KAUFMAN. 

Bellingham, Wash. 



ADVANTAGES OF THE COUNTY 
AGRICULTURIST 



Byron Hunter, Vice Director, Washing- 
ton Bureau of Farm Development. 

The employment of an experienced, 
practical and scientifically trained 

man who devotes his entire time to 
improvement of agriculture within a 
county has now become a national 
movement. Practically every state in 
the Union has adopted the plan and 
Congress has affixed its stamp of ap- 
proval by the passage of the Smith- 
Lever Bill, the funds from which will 
be available July 1st, 1914, to assist 
the states in this work. At the last 
session of our own legislature the im- 
portance of this movement was re- 
cognized by the passage of a law 
authorizing the county commissioners 
of each county to employ a county 
agriculturist. 

Speaking generally the following 
are some of the benefits that a coun- 
ty may derive from the services of a 
competent man in this work: 

1. During recent years important 
agricultural information has been 
worked out by the various State Ex- 
periment Stations and the U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture that, if prop- 
erly put into farm practice, would re- 
sult in a large financial gain. Much 
of this information never reaches the 
farm in an effective way. 

The application of known principles 
and information to the improvement 
of the agriculture of a county may 
be illustrated by a few of the things 
the county men are doing: Dairying 
is the leading feature of the agricul- 
ture of Wahkiakum County. When 
the County Agriculturist was employ- 
ed less than a half dozen dairymen 
were making systematic effort to 
determine which of their cows were 
profitable and which were unprofit- 
able. A campaign to improve the 
dairy industry was started immediate- 
ly. This included weighing and test- 
ing the milk from the individual cow, 
the use of better sires, and the feed- 
ing of more nearly balanced and econ- 
omical rations. Through the cooper- 
ation of 54 dairymen the milk from 
740 cows is being weighed and tested 
and 15 registered sires have been 
placed at the head of as many herds 
where scrub sires were used before. 

Spokane County, it is estimated, has 
$30,000,000 invested in the apple in- 
dustry. Last year only 25 carloads 
of extra fancy apples were marketed 
in this County. Approximately 80% 
of the apple crop was affected with 



scab. This disease can be controlled 
by proper spray methods, and the 
County Agriculturist, upon assuming 
his duties, immediately started a cam- 
paign for clean fruit of proper size. 
He is receiving the hearty coopera- 
tion of the growers. 

In Walla Walla County one of the 
most serious pests with which the 
orchardists have to contend is the 
codling moth. To teach the growers 
the nature of this pest in all of its 
stages (the moth, the egg, the worm, 
the pupa) and how to ascertain the 
proper times for spraying, the County 
Agriculturist is rearing moths in 9 
cages located in different parts of the 
county. The records of these cages 
give very accurately the dates upon 
which the spraying should be done. 
The growers are spraying far more 
carefully this season than ever before, 

Wherever it seems advisable farm 
demonstrations along such lines as 
better tillage methods, more economi- 
cal feeding of stock, the growing of 
some crop, or the pruning and spray- 
ing of trees, are arranged in various 
parts of the county as neighborhood 
lessons. When possible the people 
are gathered together in groups to 
consider these demonstrations instead 
of dealing with the individual. 

2. In a state so varied as this the 
agricultural problems of the different 
counties vary widely. The county 
agriculturist soon gains a knowledge 
of the local problems, the best farm 
methods and practices, and the view- 
point of the leading farmers. With 
such knowledge at hand he can ren- 
der a very important service to his 
county by carrying such information 
to the State College and Experiment 
Station and the State and National 
Departments of Agriculture. In this 
way those investigational agencies 
are made acquainted with the situa- 
tion without delay. In the brief time 
that the county men have been oper- 
ating in this state many local prob- 
lems have been reported to the State 
College and specialists have been sent 
out to investigate and assist the 
county men in the solution of the 
same. 

3. In nearly every county it will 
usally be found that most of the seri- 
ous agricultural problems have been 
solved very satisfactorily by several 
of the best farmers. The county man 
profits by the years of experience of 
these men. He studies the methods 
and practices of the leading dairy- 
men, poultrymen, market gardeners, 
fruit growers, etc., analyzes the cause 
of their success, and then carries this 
information from farm to farm. He 
secures the assistance of these men 
in conducting farmers' meetings 
throughout the county, for there is no 
better way of teaching the scientific 
truth or method than by calling atten- 
tion to someone who is successfully 
piacticing it. 



FAIR DATES 

Southwest Washington — Centralia- 
Chehalis, G. R. Walker, Secretary, 
Aug. 24-29. 

Vancouver, B. C— H. S. Rolston, 
Secretary. Sept. 3-12. 

Vancouver, Wash. — Geo. P. Larsen, 
Secretary. Sept. 7-12. 

Interstate Fair, Spokane, Wash. — 
Robert H. Cosgrove, Mgr., Sept. 12-20. 

Walla Walla, Wash. — Robert H. 
Johnson, Secretary, Sept. 14-19. 

Washington State Fair, North Yaki- 
ma, Wash. — Sept. 21-27. 

Helena, Mont. — A. J. Breitenstein, 



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With or Without Buzz Saw Attachment 

Will saw 20 to 40 cords of wood per day at a cos 
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SOLI MANUFACTURERS PORTLAND, OREGON 




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We handle all kinds of farm products, making- channels between producer and 
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papers 



156 

Secretary, Sept. 21-27. 

Victoria, B. C— Geo. Sangster Mgr., 
Sept. 21-27. 

Oregon State Fair, Salem, Ore. — 

Frank Meredith, Secretary, Sept. 28 to 
Oct. 3. 

New Westminister, B. C— D. E. 

MacKenzie, Sept. 28-Oct. 3. 

Salt Lake City, Utah— Horace S. 
Ensign, Secretary, Oct. 5-12. 

Olympic Peninsula Fair, Port Town- 
send, Wash.— Arch C. Tweddie, Secre- 
tary, Sept. 10-12. 

Western Washington, Puyallup — J. 
P. Nevins, Secretary, Sept. 29-Oct. 4. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



RULES FOR BORROWING MONEY 

Three rules designed to convince 
farmers that there is no magic about 
credit are set down in Farmers' Bul- 
letin 593 "How to Use Farm Credit," 
which the United States Department 
of Argriculture has just published. 
Unless the farmer who is thinking ot 
borrowing money fully understands 
these rules and is willing to be guid- 
ed by them, the Government's advice 
to him is: don't. As it is, there are 
probably almost as many farmers in 
this country who are suffering from 
too much as from too little credit. 

1. Make sure that the purpose for 
which the borrowed money is to be 
used will produce a return greater 
than needed to pay the debt. 

2. The length of time the debt is to 
run should have a close relation to 
the productive life of the improve- 
ment for which the money is bor- 
rowed. 

3. Provision should be made in 
long-time loans for the gradual re- 
duction of the principal. 

The first rule is of course the key 
to the wise upse of credit. Between 
borrowing money to spend on one's 
self and borrowing money to buy 
equipment of some sort with which 
to make more money there is all the 
difference between folly and foresight, 
extravagance and thrift. If the mon- 
ey is borrowed for a wise purpose it 
will then produce enough to pay back 
principal and interest and leave a 
fair margin of profit for the borrower 
into the bargain. If it is borrowed 
for a foolish purpose it will produce 
nothing and consequently there will 
be nothing with which to repay the 
loan. 



COMBINING PERSONAL CREDIT 

The exact principal which has made 
the cooperative credit systems in Eu- 
rope successful is being applied by 
a group of farmers and bankers in 
Montana and Wyoming. The farmers 
needed dairy cows, but no individual 
could go east and buy them. The 
banks had money and wanted to en- 
courage dairying. The farmers organ- 
ized, pledging the personal credit of 
each member, up to $5000, to buy 
dairy cows, no matter whether each 
member actually received cows or not. 
The bank advanced the money, the 
cows were shipped in and distributed 
and the dairy industry started on a 
firm basis. Combining personal credit 
turned the trick. 



TRAFFIC LAWS, AVOID TROUBLE. 

Revised Edition of the Standard Oil's 
"Traffic Regulations" Ready for 
Distribution. 

For the convenience of the motor- 
ing public, the traffic laws applying to 
motor cars in the chief cities and 
towns on the Pacific Coast are set 
forth in condensed form in a neat 
booklet just issued by the Standard 



Oil Company under the title "Traffic 
Regulations." It is a revised edition 
of the popular "Traffic Regulations" 
compiled and distributed by the Oil 
Company last fall. Since then the 
changes in state laws and local regu- 
lations have come, and to note such 
changes the booklet has been revised 
and enlarged. Traffic laws of the 
principal cities in the Coast states are 
so nearly uniform that in a majority 
of cases a general code serves. This 
has been compiled for the Standard 
Oil Booklet. However, it is the excep- 
tions that often bring trouble to the 
touring motorist, and in "Traffic Regu- 
lations" special effort has been made 
to supply motorists with data of 
this nature. All the matter it con- 
tains regarding laws and regulations 
applying to traffic is a careful com- 
pilation from authoritative records. 
The Standard Oil Company will for- 
ward "Traffic Regulations" without 
charge on application. 



ROAD TAX QUESTION 



Initiative No. 10 of Seven Sister's. 

By H. O. Fishback. 

As a farmer and tax payer H. O. 
Fishback expresses his opinion in the 
Bee-Nugget that the proposed meas- 
ure No. 10 of what is known as seven 
sisters should not be supported by 
the tax paying farmer. He states: It 
has been demonstated that convict 
labor on the roads is expensive labor, 
and while I believe it is all right to 
use it under certain conditions and 
for certain places, I believe the pro- 
visions of this measure are entirely 
too broad. Under the provisions of 
this bill, there will be no convicts 
left to operate the jute mill, which 
has been installed at the state peni- 
tentiary at a very great expense, and 
the products of which act as a regu- 
lator of prices for the vast number 
of sacks which are being used by the 
farmers of eastern Washington. This 
I believe would be very unwise. 
Would Increase Burden for Farmers. 

The farmers of Western Washing- 
ton and I presume the same applies 
to eastern Washington, at the pre- 
sent time are paying a road district 
tax of anywhere from five to ten 
mills, many of them the latter figure, 
and in addition are paying the county 
road and bridge tax of something like 
four mills to keep up the roads in 
their own county. Many, and I think 
the majority, of people living in in- 
corporated cities are willing to pay a 
state road levy of at least two mills to 
be used in the improvement and up- 
keep of the country roads, and when 
it is taken into consideration that 
about two-thirds of the valuation of 
state property is located in incorpor- 
ated cities,, it is easy to determine 
that for every $2.00 paid in by the 
residents of the country on the state 
road levy the residents and property 
owners of incorporated cities are pay- 
ing in the same fund $4.00 to be ap- 
plied on the country roads. 

With this fact clearly staring us In 
the face, I cannot understand why 
any farmer can for one minute feel 
that he could give any support what- 
ever to Initiative measure No. 10, in 
other words voting upon himself a 
tax of 14% mills and getting almost 
nothing from the tax from incorpor- 
ated cities, whereas, by permitting 
the legislature to use its own discre- 
tion and levy a tax of iy 2 mills we 
would get the benefit of a very con- 
siderable amount for our roads by 
paying only a comperatively small 



Run Your Car 
Economically 

Many engine troubles and the resulting delays and 
repair costs can be avoided by the use of a suitable 
lubricating oil. True economy lies in the use of a high 
grade oil which gives perfect lubrication and assists the 
engine to do its work regularly and efficiently. 




THE STANDARD OIL 
FOR MOTOR CARS 

is the best auto oil the Standard Oil Company 

can make; produced by experts and proved by suc- 
cessful service in thousands of cars of all types. Its 
perfect lubrication keeps the motor cool — allows it to 
deliver full power and cuts repair charges to a minimum. 

Dealers everywhere. Ask 
our nearest agency about de- 
livery in bulk. 

Standard Oil 
Company 

(CALIFORNIA) 




BEAUTY IS WEALTH 

THAT WELL PLANTED HOME GROUNDS ABE WORTH SEVERAL 
TIMES THE COST IS A FACT THAT EVERYONE KNOWS. XT IS TO 
YOUR DISCREDIT AND ABSOLUTE LOSS IF YOU DO NOT MAKE 
YOUB PLACE ATTB ACTIVE, AS ITS VALUE IS THEBEBY GREATLY 
INCREASED. 

High grade fruit trees, roses, shrubbery, etc. 

Fine two-year-old rose bushes delivered anywhere, prepaid, at bargain 
prices. Write for list. 

MITCHELL NURSERY COMPANY 

Larchmont, Tacoma — 5 cent fare 

On Auto Road to prairies and Mt. Tacoma. South 96th and Pacific Ave. 



Quaker Trees 



FRUITS 
ORNAMENTALS 
SHRUBS 



A Fine Stock of Apples, Pears, Peaches, Plums, Prunes, Apricots and 
Small Fruits. 

It Is a good year to increase the ornamental planting. Thousands 
will come to the Pacific Coast seeking homes during the next few years. 
Do you wish to sell any part of your land, or your home place, or do you 
wish to encourage settlers who have some degree of taste and refine- 
ment? Then adorn your home with some ornamental plants, shruhs and 
trees. The cost is trifling compared with the actual value which may be 
derived. Our catalog contains valuable suggestions. 

Write for catalog and price list today. State your requirements. 

QUAKER NURSERIES 



Good Agents Wanted. 



C. F. LANSING, Prop. 



SALEM, OREGON 



Pumps and Pumping Plants Complete 

Write us about Pneumatic Water System. Positive 
satisfaction is tlie reputation we maintain. 

Poole's Seed & Implement Co. 



1507-9 Pacific Ave. 



TACOMA, WASH. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



157 



additional amount ourselves. 

Why any farmer will sign a petition 
for or vote for a measure of this 
character, I cannot understand. To 
me it is equivalent to saying to our 
friends and neighbors living in the 
incorporated cities: "Yes, we invite 
you to come to the country and dis- 
troy our roads," but when they in 
turn say, "We accept your invitation, 
but we want the privilege of help- 
ing to pay for the roads we are help- 
ing to destroy," we in turn reply, 
"No! No! we cannot allow you to 
do that, we insist upon paying the bill 
ourselves." 

If we support this measure, then do 



not complain when some of our city 
neighbors go by in their heavy autos 
at a rapid rate of speed and tear the 
road to pieces that we have paid for. 

Think of this matter seriously, my 
fellow farmer, and decide whether at 
a great expense you want to help ini- 
tiate a measure which is against your 
own best interests. Remember that 
once the measure is written on the 
statute books by means of the initia- 
tive, it can be repealed or amended 
only in the same way. No measure 
should be passed by means of the ini- 
tiative without very careful and seri- 
ous consideration on the part of each 
and every citizen. 





Adequate, available moisture 


IRRIGATION 


at all seasons. 



International Irrigation Congress 



The first International Irrigation 
Congress to he held outside the Unit- 
ed States is occasioning a great deal 
of interest among irrigationists all 
over the United States and Canada. 
This convention will be held in Cal- 
gary, Oct. 5 to 9, next, and according 
to L. Newman, of Montana, a mem- 
ber of the board of governors, it will 
be a congress of world-wide import- 
ance, and will break all previous re- 
cords. 

' Canadians are fully alive to the im- 
portance of the congress, and are 
planning to royally entertain the vis- 
itors and delegates while they are in 
Canada, as well as to provide for 
them a program of real educational 
value. The program committee is 
making preparation for the attendance 
of all the best authorities on irriga- 
tion from the United States and Can- 
ada, while delegates will be present 
from all foreign countries where irri- 
gation is well developed. 

One of the principal speakers ex- 
pected at this meeting will be Hon. 
A. A. Jones, assistant secretary of 
the Interior of the United States. 
His word on irrigation problems is 
above controversy, as he has been 
largely instrumental in the satisfac- 
tory adjustment of many of the ser- 
ious problems affecting the prosper- 
ity and welfare of the pioneer irriga- 
tionalitsts in his country. 

One section of the program will be 
devoted to community upbuilding in 
the irrigation and rural districts, as it 
is recognized that farm life should be 
made more attractive to the young 
people. This is a subject in which in- 
terest will be taken by those attend- 
ing the congress in Calgary. 

More than $700,000,000 has been 
spent on reclamation and irrigation 
work on the North American contin- 
ent, and over 20,000,000 acres of land 
have been reclaimed. Many of those 
responsible for this vast work for the 
benefit of humanity will meet in con- 
vention in Calgary this year Oct. 5 
to 9, at the International Irrigation 
Congress. Much of this money has 
been spent on irrigation development 
in Western Canada which delegates 
and visitors to the congress will be 
given an opportunity to inspect dur- 
ing their attendance at this first con- 
vention in Canada. 



CREDIT FOR IRRIGATORS. 
Financing Particular Farm Enter- 
prises. 

By C. W. Thompson. 
In certain sections of the country 



where farmers have realized the im- 
portance of encouraging some parti- 
cular enterprise, special plans have 
had to be devised in order to secure 
the necessary working capital. 

The simplest plan is where a group 
of farmers desiring to take up some 
line, such as improved dairying, cattle 
breeding, seed purchasing, etc., agree 
collectively to adopt a uniform and 
improved type of enterprise. Thus, in 
the case of dairying, it may mean a 
particular breed of heifers or cows to 
be purchased through expert aid and 
to be paid for from earnings of the 
enterprise. Such an agreement may 
be sufficient to induce a local bank or 
loan agency to furnish the necessary 
capital to each of the farmers indiv- 
idually on the strength of their per- 
sonal notes with added security in 
the form of an endorsement or a col- 
lateral mortgage in the purchase. In 
some instances where such a plan 
has been carried out, the money has 
been secured from 2 to 4 per cent, 
below the local bank rate. 

In sections where the farmers' 
security when given individually has 
not been sufficient to attract the nec- 
essary capital, other plans have prov- 
ed to be helpful. According to one 
of these plans, the farmers organize 
an association and attach the associa- 
tion's guaranty to the notes of the 
members. The farmers thus assume 
collective liability for each other's 
loans. The additional security thus 
offered, has enabled them to borrow 
the capital desired at reduced rates 
of interest. 

Another plan which has worked suc- 
cessfully is where business men of a 
locality have furnished a limited guar- 
anty for loans of neighboring farmers, 
for the sake of helping to build up 
the farm industry of the surrounding 
territory. With the aid of such guar- 
anty, it has been possible to attract 
the capital wanted at lower than pre- 
vailing rates. 

The particular plan that may be 
most helpful to farmers appears to 
vary in different regions, depending 
partly upon the character of the farm- 
ers and their methods of farming and 
partly upon the kind of loan agency 
accessible. Wherever farmers are 
confronted with financial problems, it 
seems important that they should take 
counsel with each other and with 
others interested in agricultural im- 
provement and endeavor as far as 
possible to profit by any experience 
that has proven of value among those 
similarly situated elsewhere. 



Headquarters for 

OREGON CHAMPION GOOSEBERRY 

and Perfection Currant 
Attractive prices made now for Advance Orders 
Also a very complete line of general Nursery Stock, including a 
choice assortment of one-year budded and two-year Apple and Pear. 
Correspondence solicited. 

Portland Wholesale Nursery Co. 

301-302 Stock Exchange Building. PORTLAND, OREGON 

The Place to Buy your Supplies 



Bangholm Rutabaga, Borlfelder Turnips 

Plant during June or July on any rich moist soil, and you have two 
of the best producing roots. 

Price only 50 cents per pound postpaid. Ask for special prices for 
large quantities. We sell only direct to farmers. 

AABLING-EBKJGHT SEED CO. 

85-89 Pike St., SEATTLE 



MONTE VISTA NURSERIES 

PEAR TREES — We have some very choice pear trees in both 1 
and 2-year stock of the following varieties: Anjou, Bartlett, Cornice, 
W. Nelis, P. Barry. 

APPLE TREES — Very fine Jonathans, Rome Beauty, N. Spy, New- 
town, Baldwin, Ortley, Winter Banana, King, Waxen, Gravenstein and 
Red Astrachan. Write for prices. 

A, HOLAJDAY SCAPPOOSE, OREGON 



NURSERY CATALOG FREE 

Full of helpful suggestions to make your place beautiful, —It's up- 
to-date, Instructive. Please mention this paper and write to, 

J. B. PILKINQTON, Nurseryman 
Portland, Ore. 



WHEN TAKING OUT STUMPS AND CLEARING LAND USE 

Vulcan Stumping Powder 

The best powder for stump blasting purposes. Low freezing. Made 
on Puget Sound for more than six years and is giving excellent satis- 
faction to thousands of users. Plain directions with every case. If 
you can't get VULCAN STUMPING POWDER from your dealer write 
us. We also sell direct. Please mention this paper. 

Puget Sound and Alaska Powder Company 

419 Commerce Bldg. EVERETT, WASH. 





15° Cariey Roller 
Feed Mill ""fts 

THE LATEST AND BEST MILL ON 
THE MARKET TODAY 



Send for Catalog 
Manufactured only by 

Colfax Iron Works, Inc. 

Colfax, Wash. 

Successors to CARLEY BROTHERS 



Ground Phosphate Rock 

The Natural Plant Food and Permanent Soil Builder 

1000 lbs. per acre once in each four years will cost about $1.00 per acre 
per year. At Penn. State College $1.05 invested in Rock Phosphate gave in- 
creased yields of $5.85 — over 500%. At Mary, land Ex. Station, $1.96 1 / 4 gave 
$22.11 — over 1000%. At Ohio station each dollar paid for itself and gave 
$5.68 profit. At Illinois Station $2.50 gave the same return as $250 invested 
in land. 

Each ton contains 280 lbs. of phosphorous, not rendered available arti- 
ficially by high-;, riced destructive acids, but so finely ground as to become 
available in nature's own way. 

UNITED STATES PHOSPHATE CO., Salt Lake City, Utah 

Write for literature. 
"Perfection of fineness in grinding'," our motto. 



158 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



HOUSEHOLD DEPARTMENT 



COMDOCMD BY MM. O. A. VOMMOM 



NATURE 

Nature never did betray 
The heart that loved her; 'tis her 
privilege, 

Through all the years of this, our life, 
to lead 

From joy to joy; for she can so in- 
form 

The mind that is within us, so im- 
press 

With quietness and beauty and so 
feed 

With lofty thoughts, that neither evil 
tongues, 

Rash judgments, nor the sneers of sel- 
fish men, 

Nor greetings where no kindness is, 
nor all 

The dreary intercourse of daily life, 
Shall e'er prevail against us, or dis- 
turb 

Our cheerful faith, that all which we 

behold 
Is full of blessing. 

Wordsworth. 



FOOD AND ITS CARE IN THE 
HOME 



By C. F. Langworthy, in Year Book 
U. S. Department. 

People used to think that cleanli- 
ness was mainly a matter of personal 
preference. Since the bacteriologists 
have shown that diseases as well as 
decay and loss of material are often 
caused by micro-organisms which are 
commonly harbored in filth and dirt, 
we have come to know that dirt is 
not only disagreeable, but is also 
dangerous, and that cleanliness is 
nowhere more necessary than in all 
that pertains to food. 

Perishable food materials are parti- 
cularly likely to spoil if they are ex- 
posed to dust or kept in warm damp 
places which encourage the growth of 
molds and bacteria. One of the popu- 
lar bulletins of the department dis- 
cusses the care of food in the home 
and suggests practical, inexpensive 
ways of keeping it properly. Every 
up-to-date dairyman and the public, 
too, know the importance of absolute 
cleanliness in handling milk. If one 
applies the same reasoning to other 
food materials it is evident that the 
kitchen and pantry need to be taken 
care of as scrupulously as the dairy 
and that the housekeeper ought to be 
as careful in cooking the food she 
serves as must those who handle 
milk. So much has been said about 
the danger of flies as carriers of dis- 
eases that it seems as if everyone 
must realize the importance of keep- 
ing them out of the house, especially 
out of that part of it where food is 
kept or eaten; yet thorough screen- 
ing is still far from usual, even in 
kitchens and dining rooms, and many 
families seem careless of this very 
real danger. 



cities of Victoria and Vancouver and 
through parks and nurseries where 
they were treated to beautiful flowers 
and served with delicious fruits and 
the afternoon teas. 

A delightful boat ride on Indian 
river to Wigwam Inn, the bouquets, 
the beautiful reception at Glencove 
Inn with an address of welcome by 
Mrs. Baxter, the mayor's wife, were 
all greatly enjoyed. Nothing was 
left undone that would add to the 
pleasure or comfort of the guests and 
many expressions of appreciation 
were heard. While this and the past 
conventions have been so greatly en- 
joyed, the ladies join with Mrs. Har* 
ness, member of reception committee 
in the suggestion not to make the 
entertainment feature too elaborate, 
to have it become extravagant. The 
good nurserymen want to do so 
much for the pleasure of the ladies. 
Remember, she states we are "co- 
workers" and not "hangers on." The 
inspiration and knowledge obtained 
at these meetings we should put 
into form to serve as guide and help 
in the adornment of the thousands 
of homes now in the making on the 
Pacific Coast. To help broaden the 
usefulness of the nursery business 
is an added pleasure to that of being 
so delightfully entertained. 



FIRST FARMERS' CO-OPERATIVE 
LAUNDRY. 

The department of Agriculture calls 
attention to the fact that the first 
farmers' co-operative laundry in the 
United States is now in successful 
operation at Chatfield, Minn., where 
it is doing much to eliminate for 
overworked farm woman the terrors 
of "blue Monday." Chatfield is only 
a small village and the laundry's 
patrons are almost entirely obtained 
from the open country around. Coarse 
clothing of all sorts, overalls, rugs, 
bed clothing, and fine fabrics as well 
are handled at a uniform price of 5 
cents a pound for washing and iron- 
ing. An extra charge is made for 
such articles as need to be ironed 
by hand. The laundry is managed in 
connection with a co-operative cream- 
ery, paying to the creamery a reason- 
able rental for the use of a part of 
its building. Modern machinery was 
installed at the beginning and an ex- 
perienced launderman engaged as sup- 
erintendent. For the first year of op- 
eration, which has just closed, the re- 
ceipts were $5,403, 70 per cent, of 
which was paid out for wages. Pat- 
rons received a dividend of 10 per 
cent, and stockholders 6 per cent, 
additional. The success of the inno- 
vation will, it is said, prove most 
encouraging to rural workers every- 
where. 



LADIES AT NURSERYMEN'S CON- 
VENTION 

The ladies attending the Pacific 
Coast Association of Nurseymen at 
Vancouver, B. C, will long remember 
the kindness shown them in the en- 
tertainment given by the British Cob 
umbia nurserymen and their friends. 
The week was a continual round of 
pleasure with auto rides about the 



CONTROL OF MOSQUITOS AND 
REMEDIES FOR BITES 

Mosquoto trouble may be great- 
ly lessened by removing all 
small water holding vessels from 
the premises, screening the larger 
receptacles, draining all pools that 
can be drained, pouring a little low- 
grade kerosene on those that cannot 
be drained, and planting young fish 
in the steams. These plans are re- 
commended by A. L. Lovett, of the 




Keep It on the Table 

A tasty addition to every meal; handy and healthy for the children's lunches; 
an economy food. 

ROGERS' NUT BUTTER 

If your grocer hasn't it, write us, giving his name and full address, and receive 
FREE a SAM PLE JAR with BOOK OP RECIPES for dishes made with 
Nut Butter. Mention this paper. T5e ROGERS CO., Tacoma, Wash. 




Olympic 



WHEAT 
HEARTS 



The little hearts of Wheat. A tempting breakfast 
dish, easily cooked. 4 pound cartons. 
Sold by all Grocers. 

The Puget Sound Flouring Mills Co. Tacoma, Wash. 



the clean, 
JlerOSGnel cheap, fuel 



Do you realize the convenience and economy of the 
modern oil stove? The fuel — kerosene — is the 
cheapest you can get — clean, safe, easy to handle. The 
stove has been perfected until it is as good as a wood 
or coal range for any kind of cooking. The 

New Perfection 

OIL COOK STOVE 

will cook a quick, light breakfast for you, or it will 
cook a big dinner with roast and bread and pastry. 
The New Perfection doesn't overheat the kitchen. 

It doesn't smoke or taint the food. Think of the 

comfort of summer cooking in a 

cool kitchen. No wood or coal to 
lug; no ashes to dirty up 



the house. Why not ask your 
dealer to show you the New 
Perfection. 

Standard Oil 
Company 

(California) 



FOR 
BEST RESULTS 
USE PEARL OIL 



NORTHWEST 
GROCERY CO. 

TACOMA, WASH. 



Conditions seem to indicate 
that everyone wishes to econo- 
mize and everybody should have 
our catalogue whether they buy 
from us or not. A postal with 
your name and address will 
bring it. 

Northwest Grocery Co. 

13th and Commerce Sts. 
Tacoma, Wash. 

Oldest and Largest Mail Or- 
der House in the State. 



A. S. Johnson & Co. 




II42 C Stratt 



Taootna, Wash. 



Entomological department, O. A. C, 
who further states that mosquito at- 
tacks may be repelled to some extent 
by liquid repellants and by smudges. 

Repellant liquids recommended are 
spirits of camphor, oil of penny royal, 
oil of pepermint, etc. They are ap- 
plied by putting a few drops on a 
bath towel and rubbing the towel on 



Keep a Bottle 

in Your Pantry 
of this Delicious 
Flavoring — 



Mapleine 



Use it as a change from the 
everyday Lemon and Van- 
illa in flavoring your Des- 
serts, Puddings, Frostitigs, 
Ices, etc.; and especially 
for flavoring white Sugar 
Syrup. Ask your grocer. 
Crescem Manufacturing Company, Seattle, Wash. 




THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



159 



the face or suspending it above the 
pillow. A good combined repellant 
is made of essential oil of orange, 30 
grains camphorated alcohol, 30 
grains, oil of cedar, 15 grains or of 
equal parts of caster oil, oil of lav- 
ender and alcohol. 

Inside smudges are produced by 
burning either camphor or pyreth- 
rum powder. Burning a ball of cam. 
phor the size of a hen's egg over a 
small lamp makes an effective smudge 
Pyrethrum is first made into a ball 
by moistening, it in water and mould- 
ing into cones as large as chocolate 
drops, and then placed in shallow 
dishes and burned by lighting at the 
apex. One cone gives smoke enough 
for the average size room. 

Remedies for bites are as follows: 
Rub moistened toilet soap over the 
wounds, or apply either ammonia or 
alcohol to the punctures. 



HEALTH AFFECTED BY CANNING 



Housewives Will Find Canned Vege- 
tables and Fruits Healthful 
and Economical for Win- 
ter Use, says U. S. 
Dept. of Agri- 
culture. 

The balanced ration of many Amer- 
icans to-day is made up something as 
follows : 

Bread, butter, eggs, meat and fish, 
potatoes. 

Patent Medicine Laxatives 

Many Americans customarily suffer 
from one of the following complaints: 
Indigestion, constipation, rheumatism. 
A simple change of the daily menu 
might go a long way to remedy these 
ailments, according to the Bureau of 
Plant Industry's specialist in charge 
of Canning Club Work. He recom- 
mends a change to a menu more in 
keeping with nature's plan something 
as follows: 

Bread, butter, fruit, vegetables, 
greens, meat, fish, eggs. 

He recommends that every family 
provide a diet of fruit and vegetables 
for every day in the year. This would 
do much to eliminate the need for 
patent medicine laxatives that figure 
so prominently in many Americans 
bill of fare. It every home kept on 
hand enough canned products so that 
there might be a can of fruits, a can 
of greens and a can of vegetables for 
every day during the winter, there 
would be little need for the laxatives 
now so regularly purchased from the 
corner drugstore. There would also 
be great economy in the substitution 
of an inexpensive food for more ex- 
pensive ones. 

More home canning, done at the 
proper season, would enable the aver- 
age family always to have the proper 
quantity of canned products, and 
would save an astonishing amount of 
food that goes to waste every year, 
It is estimated that over 50 per cent, 
of all the vegetables, greens, fruit and 
berries that grow in this country, go 
to waste and are actually lost to those 
who need them. This is simply be- 
cause housewives have not learned to 
care for these surplus products effici- 
ently and to make them available for 
the winter months by canning. 



TYPHOID FEVER PREVENTIVE. 

Typhoid fever is caused by the 
growth of microscopic plants (bacter- 
ia) in the small intestine of man. 
They gain entrance to body through 
the mouth; that is, in food and water 
chiefly the latter. They leave the 
body in the feces and urine and from 



these into water or are carried by 
flies to food in infect others. 

One of the unfortunate things in 
regard to the trouble is the fact that 
a person may have the disease in a 
mild form and still communicate it 
to others who will have it in a most 
virulent form. Again a person often- 
times apparently recovers from the 
disease and still carries the microbes 
in his body, passing them out from 
time to time to infect his neighbors. 
Such a person is known as a "typhoid 
carrier." Such a carrier invariably 
bears large numbers of the bacteria 
upon his person, especially upon his 
hands. The common habit of har- 
vesters of wiping the mouth of the 
jug with the hand before drinking 
thus furnishes a most effective means 
of spreading the disease. 

Those in charge of harvest camps 
should see to it that food is effective- 
ly screened from flies, that waste is 
disposed of in a sanitary manner and 
especially that wholesome water is 
provided and distributed in such a 
manner as not to distribute disease. 
A few dollars expended in fly screens, 
individual drinking cups and individ- 
ual towels will result in great saving 
in health and life. 

In case of an outbreak of the dis- 
ease in any community or camp, those 
exposed should at once be vaccinated. 
Those suffering from the disease 
should be isolated and their excreta 
thoroughly disinfected. 
IRA D. CARDIFF, 

Director Experiment Station, 

Pullman, Washington. 



HOME GARDEN AND CANNING 
SCHOOLS. 

The Educational Department of Il- 
linois Federation of Women's Clubs 
has been most fortunate in securing 
Prof. O. H. Benson, of U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, as instructor in 
their Home Garden and Canning 
Schools, to be held at De Kalb Normal 
in July. 

Mr. Benson belives that the boy or 
girl who has learned to do one thing 
well is practically safe for all time 
and can be led on to other and great- 
er achievements. 

Of surpassing interest to housekeep- 
ers will be the demonstrations of the 
cold pack method of home canning of 
all kinds of fruits, vegetables, greens, 
sweet corn (on and off the cob) fish 
meats, meat juices, etc., using home- 
made canning outfits and four dis- 
tinct types of commercial outfits, all 
of which are portable and available 
for use in the back yard. 

No. "canning compounds" are used. 
It is a lamentable fact that many 
women are using dangerous, illegal 
chemical preservatives in their home- 
made canned goods. 

Dr. Harvey W. Wiley, in August 
1913, "Good Housekeeping" takes a 
shot at dangerous canning compounds 
and has this to say of a sample of a 
popluar brand sent him by some 
housekeeper: "This compound con- 
sists principally of borax with ben- 
zoic acid and salt. The chemical pre- 
servatives first named, are deleter- 
ious to health and should never be 
used in a food product. No chemical 
compound is necessary in canning. 
The selection of good materials and 
complete sterilization with careful 
sealing are all that is necessary. 

This is exactly what Mr. Benson 
teaches by so simple a method that 
a child can learn it. The form, color, 
and texture of fruits and vegetables 
are preserved. By placing them in 




A SCHOOL 
FOR BOYS 



Ideally located on 
\^ lake. A homelik 



Ideally located on picturesque Steilacoom 
lake. A homelike and healthful school. 

TRAINS FOR LEADERSHIP 

To give each boy individual attention, only a limited 
number admitted. Upper school prepares for Colleges 
and Technical Schools. Lower school for younger boys. 

Our 23rd school year opens Sept. 17. Write now for 
our illustrated catalog. 

D. S. PULFORD, A. M., J. R. EDEN, A.B., Principals 
P. O. Address: South Tacoma, Wash. 



FOR POWER- 




THE GASOLINE OF QUALITY 

There is gasoline and gasoline. As a discriminating 
purchaser you are not concerned with what your gasoline 
costs per gallon — but you are very much concerned with 
what it costs per mile. It is this consideration that will 
lead you, like thousands of other motorists, to use Red 
Crown. It is quick acting — uniform — reliable. There ia 
power in every drop. 

Red Crown signs are furnished to all dealers handling 
Red Crown Gasoline. Watch for the Sign or ask our near- 
est agency about delivery in bulk. 

Standard Oil Company 

(California) 



THE 

ANNIE WRIGHT SEMINARY 

TACOMA, WASHINGTON 
Thirty-first Year 

An endowed Church School for 
Girls, College Preparatory and 
General Courses. Certificate ad- 
mits to Smith, Wellesley, Vassar 
and the leading State Universities. 

Special advantages in Domestic 
Science, Music and Art. 

ADELAIDE PRESTON 

Principal 



the cans in a fresh state, volatile 
oils are retained and the fresh, dain- 
ty flavor is not lost. 

Beans need not he left on the vines 
to become tough, nor carrots and 
beets to become fibrous and woody — • 
they may be canned when they are 




SODA 
CRACKERS 

Packed in tins will 
keep crisp — 

TRY THEM 



sweet, tender, and juicy, and saved 
for the winter table. Windfall apples, 
thousands of bushels of which are 
wasted every year in our state, may 



160 

be preserved so that they will be fully 
as delectable as though they came 
from the corner fruit stand at 5c 
apiece. 

It is estimated that 1,500 cans of 
tomatoes were put up last year by 
members of the Girls' Garden and 
Canning clubs. The average cost to 
the club members of producing and 
putting up a No. 2 can of tomatoes 
was a trifle less than 4 cents. The 
average girl with one of the modern, 
labor-saving devices in home canning 
can put up almost 300 cans a day. 

Last year, six girls paid their way 
for an entire term of the Mississippi 
Normal College from one season's 
profits. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



Scores of girls are reaching the 
Short Courses at the State Agricul- 
tural Colleges by this route. 

The value of such practical voca- 
tional training to the youth of our 
land can never be estimated in dollars 
and cents. It means teaching our 
children to do a splendid piece of the 
world's work — the effectual elimina- 
tion of waste. There is an aesthetic, 
as well as a practical and educational 
value, not to be over looked. The 
garden movement will surely culti- 
vate that inborn love of the beautiful 
in tree and bud and flower — stunted 
in all too many of us. 

PROF. FRED RANKIN, 

University of Illinois 



DAIRY DEPARTMENT 



Testing Dairy Cows for butter fat records of highest importance. 
Conserve Dairy Energy and figure on the Individual Cow. 



(Address any inquiries about dairying to H. L. Blanchard, Awt Supt. Exp. 
Station, Puyallup, Wash.) 

Municipal Control of the City Milk Supply 



A Plan for Improvd Methods of Milk 
Supply has been Submitted to the 
Mayor and City Council of the 
City of Seattle, by B. F. 
Shields, of the Spo- 
kane Grain Com- 
pany. 



For the past two years I have given 
considerable time and thought to the 
milk problem of this city. Under pre- 
sent conditions of production and dis. 
tribution, it is out of the question to 
give to the people pure milk regard- 
less of the price charged therefore. 

At the present time the farmers are 
not getting a price for their milk 
that will justify them in giving better 
service than they are now doing. 
Furthermore, the price paid by the 
consumer for milk is not in keeping 
with the price received by the pro- 
ducer. 

Notwithstanding this fact the dis- 
tributor claims he is not making more 
than expenses. Therefore, under pre- 
sent conditions the consumer is com- 
pelled to use milk contaminated with 
tuberculosis and other germs fatal 
to the health and life of our citizens. 

Up to the present time no one has 
come forward with any feastible plan 
to change present conditions. 

Our City has expended two hun- 
dred thousands or more dollars in 
the building of a pulmonary hospital 
for the cure of tuberculosis, but has 
expended nothing whatever to pre- 
vent its deadly germs from being 
consumed by our children in their 
daily supply of milk. 

After careful thought and consider- 
ation of this question, which to me 
seems a most important one, I be- 
lieve I have arrived at a practical 
solution of the problem; one in which 
the producer can be paid more for his 
product than he is now receiving at 
the same time furnish milk to the 
consumer for less than he is now 
paying, yet leave a margin of profit 
so great that it is really difficult to 
comprehend; at the same time furn- 
ish to the consumer milk which will 
be as free from tuberculosis as is 
possible. If this condition of affairs 
can be brought about, it certainly 



deserves serious consideration and 
thought from all. 

Proposed Solution. 

For the City of Seattle to take 
over the distribution of milk within 
the City of Seattle. I would suggest 
that the City build a central plant, 
equipped with the most modern mach- 
inery for filterizing, sterilizing and 
pasteurizing. All to be carried on un- 
der the observation of the most skill- 
ed men possible to obtain; no milk 
to be sold unless bottled. 

I would suggest that all milk used 
by the City should pass through this 
"City Central Plant" and from there 
distributed in a systematic way so 
that there would be no duplication 
or lost motion. 

I would suggest that the distribu- 
tors be dressed in white uniform and 
thus make everything as attractive 
and sanitary as possible. 

I would also suggest having the 
city maintain its own Veterinary 
Service whose duty it would be to 
make tuberculin tests of all cows 
furnishing milk to said City Central 
Plant; make rigid rules for the sani- 
tary condition of said herds furnish- 
ing milk and if there were any who 
refused to comply with these rules 
and regulations, they would promptly 
be notified that they would not be 
permitted to sell their milk to the 
City. This Veterinary Service should 
of course be furnished free to all 
herdsmen in order to make it effici- 
ent. If this method were pursued it 
would insure as pure milk, in its raw 
state, as could be possibly procured. 
Then, by filtering, pastuerizing and 
sterilizing, we would be in a posi- 
tion to furnish to our citizens milk 
as free from filth and deadly germs 
as could possibly be done. 

The average price paid to the pro- 
ducer of milk is not to exceed 16c 
per gallon; and the average price 
charged the consumer is not under 
39c per gallon, leaving 23c for dis- 
tribution, yet the distribution, as it 
is now carried on, leaves little or no 
profit to the distributor. There is 
too much duplication; too much loss 
in bottles and bad accounts. 

It is my candid opinion that if the 
City would take over the distribution 



A. J. C. C. JERSEYS 

Big Producer* 

For Sale — A fine bull calf, sired by Gertie 's Stoke Pogis 33rd, 
out of Dixie Bertha, a sister of Morrow's Select, which made 826 
pounds butter in one year. A bargain at my price, considering 
quality. Have both Island and American bred. Ancestral records 
of the very best. Particulars on application. 

J. B. EARLY 

Grandview, Wash. (Yakima County) 



Turner & Pease Co., Inc. 

813=8l5-8i7 Western Ave. ; Seattle 

Leading Manufacturers of Butter in the State 

We pay cash for butter fat and eggs at 
correct market prices. 



Registered Guernseys For Sale 

During the past month we have supplied several dairymen 
with choice pure-bred Guernsey sires. We have yet some fine 
young bulls of noted breeding to offer which we believe will 
prove to be valuable for dairymen seeking to increase the revenue 
of cream and butter from their herds. 

Write us for particulars and prices. 

Reasonable terms to responsible parties. 



Augustine & Kyer 



115 First Street 
Seattle, Wash. 



Meadow Brook Farm 



Breeders! of 

Pure Bred 
Ayrshire 
Cattle 

A. P. Stockwell, Aberdeen, Wash. 



We have for sale some very choice pure bred bulls, 
ranging in age from three months to three years old, 
from the choicest strain of Ayrshire Cattle. We hav« 
the only herd in the State of Washington that is tested 
under supervision of the U. S. Government. With ev- 
ery animal we furnish a certificate from the govern- 
ment that he is free from tuberculosis or any other In- 
fectious disease. Address all correspodence to 



Registered 



H 



OLSTEIN 
CATTLE 



Our last shipment of noted pure breds and very choice high grade 
cows came through in fine shape, and a part of the lot has gone to 
pleased customers on both sides of the Cascades. We are offering 
fresh and coming fresh cows that cannot fail to please buyers. Our 
young stock heifers and pure-bred bulls are developing in fine shape 
ready for the increased demand sure to prevail in the near future. 

Please mention this paper. 



H. S. ROYCE 



Savage-Scofield Bldg., A St. 

TACOMA, WASH. 



Please mention this paper 



Pure Bred Holstein Records 

Our herd bull is Johanna Colantha Champion, grandson of Colantha 
Johanna, also grandson of Sir Fayne Concorda, full brother to Grace 
Fayne 2nd Homestead. His dam is Johanna Colantha, 26% lbs. butter in 
7 days. Her daughter J. Colantha 2nd made 32.85 lbs. butter In 7 daya. 
Two of our 5-year-old cows each made over 27% lbs. butter In 7 days. 
3-year-olds 20 to 23 lbs., and a 2-year-old 17 lbs. 

A few bull calves 5 months old and younger, out of these heavy 
producers for sale. Write at once for prices. 

WILLIAM TODD & SONS 

NORTH YAKIMA, WASH. 



Waikiki Farm 



IRA P. WHITNEY, Supt. 



Breeders of 

JERSEY and AYRSHIRE CATTLE 

DUR0C JERSEY SWINE 
SHROPSHIRE SHEEP 

Route 7, Spokane, Wash. 



of milk and charge the consumer the 
same as he is now paying and pay 
the producer the same as he is now 
getting, the profit to the City would 
be ample to pay the entire cost of the 
Police and Fire Departments annual- 
ly; this sounds unreasonable but it 
can De verified. 

I would suggest that the City 
charge just what it costs for distri- 
bution and maintainance of the City 
Central Plant — which should not be 
more than 2c per quart or 8c per gal- 
lon. In that way, the price to the 
consumer would depend -on the price 
paid to the producer. As conditions 
now exist, the consumer does not 
participate in the reduced price paid 
the producer; in most cases the con- 
sumer is paying winter prices. 

My estimate of the cost of a City 
Central Plant such as I have in mind 
would be complete including distribu- 
tion outfit about $250,000. At 2c per 
quart I estimate the daily receipts 
would be about $2000; in fact, I am 
of the opinion that it would not cost 
to exceed $1500 per day and prob- 
ably not more than $1000, for opera- 
tion figuring on a sale of 100,000 
quarts per day — which I believe is 
about right. I am confident at 2c the 
annual profit would pay for the en- 
tire cost of the plant with all ex- 
penses. 

You will doubtless look on this as 
something rather out of the usual; 
this I will admit; it is new — right 
off the Bat — but after careful thought 
and consideration I am thoroughly 
convinced that it is feastible and 
practicable; by its operation no one 
is injured; everyone is benefited; life 
and health is protected from tubercu- 
losis germs which is far more seri- 
ous than the public seem to think. 
It is my candid opinion — and I know 
whereof I speak — that between ten to 
forty per cent, of all the cows sup- 
plying milk to this city have tuber- 
culosis. It seems to me that this 
is a subject that calls for serious con- 
sideration. 

I would be pleased to submit fur- 
ther information on this subject if 
you see fit to honor it with your con- 
sideration. 

Respectfully submitted, 

B. F. SHIELDS. 
945— 12— N., Seattle. 



VALUE OF DAIRY COWS 

There has been much discussion 
concerning the value of purebred 
cows in relation to their ofiicial re- 
cords. Mr. D. Brooks Hogan express- 
es a desire in the Rural Spirit, to 
have the opinion of leading dairymen 
on this subject and we will be glad 
to give space in the news columns 
of the Northwest Horticulturist and 
Dairymen for such estimates. Mr. 
Hogan starts the discussion with the 
following values for mature cows hav- 
ing made the records here suggested: 
300 lbs. butter— cow worth.. $150 
400 lbs. butter — cow worth.. 350 
500 lbs. butter — cow worth.. 500 
700 lbs. butter — cow worth.. 725 
600 lbs. butter — cow worth.. 600 
800 lbs. butter— cow worth.. 900 
900 lbs. butter— cow worth.. 1200 
1000 lbs. butter — cow worth.. 1600 
The 300-pound cow just pays for 
her keep; nearly all over that adds 
profit. Are these prices too low? 



THE NORTHWEST 

which contains most of them, with 
some degree of indurance, is the 
great magnet for attraction and pub- 
licity. 

The Provincial Colony Farm, con- 
nected with the Hospital for the fee- 
ble minded at Essendale, B. C. stands 
high, in this respect having the fol- 
lowing list of 10 cows whose milk re- 
cords per day, according to the report 
of G. S. MacGowan, are as follows: 
Colony Farm's 100-Lb. Cows. 

Lbs 

"Bessie Botsford" 100.1 

"Madam Posch Pauline" 118.8 

"Grebeegga 2nd" 103.4 

"Duchess Boutsje Dekol" 113.6 

"Minnie Rooker's Poem" 100.4 

"Netherland Segis 2nd" 103.4 

"Princess Hengervelt" 104.6 

"Birdie 2nd's Netherland" 102.8 

"Acme Sadie Pauline" 101.2 

"Zarilda Clothilde 3rd Dekol" ....123.9 
"Bessie Botsford" gave 133.7 lbs. 
butter in 30 days and "Madam Pasch 
Pauline" gave 136.34 lbs. butter in 30 
days. 



HORTICULTURIST 



161 



HUNDRED POUND COWS 

The hundred pound milk per day 
cows, are attracting the attention of 
the Holstein breeders and the herd 



BREEDING UP. 

Mr. F. M. Svinth, Chehalis, Wash., 
is demonstrating from practical ex- 
perience that it pays to breed up. The 
young cows raised on his farm, sired 
by a bull with good authenticated rec- 
ords, is giving a larger flow of milk 
and more butter than their dams. 
Aiming for a herd of 100-pound milk 
per day cows, Mr. Svinth is buying 
sires which he believes will, in the 
course of a few years enable him to 
make such record. Some time ago 
he bought of Hollywood Farm the fine 
young Holstein bull, Hollywood Ro- 
celia Palmyra, a grandson of Ring 
Segis and of Grace Fayne 2d's Home- 
stead. The bull has a long body, 
straight back, good head and is well 
marked. Mr. Sventh has a good dairy 
of grade Holsteins and seven head of 
pure bred females. He won prizes at 
the last Southwest Washington Fair 
and will win more this fall. He re- 
cently put up a good sized silo and 
filled it with alsike clover, which 
will serve to keep up the milk flow 
during July and August when the pas- 
tures are rather short on account of 
dry weather. The silo will be ready 
for a corn crop in October. Mr. Svinth 
realizes that "breeding up" success- 
fully and profitably requires feeding 
up, for which an abundance of cheap- 
ly produced feed is necessary. 



AYRSHIRE CATTLE IN DEMAND. 

Dairymen of the Pacific Northwest 
are becoming thoroughly convinced 
that it pays to raise cows which will 
give a larger milk flow and butter 
yield than the common or average 
stock, and they are buying pure-bred 
sires from breeders whose herd rec- 
ords are well in the lead. 

Mr. J. W. Clise, proprietor of Wil- 
lowmoor Farm, reports the sale ot 
Willowmoor Peter Pan 18th to Henry 
Shagren, Lynden, Wash. The dam of 
this sire is imported and his sire also 
imported by Mr. Clise, is grand cham- 
pion of both countries. One of Peter 
Pan's daughters holds the world's 
record for production as a two-year- 
old. 

According to the Rural Spirit Wil- 
lowmoor Farms have shipped the 
young bull, Willowmoor Sentinel 5th, 
to George G. Carl, of Glenada, Ore. 
This is a very fine young bull of typ< 
ical Aryshire conformation, out of an 
imported cow and sired by Willow- 
moor Sentinel, whose dam, Dora, has 





CREAM 
SEPARATORS 
save much time and 
labor in summer 



BESIDES GREATLY INCREAS- 
ing the quantity and improv- 
ing the quality of cream and 
butter De Laval Cream Sep- 
arators save much valuable 
time and labor. 

THIS GREAT SAVING OF 
time and labor counts for 
more in summer than at any 
other season and often alone 
saves the cost of a separator, 
aside from all its other advan- 
tages. 

AS COMPARED WITH ANY 
kind of gravity setting the 
saving of man's time and 
labor and usually woman's 
drudgery with a De Laval is 
a big item in its favor. 



AS COMPARED WITH 
other Separators the De Laval 
saves much time and labor by 
its greater capacity, easier 
running, easier handling, 
easier cleaning and freedom 
from need of adjustment or 
repair. 

THESE ARE MERELY SOME 
of the advantages which make 
a De Laval Cream Separator 
the best of all summer farm 
investments, as every De 
Laval agent will be glad to 
explain and demonstrate to 
any one at all interested. 

SEE THE NEAREST 
De Laval agent at ONCE or 
if you do not know him write 
us direct for any desired in- 
formation. 



De Laval Dairy Supply Company 



1 65 BROADWAY 

NEW YORK 



1 O 1 Drum M ST . 

SAN FRANCISCO 



1016 Western Ave. 
SEATTLE 



50,000 BRANCHES AND LOCAL AGENCIES THE WORLD OVER 



So-Bos-So 



The Most 
Successful 

FLY 
KILLER 





Your cows will give '/3 more milk— your horses will do 
work on less feed when protected from the torture of 
A sing'e trial will convince you. 

Write today. Ask for Catalog No. 56 
and the So-Bos-So Booklet. 

Portland Seed Co. 

Portland, Oregon 
Western Agents Child's' So-Bos-So 



moro 
flies. 




CASH FOR. CREAM 

Highest market price. Guaranteed test. Prompt cash payment 
for each shipment. We are also in the market for eggs. 

MILLER BROS. CO. 

1532 Commerce St., Tacoma, Wash. 



BULLS FOR SALE from A. R. 0. COWS 

Home of K. P. Sanesta Topsy, only daughter of King of Pontiacs 
on the Pacific Coast, Ophelia Sanesta Pauline official record of 29. 46 lbs. 
butter 7 days and 20 others. 

WRITE FOR PRICE AND PARTICULARS 

CALVIN PHILIPS, Pres. GUY M. RICHARDS, Gen. Mgr. 
Greenbank Farm, Greenbank, Island County. Wash. 



162 

an official record of over 21,000 
pounds of milk in a year. Such bulls 
will have a marked effect upon the 
dairy cattle of their locality. This 
fine animal will, without doubt, leave 
his impress, and stamp his own and 
his ancestors' remarkable character- 
istics on the dairy herds about 
Glenada. 



YELLOW MILK AND BUTTER 
Kind of Feed Influential, Aside from 
Breed. 

That the rich yellow color demand- 
ed by the public in dairy products is 
primarily due to the character of the 
cow's feed is demonstrated by recent 
experiments carried on by the TJ. S. 
Department of Agriculture in cooper- 
ation with the Missouri State Experi- 
ment Station. For some years dairy 
experts have been studying this ques- 
tion. Their conclusion is that, al- 
though to some extent a breed char- 
acteristic, the intensity of this yellow 
color may, within certain limits, be 
increased or diminished at will by 
changing the animal's rations. 

Chemical tests show that the yel- 
low pigment in milk consists of sever- 
al well-known pigments found in 
green plants. Of these the principal 
one is carotin, so called because it 
constitutes a large part of the color- 
ing matter of carrots. The other yel- 
low pigments in the milk are known 
as xanthophylls. These are found in 
a number of plants including grass 
but are especially abundant in yel- 
low autumn leaves. 

These pigments pass directly from 
the feed into the milk. This explains 
the well-known fact that fresh green 
grass and carrots increase the yellow- 
ness of butter, the only standard by 
which the average person judges its 
richness. On the other hand, a large 
proportion of these pigments is de- 
posited in the body fat and elsewhere 
in the cow. When the ration is 
changed to one containing fewer caro- 
tin and xanthophyll constituents, this 
hoarded store is gradually drawn up- 
on and in consequence the yellowness 
of the milk does not diminish so 
rapidly as it otherwise would. This 
yellowness increases, however, the in- 
stant the necessary plant pigments 
are restored to the ration. 

Green grass is probably richer in 
carotin than any other dairy feed. 
Cows fed on it will therefore produce 
the highest colored butter. Green 
corn, in which xanthophylls constitute 
the chief pigment, will also produce 
a highly colored product. On the 
other hand a ration of bleached clover 
hay and yellow corn is practically de- 
void of yellow pigments and the milk 
from cows fed upon it will gradually 
lose its color. It is, of course, indis- 
putably true that the breed does in- 
fluence the color of the milk fat; but 
vary the ration and there will be a 
corresponding variation in the color 
of the milk fat in each breed. 



HOLSTEINS, FROM JANSSEN 

Mr. Thomle, of Stanwood, recently 
took over 24 Holstein cows high 
grade and a pure-bred bull from J. F. 
Janssen, of Seattle. 

The sire is a descendent of Cor- 
nucapia Pauline — 34 y, z lbs. butter 
fat in seven days and the whole herd 
have excellent milk and butter fat 
records. Mr. Thomle is in line for 
some high record producers and as 
a leader in his cooperative dairy dis- 
trict will keep close to the pure bred 
line with no uncertainty about the 



THE NORTHWEST 

producing capacity of the cows. 

Mr. Janssen shipped a carload to 
Hawkins & Morton, Albany, Oregon, 
including 19 grade Holsteins, 1 pure 
bred heifer and the registered sire 
Pietertje Aggie Yuel. There is a 
constant demand for young cows, 
heifers, and cows coming fresh and 
for sires with authenticated records. 
A large number of individual selec- 
tions were made last month. 



STATE COLLEGE HOLSTEIN COW 



Angel, Holstein, Gives 94 Pounds of 
Milk Daily. 

Angel, a purebred Holstein cow, 
owned by the State College, Pullman 
Washington, has established a new 
record for milk production on the col> 
lege farm. Angel, during one month, 
has produced an average of 94 pounds 
of milk per day, and to give her re- 
lief she is milked four times daily. 
The record cow consumes nearly 
twice as much food each day as the 
average animal on the farm, and is 
valued at $800. The test is being 
conducted by Professor A. B. Nystrom 
head of the dairy department, and 
will be continued for a year. 



JERSEY ECONOMICAL PRODUCER 

The registered Jersey cow, Louise 
of Shadylawn Farm, at- state College, 
Pullman, Wash., weighing 750 to 775 
pounds produced 919.7 pounds milk 
during the month of April, with an 
average test of 4.7 per cent. fat. 
During May her milk yield was 1132.7 
pounds. The feed was mostly pas- 
ture, her grain ration being as low 
as 3 pounds daily. 

This cow produced the second 
month almost one and one helf times 
her own weight of milk and figuring 
the milk to contain 13 per cent, total 
solids this would amount to 143 
pounds of dry matter or approxi- 
mately one fifth of her own weight. 
This is all digestible matter and 
shows how the dairy cow is the most 
economical producer of human food 
of any of our farm animals. 

R. E. HUNDERMARK. 



ENGLISH FRUIT CROP LIGHT 

According to information received 
by the Northwestern Fruit Exchange 
the fruit crop in England, particular- 
ly the apple, is below normal. 

The season of 1914 will go on re- 
cord as one of the most unfortunate 
ever experienced by fruit growers of 
England, according to this source of 
information. 



SOUR MILK FOR CALVES 

Sour milk fed in summer to calves 
is all right and does not lead to 
scours when kept clean, soured quick- 
ly and fed without delay according 
to experiments by the U. S. Depart 
ment of Agriculture. It is not neces- 
sary to go to any expense to keep 
the milk sweet for calves, but the 
sour milk is not relished so well at a 
low temperature. 



SCRUB SIRES UNPROFITABLE 

The scub sire has done inestimable 
damage to the quality of Washington 
livestock. He is a curse to his owner, 
who is cursed by his neighbors. The 
pure bred sire that is backed by par- 
ents and grandparents of high merit 
will add quality to the offspring of 
your herd, is the opinion expressed 
by the State College, Pullman .Wash- 
ington in the College News Letter. It 
is evident that the leading dairymen 



HORTICULTURIST 

Flies Can't Stand It 

but it doesn't hurt the milk — use 

fllLYS FLY 
lsE"«5 KILLER 

freely on your stock — it'll save you 
money which means making money. 

All Dealers 35c quart, 
"Don't Sit on the Cow's Tail" $1 .00 gallon, $3.50 for 5 gallons. 

The CHAS. H. LILLY COMPANY, Seattle 




Live Stock Market 

Send for our quatations on cattle, hogs, sheep, poultry and hides. 
We buy stock cattle. 

Try the parcel post service for our meats; anything in the packed 

line. 

Occasionally we have some good dairy cows. 
Write, giving particulars. 

Tacoma Meat Company 



1508 Pacific Ave. 



TACOMA, WASH. 




We offer practically purebred cattle of the noted Hengerveld breed- 
ing, close up to the 10,000-pound-per-year capacity of milk, but unregis- 
tered; therefore we can deliver them at lower prices than is required 
for the registered Holsteins. For milk and butter fat production some of 
these cows are unsurpassed and we supply single animals or in or- 
dinary herd lots. 

We also have some noted purebred cows and sires. Please let us 
know the number and the kind of cows you have in view to obtain in 
the near future. 

JOHN F. JANSSEN, 

"The Quality Buyer" 



523 BAILEY BLDG. 



SEATTLE, .WASH. 



AYRSHIEES 

Herd of 300 registered animals to select from. Has made three 
World's records for production. Write for catalog and prices. 
J. W. Clise, Owner WILLOWMOOR FARMS, 

Redmond, Washington 



HOLSTEIN HOME 

Home of Maldeta Canary Mercedes, grand champion at Washington State Fair 
1913, and the record price cow ($1800) west of the Rockies. If you want a 
bull of the producing and show kind to head your herd let me tell you about 
some of my young ones. 



E. B. MARKS, Proprietor 



North Yakima, Washington 



HAMPSHIRE SWINE "JDfffJS 

Has them all beat for rustling and making the most meat at the least 
cost. It is the bacon hog for the Coast section. Large litters. Get 
your foundation stock from 

W. P. TYLER, Route 1, Granger, Wash. 




Oregon 



A herd of the best blood of the best 
strains headed by Champion of the 
Northwest No. 107287, a boar that has 
never been outclassed at any age. 
Write for prices. 

THE E. N. PEASLEE CO., 
Clarkston, Wash. 



Collie KennelS Established 42 
years. 

Choice Puppies 

(either sex) 
Breeding: Pairs 
B 1 1 o h e a In 
whelp and stud 
tfoa;s for sale. 

Send 2c stamp 
for Illustrated 

catalog. 

o. D. xrAmtr 

Shadeland 
Farms 

B. F. D. I 

Amity, Oregon 




THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



163 



of the Northwest including those of 
Oregon, Idaho and Washington, are 
in line for better sires for their 
dairy herds. Better herds, right feed- 
ing, proper management and sanitary 
products are the things sought by 
those who are realizing a satisfactory 
margin of profit. They will not waste 
time with sires of uncertain breeding. 



HOLSTEIN SALE 

The Holstein sale at the Union Stock 
Yards of the Carmichael herd and 
other consignments was very success- 
ful. Arthur Edwards, Turner, Oregon, 
paid the top price $425 for a pure 
bred cow. P. A. Frakes, Scappoase, 
Oregon, paid $275 for a 3-year regist- 
ered cow, and 335 for another. Chas. 
Barnard, Beaverton, Oregon, bounght 
several at $300 to $325 each. E. B. 
Marks, North Yakima, paid $275 for 
a registered 2 year old heifer. The 
27 females sold for an average of 
$289.44 and the 6 bulls brought an 
average of $139.17 each. 



PARKER'S PRACTICAL DAIRY 
FARM 

About four miles from Mt. Vernon 
is located the valuable dairy farm of 
Mr. Jasper Parker, who is a practical 
example of successful dairying in this 
part of the state. He has 185 acres of 
land all in cultivation, with three 
large barns, besides a milking barn, 
which is 38x154 feet, with capacity 
for 100 cows. His herd consists ot 
30 registered and 94 grade Holsteins. 
Mr. Parker has been careful for years 
past to use only pure bred sires, back- 
ed by records of high merit," and in 
every generation he has obtained im- 
proved milking records of his cows. 
The feed is raised on the place. This 
year about 350 tons of ensilage is 
produced, also clover, mixed hay, 
oats, barley, and mangels. The milk 
has been sold to the condensor for 
nearly eight years for- an average 
price of about $1.60 per hundred 
pounds. 

Testing for individual merit of each 
cow has been carried on for about 
four years, and through an association 
one year. On July 15 two cows of 
this herd will be entered for official 
test. The health of the entire herd 
is good, all being tuberculin tested 
when over one year of age. 

Here are correct methods in prac- 
tice for successful dairying — good 
cows, with a constant aim to improve 
each generation, gradually develop- 
ing an entire herd of pure-breds. 
There is an aim to feed all that the 
farm produces in grain and grasses 
and to grow all the feed required for 
the dairy herd. 



Insures 
Full Milk 
Pail 

Cows give more milk 
and make milking 
safer and easier when 
not bothered and bit- 
ten by flies. Relieve 
' their distress by spraying them with 

Conkey's Fly Knocker 

Gives cattle the peace and comfort that insures 
more milk, greater weight and productiveness- 
Does not harm skin nor coat 

Keeps Flies Away 
From Cattle and Horses 

One ounce sprays two animals. 
TRY IT 15 DAYS, Money Back if Not Satisfied 
Try a can today. Gallon $1.00, 5 Gallon $4.00. i 
Sold by most dealers. 
Inland prices: Gallon 
$1.25; 5 Gallon $5.50. 

The G. E. Conkey 
Company 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Coast Distributor! 

Seattle Seed Company. 

Seattle 
Inland Seed Company. 

Spokane 
Routledge Seed& Floral 
Company. Portland 



Conkey's fly Knocker 

Is Sold by 
POOLE'S SEED & IMPLEMENT CO. 

1507 Pacific Ave., Tacoma, Wash. 

Write or call for it 



HOLSTEIN BULL FOR SALE 

Chimacum Aaggie Cornucopia No. 
64100, H. F. H. B., bred by M. S. 
Nye, Preble, New York. Calved 
August 15th, 1909. His grandam 
Aaggie Cornucopia Pauline is a 34- 
1b. cow. Sired by Aaggie Cornu- 
copia Johanna Lad Junior No. 36,- 
974 H. F. H. B. Dam Onda Doro- 
thy Concordia Paul No. 67853 H. F. 
H. B. A splendid animal, his 
youngsters are making excellent 
records. 

A few choice cows for sale. Write 
for prices or call. 

F. I. MEAD 
524 California Bldg. Tacoma 



FOR SALE 

Guernsey Bulls 

Strongly bred from highly test- 
ing ancestors. Writs for Particulars 

Plateau Farm 

TASHON, WASH. 

B. M. SHIPLEY, Proprietor, 
Haller Bldg., Seattle. 



PUGET SOUND HERD 

Holstein-Friesian Cattle 
Duroc Jersey Swine 

Home of Sir Chimacum Wayne, the 
world's greatest milk and butter bull; 
"Chimacum Wayne Boon" (dam of the 
above) A. R. O. record at 4 years 33.69 
lbs. butter in 7 days, 137.26 lbs. in 30 
days, and full sister "Alice Veeman 
Hengervelt," butter at 4 years 28.04 
lbs. "Doris King of the Pontiacs," the 
best bred daughter of "King of the 
Pontiacs" in the West; she is sister 
to the 44-lb. cow. 

75 A. R. O. cows in herd. All bulls 
for sale are from official tested dams. 

Wm. Bishop, Chimacum, Wash. 

Chicona Farm 
Guernseys 

A few registered bull calves from 
heavy producing dams and sired by bulls 
of the best blood lines. Address 



GUERNSEY MILESTONES 

The making of World's records 
and the attention they attract to the 
breed that holds the pennant is of un- 
doubted advantage. There are many, 
however, from other states than Mis- 
souri who wish more extended in- 
formation. Was the cow "a freak" 
or is she the result of careful mat- 
ing and breeding of high producing 
ancestors? Can we so select and com- 
bine blood line or producing dams 
with pro.ved sires as to give assur- 
ance regarding the progeny, and the 
yield they will give? Can the breed- 
er determine what breed to select for 
his special market? Others wish to 
know not the phenomenal record 
made by some animal with extraor- 



A. It. GII.E, Prop. 



CHINOOK, Wash. 



dinary care and feed. They ask what 
may be expected from a herd of ten 
or more such as I can buy? What 
is the average production of the 
Guernsey cow in milk and butter fat? 

To obtain these figures with any 
degree of accuracy we must turn to 
the Advanced register records. As 
the number available increases, the 
more readily the answers can be 
given. More than 3000 yearly records 
of Guernsey cows have now been 
completed. These show an average 
milk yield of 8544 lbs. milk and 
426.80 lbs. butter fat. Considerably 
over one-third of these were for heif- 
ers with their first calf, which makes 
the showing more credible. 564 of 
the total gave from 10,000 to 19,000 
lbs. of milk and from 500 to 1000 lbs. 
of butter fat. 

The limit of production is not yet 
reached. The individual and the 
average yield of milk and butter for 
Guernseys is steadily growing. The 
Guernsey cow not only heads the list 
at the present time over all breeds, 
but seems likely to hold it. 
Peterboro, N. H., July 1, 1914. 

Wm. H. Caldwell, Sec'y 



J 



ERSEY 
COWS 



Some of the greatest pro- 
ducers in the world. 

Buy 20 young cows or heif- 
ers from me and I'll head 
them with a Great Young 
Bull— FREE. 

E. L. Brewer 

Satsop, "Wash. 



Registered Jerseys 



BERKSHIRE 
SWINE 

Some choice cattle out of St. Lam- 
bert and Adam Stevens breeding. Pure 
bred, prize winning Berkshires, Shire 
horses and pure-bred poultry. Write 
for prices. 

A. G. WOODWARD 
Route 1, Box 12 Fairbanks, Wash. 

REGISTERED DUROCS 

(Immune to Cholera) 

All ages for sale, male or female, from 
prolific families. 

Shamrock Wander heads the herd. 
Shamrock Daisy farrowed 12 pigs. 
Shamrock Rose farrowed 14 pigs. 
Selah Agness farrowed 16 pigs. 
Write for prices. 
A. H. IRISH, Wapato, Wash. 

SOLID LIGHT COLORED JERSEY 
BULL CALF 

Born October 10th, 1913; sire one of 
. the best sons of Eminent; dam an Amer- 
ican bred cow strong in the blood of 
Tormentor and Pedro; this cow is on 
test for the Register of Merit and in 
first six months produced 5665 lbs. milk. 

Price of calf $75, registered and 
crated. 

DAVID C. DILWORTH Opportunity, Wash. 



Berkshires 

Very prolific, early maturing 
stock of high quality. Some fine 
youngsters ready for delivery. Sat- 
isfaction assured. 

PETER HANSON, 

Box 62, East Stanwood, Wash. 



BERKSHIRES 

Choicest Stock— All Ages 
NEWTON H. PEER 

TACOMA or QUINCY, WASHINGTON 




WRITE FOR CATALO O 

TCI CHAS. M. TALMAD 



1 Box 3 



NEWPORT.™ 



Electric Light Farm 

A. J. C.C. Jerseys 

FOR SALE 

Son of Gertie's Brown Lad whose 
dam has official record of 653 lbs. 
butter in one year. The dam of 
this 5-months-old calf made over 
10,000 lbs. milk and 595y 2 lbs. but- 
ter with first calf. Solid color, mul- 
berry fawn, priced at $100.00 for 
quick sale. 

Burt Pease Ellensburg, Wash. 



n egistered 

*^ Jerseys 

Young bulls from heavy producers 
For Sale 
Also some choice pure bred 

Poland China Pigs 

Write for prices 

E. L. Lloyd 

Box 466 Monroe, Wash. 



Purebred Durocs 
and Berkshires 

Very choice young Duroc pigs of- 
fered at reasonable prices. Early 
application should be made. 

Berkshires — We are offering 
some good breeding sows to make 
room for others. We buy and sell 
large quantities of choice hams and 
bacon. Quality is our motto. 
Write today. 

AUGUSTINE & KYER 
115 First St. Seattle, Wash 



O.I.C.Hogs 



Pigs farrowed in May, 
from my Champion 
and Grand Champion 
sows at 1913 Washing- 
Fnnlich QhirP ton State Fair are now 
Lliyildll Ollll C booked to fill orders at 
HnPCPC weaning time. All 

■ ■Ul 31/3 stock sold strictly 

first class. English 
Shirestallionslto3years old. Write for prices. 
A. L. PIERCE, Granger, Wash. 



English Berkshires 

Sunset Duke the 4th, 156579, heads 
my Registered Herd. Champion Sow 
1912-13 State Fairs. 
Write for prices and particulars. 
J. A. SIMONSON, 
North Yakima, Wash. 



GOOD REGISTERED BERKSHIRES — 

Choice pigs, $10 each at weaning time. 
W. D. GOOD. Mt. Vernon. Wash. 



D 



UROC PIGS 

REGISTERED and REA- 
SONABLE. EITHER SEX 

J. HANKS ft SON, Ellensburg, Wash. 

FOR REGISTERED DUROC JERSEY 

bred sows and male pigs, write McK. 
Edwards, Valley, Wash. 

Fine Registered 
Duroc Jersey Pigs 

For Sale — Young Pigs, Brood Sows 
and extra fine Herd Boars. Write 

JAS. S. COURTNEY 
White Salmon, Wash. R.F.D. No. 1 



OME CHOICE PURE BRED and 

cracking good 



3 to 7 months old 
Write us for prices. 
Herd of Berkshires 



'The B.K.M. 



WOODLAND FARM, 

Lacey, Thurston County, Washington 



"DAY'S BIG FIVE" Overalls— Shirts — Pants, are the working men's favorite, on account of their long wear. Every pair guaranteed. 



164 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



Public Sale of 

HOLSTEINS 

Mount Vernon, Wash. 
July 25, 1014 at 10 A. M. 



on THOMPSON FARM 

one half mile 0 ut on Riverside Drive 



40 Head Registered Holsteins, cows and heifers. 

5 Head of Registered Bulls, with excellent ancestral records 
and noted breeding. 

20 Head of high grade Cows and Heifers. 

Herd Tuberculin Tested by State Authority. 

This will be the largest and best offering of registered 
Holsteins ever made on Puget Sound, and all who are interested 
either as a prospective buyer or in the development of the dairy 
industry are welcome. 

Further particulars on request. 





GEO. A. GUE, Auctioneer. 
Ridgefield, Wash. 



E. H. TMOMPSON, Prop. 

Mt. Vernon, Wash. 




fa 



O 

fa 

fa 
< 



X 



fa 

< 
fa 



Mortgage Lifters 

Have You a Mortgage on Your Farm? 

IF SO OR NOT 
BUY HIGH CLASS GRADE HOLSTEIN DAIRY COWS 
FROM THE 
SPOKANE GRAIN CO. 
THE COWS WILL DO THE REST. 
IF YOU CANNOT BUY COWS, BUY HOLSTEIN 
CALVES. WE HAVE BOTH FOR SALE, AND GOOD 
ONES. COME AND SEE US. IF YOU CANNOT COME, 
WRITE US. 

The May shipment of high class cows is ready for imme- 
diate delivery. 

Spokane Grain Company 

Phone Sidney 444 4915 Eighth Ave. So. 

SEATTLE, WASH. 




Registered 
Guernseys 

and 

Registered 
Holsteins 



Considering the warm and dry- season the demand for Guernseys 
has been good the past month. With cheaper feed and hrm prices for 
butter fat there is every indication for a brisk demand for choice 
Guernseys in the early fall. As they are not too plentiful, the pros- 
pective buyer should lose no time to provide for a selection while we 
are making up orders for early fall shipments. 

In Holsteins we have heifers and some cows 2 to 4 years old, nearly 
all fresh cows of excellent dairy- type and good yielders. Our young 
calves are attracting much attention, and most of them can hardly fail 
to make noted records, for they have high record breeding and correct 
form. 

We can supply both Registered Holstein service bulls and bull 
calves and fresh cows for immediate orders, but would advise early 
application for those requiring them now or in the near future. 

Please write specifying wants or make appointment to call. 

FRYAR & COMPANY 



Please Mention 
This Paper. 



SUMNER, WASH. 




HOLSTEIN Shipment Arrived July 13 

A very choice lot of registered and high grade cows, fully equal to 
any we have previously brought and sold. 

The registered stock consists of cows and heifers of the best breed- 
ing and from families of noted milk and butter fat producing records, 
ideal dairy type and individuality. A number of them are in calf to 
good son of the King of the Pontiacs. 

Full particulars concerning records and pedigrees on application. 

In high grade cows we have some very choice specimens sure to be 
profit makers in any dairy herd with ordinary care. 

Good judges of cows have an excellent opportunity to pick some good 
specimens and we suggest immediate investigation or appointment of 
date to call. 

VAN WOERDEN & FISHER 

Seattle Phone, Sidney 767. THOMAS, WASH. 

On Interurban, half way between Tacoma and Seattle. 
Please mention this paper 



Please mention tnls paper 



Please mention this paper 



THE WORLD'S RECORD DAIRY COW 

THE GUERNSEY COW 



MAY RILMA 



Gives 



19673 lbs. milk 




Containing 1073.41 lbs, butter fat 

IN 365 DAYS may rilma 22761: a. r. 1726 

MAKING HER THE CHAMPION DAIRY COW OF ALL BREEDS 

Write for the story of this cow's work and receive with it 
general literature about the breed 

AMERICAN GUERNSEY CATTLE CLUB Box N. W. Peterboro, N. H." 



Twenty-seventh Year 



TACOMA AND SEATTLE, WASH., AUGUST, 1914 



No. ( 8 



I 



Serious Complications 
for Exporting 

The gravity of complications arising 
from the general European war is 
demonstrated particularly in the con- 
ditions surrounding exports. With 
most of the ships flying foreign flags 
and subject to blockage or capture, 
the possibility of exports from the 
United States this season is small 
indeed. 

At no time in the history of the 
country has the need for American 
vessels been seen more than at this 
time — at no time has the lack of 
same been so clearly evidenced. The 
Northwestern section depends upon 
its fruit export markets to a great 
extent. Not only is this in a specific 
way, but generally for the tying up 
of exports will throw millions of bar- 
rels of apples back upon our domestic 
markets, thereby hampering distribu- 
tion efforts as a whole. 

The following telegram was sent by 
the Northwestern Fruit Exchange to 
senators and representatives from 
Oregon in Washington: 

"The interests of Northwestern ap- 
ple and pear growers as well as 
those of every fruit grower in the 
United States are vitally involved in -. ( ;. 
proposal to admit foreign vessels to p ^ 
American registry. Exports of fresh M 
apples from the United States aver- 3 
aged for last three years approxi-9 
mately two and a half million bar-y 
rels annually, including boxes figured 
at three to barrel. All but insignifi- 
cant proportion of this tonnage has 
been transported in foreign bottoms, 
principally British and German. With 
transportation available probably over 
three million barrels including boxes 
will find market in Europe this sea- 
son; without it this surplus will be 
thrown back on domestic markets 
with results probably disastrous. We 
urge fullest protection for this im- 
portant export." 

To strengthen the plea for aid in 
this direction, a letter has been sent 
out to all the Northwestern branches 
of the organization asking them to 
urge their representatives in office to 
take action immediately along these 
lines. 

To newspapers, bankers, trades- 
people and the general public the ne- 
cessity for relief of the conditions 
caused by the present conflict cannot 
help but prove apparent. 

Readers will do well to urge upon 
as many members of congress as pos- 
sible to take speedy action in pro- 
viding for exporting our surplus fruits 
and produce. 



When a group of dairymen will get 
together for the purpose of buying 
some good cows and dairy equip- 
ment, will adopt painstaking methods, 
good feeding plans, guard against un- 
necessary expense, use ordinary in- 
telligence and some degree of regu- 
larity in the necessary work with 
their stock, then they are in shape 
to command the necessary finance at 
a reasonable interest rate. A coun- 
try banker once said that during a 
time of stringency he was obliged to 
turn away some borrowers, but the 
farmer who habitually was seen with 



in June. With but little other grain 
feed added they are now keeping up 
the milk flow of their herds in good 
shape, while those without silos have 
more or less difficulty, because the 
pastures are drying up even on the 
richest and best hay lands. It is 
safe to say that silos will be greatly 
multiplied in this section by another 
year, and in preparation for the feed 
crop, there will be considerable seed- 
ing of clover in September with later 
sowings of oats and vetch. Quite a 
number of the farmers are growing 
corn for silage, now being able to 




A record of over 100 pounds milk a day and over 20,000 pounds a year. 



a little cow manure on his boots was 
always a safe credit risk. 

In one of the implement stores of 
Tacoma recently a clerk had a pros- 
pective customer for a cream separ- 
ator, being a stranger and able to 
make only a very small payment, the 
question of sale was put up to the 
manager, who said: "Yes, if he is 
a dairyman let him have it. I have 
never lost any money when selling to 
a dairyman." As a rule a good dairy- 
man has no trouble to borrow money 
and it is easier still when a number 
of farmers work together under some 
practical operating plan. 



CREDIT BASIS FOR DAIRYMEN. 

A good basis for credit is integrity, 
carect plans and faithful service. 



SKAGIT COUNTY FARMING. 

Hay and oat raising is yet a lead- 
ing feature of Skagit county farming, 
particularly on the rich tide land 
flats, but gradually the dairy herds 
are enlarging as the condensors and 
creameries offer increased markets 
for milk and cream. The change to 
dairying necessitates the growing of 
more clover and vetch. Quite a num- 
ber of the dairy farmers had good 
crops of oats and vetch, seeded mixed 
early last fall, and put into the silo 



obtain acclimated seed. 

The prevailing dairy breed through- 
out the valley is Holstein, mostly high 
grade, above the average as produc- 
ers. A few enterprising breeders 
have introduced pure bred stock, 
among them J. H. Hulbert, Jasper 
Parker, Otto Rundgren and E. H. 
Thompson. 

In some of these herds are cows 
yielding about 100 pounds milk per 
day, and the neighboring dairymen 
are just beginning to realize the 
value of good breeding whereby these 
heavy producers can be bred and 
raised with some degree of certainty. 

The introduction and successful 
operation of the milking machine will 
cause a more rapid transformation 
from grain and hay growing to dairy- 
ing. 



FALL SEEDING. 

Much advantage is to be gained by 
farmers in the Coast section through 
early fall seeding. Clover sown in 
the early part of September last year 
produced a bumper silage crop in 
June, with a second crap now coming 
on. Oats and vetch seeded in early 



fall produced a large crop by the 
last of spring, affording time for a 
second crop this season. The kale 
and some of the turnip crops may be 
seeded here in early September to 
produce feed through the winter. 
There are great opportunities for 
some profit margins in dairying in 
the Coast section, providing the cost 
of feed is reduced to the minimum 
and that can best be done by giving 
careful attention to the practice of 
early fall seeding in the cropping 
plan. 



THE EIGHT HOUR LAW. 

Most farmers take the view that 
the proposed universal eight-hour law 
does not remedy existing difficulties, 
while it unnecessarily burdens and 
handicaps farming operations. In its 
broadest sense service is a privilege. 
The problem is rather that of ade- 
quate reward based not only on a 
specific measure of individual service, 
but in addition thereto the benefits 
and responsibilities accrued because 
of the group or community. In many 
cases the eight-hour law will compel 
the laborer to work all the harder 
searching for his job, while the far- 
mer would be unable to adjust con- 
ditions for his own interests in such 
manner as to remove the dilema of 
the servant. The problem of justly 
sharing the rewards of toil is not 
solved by the eight-hour law. 



SOUTH AMERICAN MARKETS. 

The Pacific Coast fruit growers, 
farmers and manufacturers have now 
an excellent opportunity to get into 
the South American markets which 
were formerly held by the Germans. 
We should send representatives there, 
ascertain what is wanted, in what 
form, then supply the goods to please 
them. 

We should have more refrigeration 
equipment, both in the fruit districts 
and at the sea ports. Cooling rooms 
with temperature ranging from 50 to 
55 degrees, without sudden changes, 
prolongs the keeping quality of many 
of the fruits and green stuffs. By 
careful attention engineering prob- 
lems of storage are not difficult of 
solution. The main plan of import- 
ance is to make a survey of South 
American market conditions, then 
make immediate preparations to fill 
their needs. 



The war cloud looks thick and 
black. The present prospects are 
that Europe will require an immense 
ameunt of foodstuffs. That being the 
case we should prepare at once for 
real farming, figuring on the produc- 
tion of bumper yields of the classes 
and varieties of products which can 
be stored for some length of time if 
necessary. 



168 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



NORTHWEST 



HORTICULTURIST 

Agriculturist and Dairyman. 

C. A. TONNESON, 
Editor and Proprietor. 



among the slumps to cover the seed 
as best they can. This affords pas- 
ture by another season and gradually 
the stumps can be taken out from 
year to year as opportunity affords. 



fubscriptions 50 Cents per Year when 
aid in Advance. Otherwise 75 Cents. 
Six Months, 80c. Three Months, 20o 

in Advance. 
Canadian, other foreign, also when deliv- 
ered y carrier in Tacoraa, 75c a year. 
Subscribers will indicate the time for 

which they wish the paper continued. 
Payments are due one year in advance. 

Address all Communications to ths 
Tecoma Office 
■OSTICUITTJRIST, Box 1604, Tacoma, 
Wash. 

Office, 511 Chamber of Commerce 
Building, Tacoma, Wash. 

Seattle Office 

420 Globe Bldg-, Constantine Advertising Agency 
Established October, 1887. 
Entered as Second Class Matter at the 
Postofflce at Tacoma, Wash., under Act 
of March 3, 1879. 

EDITORIAL 8TAFF CONTRIBUTORS 

Geo. Severance, State College Agri- 
culturist. 
Byron Hunter, Agriculturist. 
W. A. Linklater, Supt Exp. Sta. 
H. L. Blanchard, Poultry and Dairy. 
J. L. Stahl, Horticulturist. 
S. O. Jayne, Irrigation, Dept. Agr. 
S. B. Nelson, Veterinarian. 



Vetch and oats seeded in the fall 
in the Coast section, then cut and put 
into a properly built silo in June, has 
solved the problem of keeping up the 
milk flow during the dry summer 
months quite satisfactorily for a good 
number of our leading dairymen. Fall 
seeding of these crops is now the 
program of Coast dairymen. Seeds- 
men should be advised early as pos- 
sible of prospective orders that they 
may stock up sufficiently to meet all 
demands, for it is likely to be heavy 
and late buyers might be disappoint- 
ed in their seeding plans. 



There will be a gradual advance on 
foodstuffs as the war progresses, 
though the government will curb 
speculation when carried beyond rea- 
sonable bounds. Increase of market 
prices is likely to make producers in- 
different about the movement now on 
foot to get closer to consumers un- 
less special attention is devoted to 
the get-together marketing plans and 
the control which is within the farm- 
ers' grasi. Producers cannot afford 
to take any backward step in their 
efforts to associate together for con- 
ducting the business of selling. 



The Czar of Russia says it is in- 
admissible to permit the favorable 
financial position of the state to de- 
pend on the destruction of the moral 
and economic strength of the great 
multitude of Russian citizens when 
speaking about the liquor question. 
Money making or revenue from liquor 
is becoming unpopular with all civil- 
ized governments. 



DAIRY COWS AND STUMPS. 

The dairy cow will be a leading 
factor in the logged-off land problem. 
The rich valley lands of the Coast 
section within easy reach of trans- 
portation pays out on the cost of 
clearing in a few years. It is the up- 
land clay soils with stumps which 
are slow in being developed, but 
much of this is worth from $10 to $25 
per acre for pasturage. Some of our 
leading dairymen seed clover and 
mixed varieties of grass seed on this 
stump land in the early part of Sep- 
tember, harrowing or hand-raking 



SOUTH AMERICAN MARKETS FOR 
CANNED GOODS 

Although South America imports 
about $15,000,000 worth of canned 
goods annually, the United States 
furnishes only about 18 per cent, of 
the total, of which the principal item 
is canned salmon. That the sales of 
canned goods in this field can be 
greatly increased is the opinion of 
Commercial Agent E. A. Thayer, of 
the Department of Commerce, who 
recently completed an investigation of 
the Latin-American markets for this 
line of goods. 

The results of this investigation are 
incorporated in a monograph issued 
by the Bureau of Foreign and Dom- 
estic Commerce. This publication 
treats of the consumers' preferences, 
sales methods, pure-food laws, credit 
terms, shipping costs, and other sub- 
jects in the various countries of in- 
terest to American Canners. Copies 
of the monograph (special Agents 
Series No. 87) may be obtained from 
the Superintendent of Documents, 
Washington, D. C, for five cents each. 



ESTIMATED WASHINGTON FRUIT 
CROP 

The estimated fruit crop of Wash- 
ington by Assistant Commissioner T. 
O. Morrison of the department of 
agriculture show an expectation of 16- 
500 cars of fruit for shipment this 
year, against 11, 271 last year and 
15,055 in 1912. Increase is expected 
over last year's production in all of 
the fruit districts of the state, but 
only in the Wenatchee valley and 
Ferry-Stevens county districts is an 
increase expected over 1912. The 
largest increase being in the Wenat- 
chee valley, where it is expected that 
6,800 cars of fruit will be shipped 
against 4,972 last year and 4,912 in 
1912. 

"In Western Washington," says 
the report, " the numbers of can- 
neries greatly exceed those of Eas- 
tern Washington, even though the 
bulk of the fruit crop is produced 
in Eastern Washington, only two can- 
neries being reported from the east 
side of state. Estimate is placed upon 
the Sumner and Puyallup canneries, 
the largest in the state, as having 
an output this year of 470 cars of 
canned goods. The prune crop for 
Clarke county is estimated at 1,500,- 
000 pounds, and the berry product 
of the Island districts is placed at 240 
cars. 

The fruit crops of Oregon, Idaho, 
and Montana combined, will be a 
little less than that of Washington. 
The yield is up to normal and con- 
siderable new acreage is bearing for 
the first time. 



FRUIT DIRECT TO SOUTH 
AMERICA 



Markets Somewhat Limited. 

The South American markets are 
being canvassed by the personal 
representative, George C. Gaede, of 
the Northwestern Fruit Exchange, of 
Portland, who sailed from New York 
on May 30th for Buenos Ayes, and is 
still in South America, where he la 
meeting with most encouraging suc- 
cess. Deals involving over 30,000 
boxes of Northwestern apples have 



been closed, with other deals pending, 
cables received by the Portland head- 
quarters of the Exchange. 

For the first time Northwestern 
fruit growers will get the full benefit 
of the sales in these markets. Buenos 
Ayres and Rio are both notoriously 
high-priced markets, and for years, 
New York and London middlemen 
have monopolized this trade, buying 
at the cheapest possible prices from 
growers in the Northwest, and turn- 
ing the most deals at a very hand- 
some profit for themselves. While 
this was perfectly legitimate busi- 
ness, the Exchange regards this busi 
ness in exactly the same light it 
does the European business; namely, 
that the straightest lines between 
producers and consumers, consistent 
with practical methods, promise 
maximum results for producers and 
the best service and protection for 
consumers. 

In both Rio and Buenos Ayres, box- 
ed apples have in the past been sell- 
ing as high as $16.00 per box gold, 
while the same fruit has netted the 
growers out here only ordinary prices. 
This condition is not conducive to the 
good of either the consumer or the 
Northwest farmer, and members of 
the exchange are therefore congratu- 
lating themselves on the opening of 
these valuable markets that have 
been closed on them, except indirect, 
heretofore. 

The Exchange's cabled advices are 
to the effect that these South Ameri- 
can markets, while valuable, are 
quite limited, and that engagements 
have already been made for practi- 
cally the entire season's requirements 
and that a warning should be given 
against consignments to those mar- 
kets unless an outlet is fully ar- 
ranged for in advance on the other 
end. It is stated that unless these 
conditions are fully met, disaster 
awaits the unwary shipper. As 
freight rates from the Pacific Coast 
to Buenos Ayres are very high (about 
$1.75 per box; through via New 
Yory) only those with the very best 
connections and detailed knowledge 
of the financial and business con- 
dition prevalent in those countries 
should attempt this traffic. 



in the development of Southwest 
Washington. It encourages every hon- 
est endeavor to build up the rural in- 
dustry and the farmers of this dis- 
trict are fortunate to be within reach 
of a bank whose managers so thor- 
oughly understand the principles and 
conditions essential for the welfare 
and comfort of those engaged in farm- 
ing in that part of the state. 



GOOD SEED TESTS 

Among a large number of public 
schools which obtained seed for test 
and planting plots, the school at Win- 
lock, Wash., reported to Aabling and 
Ebright Seed Company, Seattle, don- 
ors, results showing that the seed 
from their firm surpassed that of 
several others in vitality. 

On S. B. Cauliflower, Danish Cab- 
bage and Victoria Rhubarb, the test 
was 100 per cent, and on a list of 
other garden and grass seed the re- 
cord was 95.264 per cent. Kentucky 
blue grass obtained by this firm has 
a purity test of 99.03 per cent. , The 
Aabling and Ebright Seed Company 
have erected a four story brick build- 
ing 40x60 feet to accommodate their 
increasing business. The first floor 
is devoted to the fertilizer depart- 
ment, the second to the wholesale, 
the third to storage of seeds, etc., 
and the fourth to poultry supplies 
and implements 



ALCOHOL IN FRUIT JUICES 

By a recent decision of the depart- 
ment all fruit juices to which al- 
cohol has been added must be plainly- 
labeled to show this if they are to 
be shipped in interstate commerce 
after September 1, 1914. In the opin- 
ion of the department such names as 
"Peach juice," "Cherry Juice" should 
be applied only to fruit juices which 
are unfermented and which con- 
tain no added sugar, alcohol, or 



Pears Wanted 

The Puyallup and Sumner Fruit 
Growers' Association can use quan- 
tities of pears for canning, to measure 
not less than 2*4 inches through the 
bell at $20 per ton, delivered at Puy- 
allup or Sumner. Pears should be 
picked grass green. Write 

W. H. PAULHAMUS, 
Pres. P. & S, F. G. Assn, Puyallup. 



The Coffman, Dobson & Co., Bank- 
ers, Chehalis, Wash., announced their 
thirtieth anniversary on August 11th. 
This institution has grown to be a 
powerful and most influential factor 



PEONIES 

The Beaverton Nursery, of Beaver- 
ton, Oregon, has purchased the en- 
tire stock of peonies formerly owned 
by E. J. Berneche, at Olympia. This 
collection of peonies is practically 
the only extensive collection of peon- 
ies west of Nebraska. There is no 
flower grown today which is so popu- 
lar as the peony. Some of the newer 
varieties being very far superior to 
the old-fashioned peony as most of 
us know it. 

Peonies are best when planted dur- 
ing the month of September, and 
when so planted will give bloom the 
following season. All parties inter- 
ested in flQwers should send to the 
Beaverton Nursery for a copy of their 
recently published catalog. This cata- 
log is the only one of its nature deal- 
ing with peonies only. 

The Beaverton Nursery is owned 
by Howard Evarts Weed, a well 
known landscape architect, who has 
had much experience in landscape 
gardening in the Northwest. Those 
in doubt about arrangement of orna- 
mental plantings are invited to send 
to Mr. Weed dimensions of their 
grounds, and he will make up a 
planting sketch showing where and 
what ornamentals should be planted 
thereon for best effects. 



WANTED 

A family with some experience in 
poultry raising and fruit growing 
to occupy an improved five acre 
water front property. An ideal and 
beautiful location with excellent mar- 
kets and of easy access. A little ready 
cash required. Will lease or join in 
a cooperative venture for a term of 
years. 

Address T. A. C, care Northwest 
Horticulturist and Dairyman, 
Box 1604, Tacoma, Wash. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



169 



other substances. In the past alcohol 
has been frequently added as a pre- 
servative to these preparations which 
are used for such purposes as flavor- 
ing beverages or preparing cordials. 
After September 1, however, goods 
that do not comply with the new 
ruling and indicate this fact on their 
labels will be denied entry into this 
country, and if found in interstate 
commerce will be subjected to appro- 
priate action by the authorities. 



CANNING FRUITS AND VEGE- 
TABLES. 

Home Methods Described by Justo 
P. Zavalla, before California 
Fruit Growers Convention. 
In all cases the fruit should be ot 
the best quality if high commercial 
grades are to be obtained. 

In the preparation of the raw ma- 
terial it has to be sorted as follows: 
First, according to size of fruit, large, 
medium, small; second, according to 
ripeness of fruit, green, medium, over, 
ripened; third, according to appear- 
ance, sound, blemished. 
In order to acomplish this oper- 
. ation the help should be furnished 
with wooden boxes or any other thing 
suited for that purpose in which 
to put the sorted fuit. 

This operation is one of the most 
important features of the different 
steps of canning and great care 
should be taken in order to be sure 
that they have been carried out. 

Apricots and peaches should be cut 
in halves, pitted and classified as fol- 
lows: Green, medium, solf, pie, blem- 
ished. Green fruit, this fruit is not 
perfectly ripe, but is of good size and 
sound. Medium fruit, fruit of an or- 
dinary size, sound and sometimes 
larger and in good condition of ripe- 
ness. The greatest portion of canned 
fruit belongs to this grade. Soft fruit 
this fruit is also of good size, and 
sound, but shows a greater degree of 
ripeness. Pie fruit, this fruit is over- 
ripened and should be used for pie 
making or the cheaper grades of fruit. 
Blemished fruit, in this sort of fruit 
we find all degrees of ripeness. This 
is not sound fruit, and is generally 
placed in what is called gallon pie 
can fruit, and placed in what is term- 
ed the "pie grade." After this opera- 
tion comes the peeling which can be 
done by hand or by the use of a 10 
per cent, solution of caustic soda. The 
temperature of the water should be 
kept at the boiling point, and the 
fruit should be submitted to the ac- 
tion of this solution from 30 to 40 
seconds, depending on the conditions 
of the fruit and the excess lye remov- 
ed immediately by washing. When 
peeling by hand the Pomona peeling 
knife is generally used and also the 
Carmichael pitting spoon. In all 
cases after fruit has been peeled it 
should be carefully washed before it 
is sent to the canning tables. 

Cherries, grapes, strawberries, rasp- 
berries, blackberries, etc., must be 
stemmed and classified according to 
what has been already mentioned. 

Plums have to be sorted according 
to size, apearance, degree of matur- 
ity and perfection of washing. Cher- 
ries and grapes are sometimes pitted, 
cherries by machine and grapes by 
hand. 

Pears have to be cut in halves, 
lengthwise, peeled, cored, and classi- 
fied according to size. In case sliced 
grades of peaches and apricots are 
to be prepared, this operation can 
be done by hand, using a well sharp- 
ened knife. 
Canning. 

The next important operation is the 
filling of the cans, which is done by 
hand and according to standard 
weights, depending on the size of the 
cans. 

To give a better understanding of 
the weight of the cans filled with fruit 
■without the syrup, the different grades 
and also the number of pieces that 
' each can contains is given in the 
following table: 

PEARS 

During the operation of filling the 
cans plenty of water should be used 
in order to wash the fruit thoroughly 
and avoid the browning of the pears 
when they are left dry. The pieces 
in the cans should be so arranged as 



to leave plenty of room for the syrup 
and also to obtain the required 
weights. 

Special care should be taken in the 
matter of sorting the fruit before it 
is put into the cans, in order to obtain 
a uniform pack. The cans used 
for canning purposes should be 
stamped with a simple combination of 
letters in order to identify the con- 
centration of syrup that should be 
added and also the length of time 
that they should be cooked. A prev- 
ious operation to filling the cans is 
the washing of them. 
Syruping and Preparation of the 

Syrups. 

In general the syrup can be pre- 
pared in a tank. The sugar and water 
may be boiled by a current of steam 
or by other means. When the foam 
which appears at the surface of the 
boiling syrup goes down to the bot- 
tom of the tanK it is ready to be 
racked into another tank in which it 
is diluted to the required gravity. The 
syrup before being used should be 
carefully filtered. In this way it will 
show a bright color and consequently 
a good appearance in the cans. In 
the preparation of syrups it is neces- 
sary to use a therometer in order to 
know the temperature of the syrup 
and the corrections to be made ac- 
cording to the readings registered by 
the hydrometer. To use the hydro- 
meter fill a glass cylinder with the 
syrup to be tested and insert the 
hydometer. Read the per cent, sugar 
at the surface of the liquid. A Balline 
hydrometer is best for this purpose. 
In order to fill the cans with the cor- 
rect degree of syrup it is necessary 
to identify the grade of fruit they 
contain by looking at the combina- 
tion of letters that we have referred 
to in a previous paragraph. The 
temperature of the syrup as well as 
the Balling must be read to get an 
accurate idea of the true per cent, of 
sugar. By use of the following rule 
the temperature correction is easily 
made. 

Temperature Corrections for Sugar 
Tests Hot Syrups. 

Take sugar per cent, by Balling 
hydrometer and Fahrenheit tempera- 
ture. Subtract 60 from the tempera- 
ture, multiply by .0490, add this last 
figure to the sugar percent, shown by 
the hydrometer. Result is true per 
cent, of sugar. Example: Balling=50 
per cent. iemperature=175 per cent. 
Then the rule is: 175—50=125; 125x 
.0490=5.0 per cent. 50+5.1=55.1 per 
cent. Therefore 55.1 per cent is the 
true reading. This temperature cor- 
rection is very important and should 
be made. 
Capping. 

After the cans have been filled with 
syrup they are sent through the ex- 
hausting boxes in the large canneries 
where double seaming machines are 
used for that purpose, but when can- 
ning at home this operation is done 
by hand, and if carefully done there 
will be no danger of putting the fruit 
in contact with the acid and lead 
used. The capping of the cans is very 
simple, and it only requires a little 
practice to make a skilful operator. 
After the caps are put on the cans 
the soldering fluid should be added 
with the aid of a little brush, after 
which the hot capping steel is put 
over the cap, which melts the lead 
they contain. If this operation is 
perfectly well done there will be no 
leaks. Leaks are to be avoided as 
they in time will become swells, and 
therefore result in the loss of the fin- 
ished product. The vent hole is the 
center of the cap is left open till after 
exhausting of the cans. 
Exhausting. 

This operation has to be done in 
order to expel excess of air that 
the cans contain, which, during the 
sterilization, will develope a great 
pressure, the caps of the cans will 
bulge, and therefore the storage of 
the cans becomes difficult. The length 
of time for this operation varies 
from four to five minutes when the 
water is at the boiling point. Any 
tank filled with water of the required 
capacity can be used for this purpose, 
provided that the top of the cans 
should not be covered with water, 
which otherwise will penetrate the 
cans and will decrease the commer- 
cial value of the products. 



The Scandinavian American Bank 

OF TACOMA 

With assets of over TWO MILLION DOLLARS 
invites your business 

DO YOUR BANKING BY MAIL 



COFFMAN, DOBSON & CO., BANKERS 

CHEHALIS, WASHINGTON 

Twenty-eight years without change of management, and every demand 
unequivocally paid with Legal Tender. 

Distinctly a Farmers' Bank with thousands of farmers for Its cus- 
tomers. 

Farm Loans _for _Aj[rlcujturjtl_Dey^l£pjnen^ 



Cooking. 

After the exhausting operation the 
cans are tipped and then are ready to 
be sterilized. Tipping consists in 
soldering the vent hole with a drop 
of solder and hot tipping steel. The 
cooking operation is very important 
and the final results of the preceding 
processes of canning depend on the 
way this operation is accomplished. In 
general the duration of the steriliz- 



Size 
of Cans 

Apples 3 

Apricots 3 

Asparagus, greens 2 or 3 

Beans, Lima and String 2 or 3 

Blackberries, Dewberries 2 or 3 

Cherries, Peaches 2 

Corn, without Acids 2 

Grapes, Pears, Plums 2 

Peas (field)) 2 

Peas (garden or English) 2 

Pineapple 2 or 3 

Raspberries 2 or 3 

Sauerkraut 3 

Sweet Potatoes 3 

Strawberries 3 

Tomatoes 2 or 3 



must be bright without any particles 
of fruit, especially in the case of high 
commercial grades. 

The proper texture of the fruit can 
be ascertained by using a spoon with 
which every piece of fruit under ob- 
servation should be tested. If the 
pieces of fruit are penetrated by the 
spoon with light pressure it will mean 
that they have received the proper 
degree of cooking. The same facts 



Quince 

Tomato Juice 
Pumpkin .... 

Figs 

Squash 

Spinach 

Rhubarb 

Beets 



Hot 




Steam 




Water 


Water 


Pressure 


Cooket 


Outfits 


Outfits 


5 lbs. 


10 lbs. 


at 212° 


Above 212° 


or More 


or Mor ; 


Bath 


Seal 


Cooker 


Pressure 


Minutes 


Minutes 


Minutes 


Minutes 


15 


15 


10 


6 


15 


12 


10 


6 


60 


60 


40 


30 


90 


60 


60 


30 


8 


8 


6 


3 


15 


12 


10 


5 


240 


180 


60 


40 


15 


15 


10 


6 


60 


60 


40 


30 


60 


60 


40 


30 


30 


25 


10 


10 


15 


10 


6 


3 


50 


50 


40 


25 


80 


70 


60 


40 


10 


8 


6 


3 


22 


20 


10 


6 


30 


25 


15 


10 


20 


20 


15 


10 


50 


50 


40 


30 


30 


20 


10 


5 


50 


40 


30 


20 


60 


60 


40 


30 


25 


25 


15 


10 


20 


20 


15 


10 



Note — This is a supplement to Farmers' Bulletin No. 521. By following the 
general instructions of the Bulletin in connection with the time table, you will 
have the information necessary to do the work of canning all kinds of fruit and 
vegetables. 

(O. H. Benson) U. S. Department of Agriculture. 



Sugar 



pint 
pint 
pint 
pint 
pint 



SYRUPS FOR USE IN CANNING FRUITS 

Water Baume Degree Per Cent Sugar or Balling Degree 

% pint 40 74 

% pint 32 58 

1 pint 24 44 
1% pint 17 31 

2 pint 14 25 



BRINE FOR VEGETABLES 

1 pound salt to 12% gallons water gives 1% brine. 

2 pounds salt to 12% gallons water gives 2% brine. 

3 pounds salt to 12% gallons water gives 3% brine, etc. 



Fruit 
Apricots . . . 
Peaches 

Pears 

Cherries . . . 

Plums 

Grapes 

Strawberries 



Table of Grades and Syrups Used In Canning 

Syrup for Syrup Syrup for Syrup 

Spec. Extras for Extras Extra Stands for Stands 



50% 
50% 
40%' 
40% 
50% 
40% 
60% 



40%' 
40%' 
30% 
30%' 
40%' 
30% 
50%' 



30% 
30% 
20% 
20% 
30% 
20% 
40% 



20% 
207c 
15% 
15% 
20% 
10%' 
30% 



Grade of Fruit 

S. Extras 

Extras 

E Standards 

Standards 

Seconds 

Pie 

Water 

Extras 

Extras 

E. Standards 

Extras 

E. Standards 

Pie 

Water 





PEARS 




Weight in oz. 


No. of Pieces 


23% 


to 24 


8 to 10 


23% 


to 24 


10 to 12 


23% 


to 24 


12 to 14 


23% 


to 24 


14 to 18 


23% 


to 24 


18 to 22 


24 


to 25 




24 


to 25 




28 


to 30 


7 to 11 


14 


to 16 


9 to 14 


13 


to 14 


9 to 12 


68 


to 70 


23 to 25 


68 


to 70 


40 to 45 


80 


to 82 




80 


to 82 





Syrup for 
Seconds 
10% 
10% 
10% 
10% 
10% 
10% 
20% 



Size of Cans 
2% 
2% 
2% 
2% 
2% 
2% 
2% 
3 
2 
1 
8 
8 



ing depends upon ripeness of the 
fruit. 

It should be borne in mind that 
these figures cannot be taken as abso- 
lute because they vary widely accord- 
ing to the facts already established. 
The proper degree of cooking varies 
with the varieties of fruit under pro- 
cessing. We may illustrate this, tak- 
ing peaches as a practical example. 
The proper degree of cooking is recog- 
nized when the samples opened show 
the following characteristics: Uniform 
color over the whole surface, soft 
ened texture within certain limits but 
should not be too soft. The syrup 



should be taken into account in test- 
ing other kinds of fruits. 
Cooling. 

As soon as the cans have been 
cooked sufficiently they must be 
quickly cooled in water in order to- 
decrease the action of the tempera- 
ture on the fruit. The water used 
for this purpose should be continually- 
renewed because it soon becomes 
warm. 

Testing for Leaks. 

After the cans have been cooled, 
each of them should be tested for 
leaks. It is very easy to recognize 
leaky cans, due to the sound that 



170 

they prdouce -when they are struck 
■with a little piece of wood. In some 
cases, due to lack of filling the cans, 
they produce a similar sound to the 
leaky ones, but it can be distinguished 
by squeezing them. In the case of 
leaks they should be separated and 
sent back to the processing depart- 
ment, where they should be put in 
a tank containing hot water, but not 
boiling, in order to place the leaks, 
which should then be carefully sol- 
dered. 
Storage. 

The cans should be piled in groups 
according to the quality of fruit they 
contain. Previous to storage the cans 
should be lacquered in order to give 
them a better appearance and also 
to prevent the tin becoming rusty. 
Lacquer may be made by dissolving 
shellac in gasoline. 
Labeling. 

This operation is easily done by 
hand. The labels to be used should 
bear the name of the canner, quality 
of fruit contained in the cans and 
also the weight. There are in the 
market ditferent styles of labels, and 
it can be said that each brand has 
its own label. 

The handling of the home canning 
outfits is very simple, and following 
the instructions given by the various 
conserns that sell them, good results 
can be obtained. 
Vegetable Canning. 

The operations involved in the pro- 
cess of canning vegetables are very 
simple, and they may be summarized 
into three general principles: The 
use of sound raw material, the obser- 
vation of a very strict hygenic proce- 
dure from beginning to end, great 
care in maintaing the proper tempera- 
ture while cooking in order that all 
the micro-organisms that may have ac- 
cumulated during the handling of the 
unprocessed raw material will be de- 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



stroyed. "With these purposes in view 
we will give a brief description of 
the different manipulations involved 
in the process of canning tomatoes, 
Tomatoes. 

The first step is to secure a good, 
sound, raw material which should be 
thoroughly washed with cold water. 
After this operation the tomatoes are 
scalded till the skin becomes loose. 
The water used for scalding should 
be kept as clean as possible. The skin 
of the tomatoes is taken off by hand, 
and the peeler should at the same 
time cut off all the decayed or green 
parts of the tomatoes in order to se- 
cure a better looking product. The 
peelers should be furnished with 
buckets in which the peelings and 
peeled tomatoes should be put sepa- 
rately. Next to this operation comes 
the filling of cans, which contain 
from 25 to 28 ounces standard pack 
cans jno. 2% and from 40 to 42^ 
ounces solid pack cans No. 3. To 
obtain those two grades of pack the 
peeler should classify the tomatoes 
according to size. 

The cans which are supposed to be 
solid pack must contain nothing else 
but whole tomatoes with very little 
tomatoe juice. After the tomatoes are 
put in the cans they should be com- 
pressed in order to eliminate excess 
of juice, which gives a bad appear- 
ance to the finished product, and at 
the same time constitutes a fraud. 
In case or standard pack, tomatoes 
of smaller size than those used in 
solid pack are put up in the cans 
which afterwards are refilled with 
tomatoe "puree." This tomatoe juice 
or "puree" is made of overripened 
tomatoes wnich are deprived of the 
seeds, and the juice is concentrated to 
a certain extent and cooked with a 
certain amount of salt. The variety 
of tomatoes mostly used for canning 
purposes is called "Red Stone." 



AGRICULTURE 



The Basis of 
Prosperity 



Farm Credit and Its Use. 



Some valuable suggestions are 
given on Farm Credit and how to 
use it in Farmers Bulletin 593, U. S. 
Dept. of Agr., by T. N. Carver, in 
which he makes it plain that the 
will for honesty of purpose and adop- 
tion of methods tending towards suc- 
cess in practice are the essential re- 
quirements for credit. There is no 
magic nor mystery about credit or 
capital. Speaking broadly, there are 
probably almost as many farmers in 
this country who are suffering from 
too much as from too little credit. 

Many a farmer would be better off 
today if he had never had a chance 
to borow money at all or go into 
debt for the things which he bought. 
However, that is no reason why 
those farmers who know how to use 
credit should not have it. 

Capital is brought into existence in 
only one way — that is, by consuming 
less than is produced. If one has a 
dollar, one can spend it either for an 
article of consumption, say confec- 
tionary, or for an article of produc- 
tion, say a spade. He who buys a 
spade become a capitalist to the 
amount of a dollar — that is, he be- 
comes an owner of tools. The pro- 
cess is precisely the same, whether 
the amount in question is a dollar or 
a million dollars. If he does not 
have the dollar, his only chance of 
geting the spade is either to borrow 
it or borrow the money with which 
to buy it That is, he must have 
credit. 

How Capital is Secured. 
There are, therefore, only two ways 



of securing capital for the equipment 
of a farm. One is to accumulate it 
oneself, by consuming less than one 
produces; the other is to borrow it. 
The advantage of borrowing is that 
one does not have to wait so long to 
get possession of the tools and equip- 
ment. One can get them at once and 
make them, produce the means of 
paying for themselves. Without 
them, the farmer's production might 
be so low as to make it difficult ever 
to accumulate enough with which to 
buy them. With their help, he may 
be able to pay for them — that is, to 
pay off the debt in a shorter time 
than it would take to accumulate 
the purchase price without them. 
That is the only advantage of credit 
in any business, but it is a great ad- 
vantage to those who know how to 
use it. 

Proper and Improper Uses of Credit. 

Shortsighted people, however, who 
do not realize how inexorably the 
time of payment arives, who do not 
know how rapidly tools wear out and 
have to be replaced, or who do not 
keep accounts in order that they may 
tell exactly where they stand financi- 
ally, will do well to avoid borrowing. 
Debts have to be paid with deadly 
certainty, and they who do not have 
the wherewithal when the day of 
reckoning arrives, become bankrupt 
with equal certainty. 

On the other hand, there is noth- 
ing disgraceful about borrowing for 
productive purposes. The feeling it 
is not quite respectable to go into 
debt has grown out of the old habit 
of borrowing to pay living expenses. 



Means desolation and millions of 
people in other lands will look to 
the United States for food supplies. 
It is a good time to plant trees 
with a view of filling the foreign 
demand for apples, dried and can- 
ned fruits. Determine the classes 
and varieties you will grow as suit- 
ed to location and facilities for han- 
dling the output. Plant for specific 
purposes, trees which are thrifty, 
clean and true. We can supply 
them. Our stock is especially fine 
this year and being miles away 
from infested orchards our trees 
are free from blemishes. The most 
painstaking methods in the produc- 
tion are observed in every detail. 

THE HOME 
BEAUTIFUL 

Many farmers have an abundance 
of plants and shrubs available to 
make their home grounds beautiful 
if properly arranged. Others re- 
quire more or less of selections 
from the nursery for most pleasing 
effects. But the arrangement is 
important. Let us know what you 
have, your location and your plant 
preferences. Our information ser- 
vice is at your command. 

Yours for the best in crops and 
home adornments, 



WASHINGTON NURSERY CO. 

Toppenish, Wash. 

Salesmen Wanted 



Nursery Stock 

FRUIT TREES 

SMALL FRUITS 

ORNAMENTALS 

The planter always wants the 
very best paying results. There is 
but one way to accomplish this. 
The right start with our guaran- 
teed whole root, non-irrigated stock 
in fruit trees, our splendid two- 
year-old stock in small fruits and 
our unexcelled selection of orna- 
mentals will do it. Beware of poor 
stock. Disappointment is the only 
result therefrom. 

Send for our catalogue. Agents 
wanted. 

SALEM NURSERY COMPANY 

F. J. Rupert, Mgr. 
SALEM OREGON 



A. S. Johnson & Co. 




114 C Strait 



Taooma, Wash. 



Lewis County Farms 

We make a specialty of Lewis 
County lands. The best for farm- 
ing, dairying and stock raising 
In Western Washington. Well im- 
proved farms that raise 100 to 
120 bu. oats, 35 to 50 bu. wheat 
or 5 to 6 tons of hay per acre. 
On daily mail, milk and cream 
routes, phone line, etc. Close to 
good market, railroad and 
schools, $50 to $100 per acre, in- 
cluding stock, tools and machin- 
ery. Write for our list. 

ACME REALTY COMPANY 
401 Equitable Bldg, Tacoma, Wn. 




Have You Read This? 



"At my home on Nob Hill, I have 
two Walnut trees which I purchased 
from your Company. They are now 
thirteen years old; were one year old 
when planted. They have been bear- 
ing: eight years. The trees are per- 
fectly hardy, having withstood a 
freeze of 20 degrees below zero. I 
gathered over six bushels of nuts 
from those two trees last fall. My 
grocer pronounced them superior in 
size and flavor to California nuts." 
E. W. Brackett, North Yakima. 

Space here forbids much explana- 
tion, but if you will write us, we 
will gladly explain the difference be- 
tween the famous VROOMAN PURE 
STRAIN FRANQUE'TTE WALNUT 
and the common sort. You can af- 
ford and should have at least a few 
of these most desirable trees in your 
orchard. Write us — now. We also 
have, you understand, the largest 
assortment and stock of all kinds of 
fruits, berries, vines, roses, etc., in 
the West. ORENCO trees are plant- 
ed from coast to coast because they 
are known to be always — dependable 
—first class. 

OREGON NURSERY CO. 

Oranco, Oregon 

Competent salesmen wanted. 



FILBERTS 

Good plants of the best varieties 
of Filberts for the Pacific North- 
west have been rather scarce, but 
we can supply a limited quantity. 
Those desiring any of these plants 
will do well to write booking or- 
ders at once. In small lots the 
bushes can be sent by parcel post. 

OREGON NURSERY CO. 
ORENCO, OREGON 



Helping The Chickens 

To get over the moult, to get rid 
of lice and to get into good laying 
condition will pay you well. Send 
today for circular describing the 
Herculean Strike - Breaker and a 
liquid lice-killer which has given a 
high measure of satisfaction at 
nominal cost. We reach buyers 
through parcel post. Satisfaction 
asssured. 

E. H. ROMBERGER, Manufacturer, 
3631 Interlaken Ave., Seattle, Wash. 



SPRINKLERS 

Readers having water sys- 
tems are making inquiry for 
handy sprinklers. The 
Hartford Sprinkler here illus- 
trated is giving excellent ser- 
vice in parks and gardens 
this season. It is an excellent 
distributor of water and very 
popular. The spray is formed 
by a stream of water im- 
pinging upon the spoon at 
the top revolving it constant- 
ly. Under good pressure a 
radius of 40 feet can be irri- 
gated at one setting. With 
hose attachment these sprink- 
lers can be moved to cover 
considerable area during 24 
hours. Most of those used 
are in 4 or 6 foot lengths and can be 
delivered by parcel post. They are 
-sold by 

HENRY MOHR HARWARE CO. 
Tacoma, Wash. 



Please mention this paper 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



171 



That was regarded, perhaps rightly, 
as a sign of incompetency. It was 
then natural that men should not like 
to have their neighbors know that 
they had to borrow money. But to 
.borrow for a genuinely productive 
purpose, for a purpose which will 
bring you in more than enough to 
pay off your debt, principal and in- 
terest, is a profitable enterprise. It 
shows business sagacity and courage 
and is not a thing to be ashamed of. 
But it can not be too much empha- 
sized that the would-be borrower 
must calculate very carefully and be 
sure that it is a productive enterprise 
before he goes into debt. 

This distinction between borrowing 
for a productive purpose and borrow- 
ing to pay living expenses will help 
to explain why religious leaders in 
times past have been opposed to in- 
terest. It is undoubtedly a bad prac- 
tice for men to borrow money with 
which to buy articles for consump- 
tion, except in the most extreme 
cases. Articles for consumption are 
goods which are used to satisfy de- 
sires rather than to assist in pro- 
duction. Before the days of expen- 
sive machinery, when capital was not 
an important factor in production, 
such a thing as borrowing for pro- 
ductive purposes was practically un- 
known. The only borrowing that was 
done was for the purpose of buying 
nonproductive goods. This is a bad 
practice. 

Principal More Important than 
Interest. 

In the payment of a debt it is not 
the interest but the principal which 
gives the greatest trouble, except 
where interest rates are exorbitant. 
If a man borrows $100 for a year at 
7 per cent., he has to pay, at the 
end of the year, $107. If he borows 
at 5 per cent, he has to pay $1.05. 
The difference is $2. Now, $2 is not 
to be despised. Good business con- 
sists in large part in looking after 
just such items as this. Nevertheless, 
it is only a little harder to pay $107 
than to pay $105. The point is that 
the principal is the same in either 
case, and it is the principal which 



gives the greatest trouble. 

The reason it has seemed necessary 
to emphasize this elementary fact is 
that many people seem to imagine 
that if interest on farm loans can be 
reduced from 7 per cent to 5 per 
cent., or from 6 per cent, to 4 per 
cent.., conditions will be easy for 
the farmers. It is important that in- 
terest rates be lowered wherever it is 
economically possible, but it is vastly 
more important that farmers should 
learn how to pay back the principal 
easily. The only way to do this is to 
use the money borrowed in such a 
way as to put one in possession of 
the means of repayment. If the $106 
which a man borrows is spent for fer- 
tilizer, which adds $125 to the value 
of his crop, he should not find any 
great difficulty in repaying the loan, 
both principal and interest. If he 
uses it in such a way as to add only 
$75 to his crop, he will have some 
difficulty in repaying the principal, 
saying nothing of the interest. It is 
more important that he should be 
able to use $100 so as to add $125 
rather than $75 to his crop, than it 
is that he should be able to borrow 
at 5 per cent, or even without in- 
terest. 

An unproductive enterprise is not 
a safe basis for borrowing under any 
conditions. In other words, it is more 
important that the enterprise in 
which one is engaged shall be a 
productive enterprise than that the 
rate of interest at which one can 
borrow money is high or low. 

The first and more important rule 
to be obeserved, therefore, in the use 
of farm credit is to make sure that it 
is for a productive purpose, that is to 
say, make sure that the purpose for 
which the borrowed money is to be 
used will produce a return greater 
than needed to pay the debt. Ex- 
cept in extreme cases, it is bad policy 
to borrow for the purpose of purchas- 
ing anything which will not help to 
pay for itself. As a rule, the pur- 
chase of these things should be post- 
poned until the farmer has accumu- 
lated the wherewithal out of his own 
earnings. 



Electric Equipment on Farms. 



Numerous farmers in the Northwest 
are now equipped with electric lights 
derived from gas engine power 
through storage batteries or by means 
of water power. Electric lights are 
handy; turn the switch, and the 
room, the house or the barn, as the 
case may be, is lighted and danger 
from fire is eliminated. 

The Dayton Electrical Manufactur- 
ing Company state their plants can 
now do as efficient work with sixteen 
cells as formerly required sixty elec- 
tric cells or more. 

Low voltage current for lighting 
work was first used in Germany about 
six years ago, Germany being the 
[ home of the tungsten lamp. Low 
voltage isolated outfits have been 
manufactured and marketed for the 
past six years since the invention of 
the low voltage tungsten lamp with 
its well known efficiency and long 
life. 

PI? Low voltage Mazda (tungsten) 
lamps have very thick filaments, mak- 
ing these lamps very substantial and 
increasing the hour life of the lamps. 
Low voltage Mazda lamps will burn 
in any position and consume very 



little current. 

The only reason high voltage is 
used at all today is because it can be 
carried greater distance and over 
smaller wires than low voltage can, 
but 30-volt outfits are good for a 
distance of 1000 feet. Any man of 
average intelligence can install easily 
and at slight expense a complete 
lighting outfit. 

The principal cost of operating is 
that of running the gasoline engine. 
A two h. p. 2-cycle engine was run 
for four hours and five minutes on 
one gallon of gasoline which was 
equal to a cost of about 5 cents per 
hour, figuring the oil at 20 cents. But 
many users charge the batteries 
while the engine is run for other 
work, therefore the cost is practic- 
ally nothing. 

A lighting plant consists of a dy- 
namo, a switchboard and a storage 
battery. The dynamo charges the 
battery, and the battery acts as a 
reservoir which supplies current to 
the lights when and where desired. It 
works like a water supply outfit in 
which a pump fills a tank and the 
tank supplies water to various parts 



Quaker Trees 



FRUITS 
ORNAMENTALS 
SHRUBS 



A Fine Stock of Apples, Pears, Peaches, Plums, Prunes, Apricots and 
Small Fruits. 

It is a good year to increase the ornamental planting. Thousands 
will come to the Pacific Coast seeking homes during the next few years. 
Do you wish to sell any part of your land, or your home place, or do you 
wish to encourage settlers who have some degree of taste and refine- 
ment? Then adorn your home with some ornamental plants, shrubs and 
trees. The cost is trifling compared with the actual value which may be 
derived. Our catalog contains valuable suggestions. 

Write for catalog and price list today. State your requirements. 

QUAKER NURSERIES 



Good Agents Wanted. 



C. F. LANSING, Prop. 



SALEM, OREGON 



MONTE VISTA NURSERIES 

PEAR TREES — We have some very choice pear trees in both 1 
and 2-year stock of the following varieties: Anjou, Bartlett, Cornice, 
W. Nelis, P. Barry. 

APPLE TREES — Very fine Jonathans, Rome Beauty, N. Spy, New- 
town, Baldwin, Ortley, Winter Banana, King, Waxen, Gravenstein and 
Red Astrachan. Write for prices. 

A.. HOLA.DAY SCAPPOOSE, OREGON 




Rose Garden of Mitchell Nursery 
Fruit Trees, Roses, Shrubbery, Perennials, Etc. 

Money Makers! 

Sour Cherries and Gooseberries. 

The Puyallup cannery could have used ten carloads more of sour 
cherries this season. Sour cherries are easily grown, not subject to disease 
and are prolific bearers. 

A gooseberry planting- will last for twenty years. 

Write us for prices on these and other nursery stock. 

MITCHELL NURSERY COMPANY 



Tel. Madison 207. 



Larchmont Sta., Tacoma, Wash. 



The Puyallup Nursery 



Hardy Ornamental 
Nursery Stock a 
Specialty 

Be sure and visit our nursery when attending the Western Washing- 
ton Fair in this city September 29 to October 4, 1914. 

Large stock of Ornamental Evergreen Shrubs and Trees propagated on 
our own grounds. Make your own selections. Shipping season begins in 
October. 

Everything worth while in Roses, Gladiolli, etc. Send for list. 

Specimen Grounds, 702 PIONEER AVENUE, EAST 
A. LINOHAM PUYALLUP, WASH 



FREE CANADIAN HOMESTEADS. 

Why pay $50.00 to be located. We 
give you full information where the 
best lands are in Western Canada that 
are close to railroad and town; name 
of guide on the ground; full directions 
to get maps and plats free; how to get 
homeseekers tickets; everything you 
need to know and locate yourself all 
for $3.00. Remit amount by P. O. 
money order and we will send you the 
complete information at once. CAN- 
ADIAN HOMESTEAD COMPANY, 73 
6th STREET, PORTLAND, OREGON. 
For reference, THE FARM MAGA- 
ZINE COMPANY, 411 PANAMA 
BLDG., PORTLAND, OREGON. 

of the house. It is, on a small scale, 
just such a plant as those which for 
years have illuminated our largest 
cities. 

No matter how many buildings you 
wish to light, and regardless of how 



Loganberry Plants 

We have a full line of Loganber- 
ries, Mammoth Blackberries. Also 
choice grades of nursery stock and 
will be pleased to have you make 
your wants known to us. "Would 
like to get in touch with some good 
live salesmen. Good opportunities. 
Write for particulars. 

Address 

Albany Nurseries, Inc. 

ALBANY, ORE. 

G. W. Pennebaker, Mgr. 



many lights you desire in each, there 
is a plant of the right capacity to fill 
your particular requirements, with the 
least possible initial outlay and the 
lowest operating cost. 
Select a plant having sufficient bat- 



172 

tery capacity to carry the lights de- 
sired each night for at least one 
week. Recharging will then be nec- 
essary only once per week, and you 
can arrange to drive the dynamo for 
recharging once per week, at the 
same time the engine is doing other 
work, such as pumping, grinding, etc., 
thereby economizing fuel and time. 

The operation of an outfit is so 
simple and easy that many of the 
equipments are run by young boys 
and several were installed in the 
past year, where all the attention 
necessary is given by the women of 
the household. 

Outfits require very little care. 
Water should be added to the bat- 
tery occasionally, and the generator 
and engine oiled each time that they 
are run, and if this is done, no repairs 
will be necessary for many years. 

There will be practically no depre- 
ciation of your dynamo, which should 
last as long as the engine with which 
it is used. 

The depreciation of the storage bat- 
tery will depend upon the treatment 
it receives. If it is taken care of the 
positive plates will probably have to 
be renewed in five or six years and 
the negative in ten or eleven years. 
This means that the average cost of 
maintenance of your battery and dy- 
namo should not exceed seven or 
eight dollars per year. 

The total cost of operation and 
maintenance of a good farmhouse 
lighting outfit will be found through 
actual practice to be much lower 
than that of any gasoline or acety- 
lene gas system. 



FLIES DESTROYED WITH BORAX. 



Directions for Treating Manure with 
Borax to Kill Fly Eggs and 
Maggots. 

By Messrs. Cook, Hutchinson and 
Scales, in Bullein 118, U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture. 

Apply 0.62 pound borax or 0.75 
pound calcined colemanite to every 
10 cubic feet (8 bushels) of manure 
immediately on its removal from the 
barn. Apply the borax particularly 
around the outer edges of the pile 
with a flour sifter or any fine sieve, 
and sprinkle 2 or 3 gallons of water 
over the borax-treated manure. 

The reason for applying the borax 
to the fresh manure immediately af- 
ter its removal from the stable is 
that the flies lay their eggs on the 
fresh manure, and borax, when it 
comes in contact with the eggs, pre- 
vents their hatching. As the mag- 
gots congregate at the outer edges 
of the pile, most of the borax should 
be applied there. The treatment 
should be repeated with each addi- 
tion of fresh manure, but when the 
manure is kept in closed boxes less 
frequent applications will be suffi- 
cient. Where the calcined colemanite 
is available, it may be used at the 
rate of 0.75 pound per 10 cubic feet 
of manure, and is a cheaper means of 
killing the maggots. In addition to 
the application of borax to horse 
manure to kill fly larvae, it may be 
applied in the same proportion to 
other manures, as well as to refuse 
and garbage. Borax may also be ap- 
plied to floors and crevices in barns, 
stables, markets, etc., as well as to 
street sweepings, and water should 
be added as in the treatment of horse 
manure. After estimating the amount 
of material to be treated and weigh- 
ing the necessary amount of borax a 



THE NORTHWEST 

measure may be used which will hold 
the proper amount, thus avoiding sub- 
sequent weighings. 

Advantages and Cost of Borax. 

The great demand for borax, due 
to its uses in the arts and in the 
household, has made this substance 
available in all parts of the country. 
It has the further advantage of being 
comparatively nontoxic, noninflamma- 
ble, and easily transported and han- 
dled, as it is a powder. Thus borax 
is superior to most of the substances 
that have been tested as larvicides. 
Several investigators (see Haselhoff, 
1913) have shown that in small 
amounts borax has a stimulating ef- 
fect on plant growth, while larger 
amounts are toxic. 

Borax is prepared from colemanite 
(calcium borate), which is mined in 
California, and has the following com- 
position: Boron trioxid, 50.9 per cent; 
calcium oxid, 27.2 per cent; water, 
21.9 per cent. The crude colemanite 
was tested for its larvical action, but 
this was so slight, undoubtedly due 
to its insolubility, that it was discard- 
ed in favor of borax and calclined 
colemanite.. Calcined colemanite is 
prepared from crude colemanite by 
simply subjecting it to high tempera- 
ture. 

The crude colemanite is not sold 
as such, but a considerable amount of 
the calclined colemanite is used in 
various industries. The calcined cole- 
manite is a gray powder and is large- 
ly, but not entirely,- insoluble in 
water. It costs about 2 cents per 
pound in large shipments, and in 
smaller amounts sells at approxi- 
mately 4 cents per pound. Borax 
(Na2B4O7-10H2O) as prepared from 
colemanite by treatment with soda 
ash. It retails at about 10 cents per 
pound, but can be obtained in 100- 
pound lots or more in Washington 
at 5 to 6 cents per pound. Borax is 
readily soluble in water. 



HORTICULTURIST 



New Yorker's at Farming. 

The State of New York has laid its 
hands on the plow so to speak. 
Governor Glynn looking over the 
State saw the many abandoned 
farms, the large list being offered 
at "begging" prices and the hundred 
million dollars of farm mortgages in 
that State absorbing high rates of 
interest. Nearly a quarter million 
dollars worth of tubercular cows were 
destroyed and he concluded that be- 
fore the farming industry was entire- 
ly wiped out it was time for action. 
At his instigation the legislature ap- 
propriated funds so the State will 
pay for the tubercular stock destroy- 
ed, and if the bill is not settled with- 
in 30 days the farmer sustaining loss 
may also recover interest. 

A law was also enacted providing 
for assistance in the marketing ot 
produce or in other words to shorten 
the channel between producer and 
consumer. In his speach at a Hop 
growers picnic Governor Glynn stated: 

"To meet this situation the State 
has created a Department of Foods 
and Markets with broad duties and 
extensive powers. This department 
will supervise all places where farm 
produce is sold. It will investigate 
all food products and marketing in 
all its phases. It will advise and as- 
sist in the location and establishment 
of local markets. It will regulate 
the grading, handling and storage of 
all food products. It will provide 
licensed and responsible auctioneers 



Watch for the Si £n 

RED CROWN 

the Gasoline of Quality 

Wherever you see the Red Crown sign 
you can buy an honest, reliable gasoline — the 
uniform — quick acting — clean burning kind 
that gives you full power — that costs you least 
per mile. Red Crown is not a "mixture," 
but a straight distilled, refinery gasoline — the 
best the Standard Oil Company can make. 
In gasoline, it is economy to buy the best. 

Red Crown signs are furnished to all 
dealers handling Red Crown Gasoline. 
Watch for the Sign or ask our nearest agency 
about delivery in bulk. 

Standard Oil Company 

(CALIFORNIA) 



Milton Nursery Co. 

A. MILLER & SONS, INC. — MILTON, OREGON 

Pear, Cherry, Apple, Prune and Peach 

Full Line Shade and Ornamental Stock 

Quality in Nursery stock is a condition, not a theory; it is something 
we put into our trees, not say about them. Thirty-five years' experience 
enables us to do this. 

A Catalog and Special 

Salesmen wanted. Prices on Request. 



Producers & Consumers Co-Operative Company 

E. HAZELTON. Pres. & Mgr. 
1114-1116 Western Ave., Seattle, Wash. Tel. Main 3689. 

(1400 Farmers in our Membership) 
We handle all kinds of farm products, making channels between producer and 
consumer as short and inexpensive as possible. If not a stockholder, write 
for our prospectus, also our wholesale provision list. State what you 
have to offer in fruit, potatoes, veal, pork and poultry. Please mention this 
paper. 



Hardware for Farmers' Buildings 

When building your barn, house or other structures it is your privilege 
to get the lowest cash figure and the highest specific quality. The natural 
question is WHERE? The answer MOHR HAS IT. 

Write for prices. Uncle Sam serves you. 

»_. „. . „ . ~ 1M1-43 C Street 

Henry Mohr Hardware Co. Tacoma, wash. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



173 



to operate to these markets. It will 
publish a daily bulletin to every farm- 
er, which will keep him posted on 
current prices and the markets of 
best demand. It will have facilities 
for assisting in the formation of co- 
operative societies among farmers as 
well as among consumers, and finally, 
it is required to report annually to 
the Legislature upon the work done 
and recommend whatever agricul- 
tural legislation appears most neces- 
ary." 

Land Bank for Farmers' Needs. 

"Profiting by the experience of the 
European farmer, New York has plac- 
ed upon its statute books a law pro- 
viding for the creation of a land bank 
fashioned on the principle of Euro- 
pean land banks, but operating 
through the distinctly American in- 
stitution of saving and loan associa- 
tions. This land bank will save the 
farmers of New York $24,000,000 if 
present mortgages are converted into 
ten-year amortization loans, and $82,- 
000,000 if converted into fifty-year 
amortization loans. 

By amortization loans, I mean that 
system of loans now used in Europe 
under which the Euopean farmer pays 
a small sum each year upon the prin- 
cipal in addition to his interest, and 
by continuing these small payments 
for periods ranging from ten to fifty 
years, is able to pay off the principal 
of his loan with little difficulty. In- 
stead of having a large indebtedness 
to meet at the maturity of his loan 
and running the risk of foreclosure, 
through hards times or failure of 
crops, he pays in installments and 
has no greater burden to bear at 
the end than at the beginning of 
his loan. 

Under our present system the Am- 
erican farmer pays $600 interest on a 
ten year loan of $1,000 at six per 
cent, and Hie principal at the end 
of the term, or sixteen hundred dol- 
lars in all. For the same loan on the 
amountization plan, he would only pay 
$135.86 each year, or $1,358.60 alto- 
gether. For the same loan for fifty 
years on the amortization plan the 
farmer would pay $63.44 annually, or 
only $3.44 over the interest, but this 
small additional sum is enough to 
wipe out the principal. This is the 
credit system which the land bank 
will give to the farmers of New York. 
Europe has had it for fifty years. 
Our Federal Government has talked 
of establishing it for ten years. But 
while Uncle Sam has talked, New 
York has acted, and New York is 
the first State in the Union to pro- 
vide its farmers with modern credit 
facilities. 

After New York had passed its 
agricultural legislation, I asked the 
Legislature for an appropriation to 
carry these laws to the farmer. In 
addition to the Land Bank Law and 
the Food and Market Law, we had 
laws upon the statute books provid- 
ing for credit unions and co- 
operative farming societies. Be- 
cause I wanted to see the Land Bank 
understood, because I wanted to see 
these co-operative societies formed, 
I desired to send a corps of energetic 
organizers into the farming communi- 
ties of the State to explain the work- 
ings of these laws and to organize 
the societies. The Legislature read- 
ily responded to this appeal, and as 
a result, a campaign of organization 
and education, financed by the State, 
Is now making rapid progress. Other 
states, particularly Washington and 



others on the Pacific Coast will 
watch with interest the result of 
New York's efforts at farming. Par- 
ticularly is the land bank credit sys- 
tem and the scheme for co-operative 
marketing of interest to our readers. 



HOW FARMERS BUY AND SELL 

Farmers generally receive the low- 
est price that their produce is ever 
sold for, and pay the highest prices 
that their supplies ever command. 
This condition, according to econo- 
mists at the Oregon Agricultural Col- 
lege, is but one of the evils of the 
present system of unorganized mar- 
keting. While it is natural that pro- 
duce prices should raise as they 
travel from the producer, it is very 
burdensome when between producer 
and consumer the channel absorbs, 
as at present, from 50 to 60 per cent, 
of the cost to the consumer. Since 
nearly all the added cost is a result 
of wasteful methods of city distri- 
bution, consumers as well as pro- 
ducer should organize to eliminate the 
waste. High prices charged to farm- 
ers are caused in part by the extrava- 
gant methods of city retail trade, 
since farmers pay a share of the 
small phone order, immediate delivery 
and other expenses although getting 
none of its benefits. 



SILAGE AND OTHER SUCCU- 
LENCE COMPARED. 

"The relative value of roots, kale 
and silage — the usual sources of suc- 
culence for winter feeding — depends 
upon their composition, comparative 
feeding values, cost of production, 
keeping quaities and convenience of 
feeding,' says Professor R. R. Graves, 
head of the Dairy department, Agri- 
cultural College, Corvallis, Ore. 

"The total digestible nutrients in 
one ton of corn silage is 326 pounds. 
In a ton of red clover silage the to- 
tal is 224 pounds, but the nutritive 
ratio is 1 to 6.9, while in corn it is 
1 to 11. The digestible nutrients in 
a ton of sugar beets is 224 pounds, 
with a ratio of 1 to 8.5. In rutabagas 
the total is 186 pounds to the ton, 
with a ratio the same as that of sug- 
ar beets. The digestible nutrients in 
a ton of kale are but 139 pounds, 
while the ratio is very narrow — 1 to 
2.8. It is also true that the nutri- 
ents of apple pomace silage are 
pretty high, about 216 pounds to the 
ton. Their nutritive ratio is the 
widest of any of the common winter 
succulents, being 1 to 15.3. 

"The corn and clover silage contain 
the greatest percentage of dry mat- 
ter, while kale and some ot the roots 
contain 90 per cent water. One ton 
of corn silage contains as much di- 
gestible nutrients as a ton and a 
half of sugar beets, 1.8 tons ruta- 
bagas or carrots, and 2.3 tons of 
kale." 

Twelve Good Reasons for Using En- 
silage. 

1. Every ration needs some succu- 
lent feed. 

2. Corn silage is probably the 
cheapest succulent feed that can be 
had. 

3. An acre of corn can be placed 
in the silo at less cost than that of 
harvesting an acre of roots or kale. 

4. A ton of corn silage contains 
more nutrients than a ton of roots 
or kale. 

5. Silage can be made in weather 
that is unfit for making hay, since 
the crop is never too wet to put into 



SIXTH ANNUAL 

Southwest Washington 

FAIR 
CENTRALIA-CHEHALIS 

August 24-29. 1914 



The opening Fair of the circuit; 
bigger and better in all depart- 
ments this season. 

Liberal purses and a first-class 
track for the horsemen. Purses paid 
every evening. 

We invite the stockmen and will 
do all in our power to please you. 
Our policy, prompt payment ol 
premiums. 



Poultry exhibitors will be given 
all possible attention to their birds. 



All other departments will be un- 
excelled in their exhibits. 



There will also be a Better Babies 
Department at the Fair this year. 



Amusement will be in abundance. 
The great Patterson's Shows in 
which they carry a large number of 
trained animals will be a strong 
feature. 



For premium lists and further 
information write or see 

G. R. WALKER, Secretary, 

Chehalis Washington 



NORTHERN 
PACIFIC RY. 

Is selling daily to Septem- 
ber 30 

EXCURSION 
TICKETS 
EAST 

Low fare to any Eastern 
point. Stop-overs given. Re- 
turn up to Oct. 31. 

Daily Through Trains 

From Pacific Northwest 
TWO TO CHICAGO via MIN- 
NEAPOLIS-ST. PAUL 
ONE TO ST. LOUIS 

Our usual high class ser- 
vice, with Northern Pacific 
Superior Dining Service. 

Yellowstone Park 

Season to September 15 




Tickets and all information 
C. B. Foster, City Pass. Agt. 
925 Pacific Av., Tacoma, Wn. 

A. D. Charlton, A. G. P. A., 
Portland, Oregon 



Turner <fc Pease Co., Inc. 

8 1 3-8 15-817 Western Ave., Seattle 

Leading Manufacturers of Butter in the State 

We pay cash for butter fat and eggs at 
correct market prices. 



NURSERY CATALOG FREE 

Full of helpful suggestiors to make your place beautiful,— It's up- 
to-date, Instructive. Please mention this paper and write to, 

J. B. PILKINGTON, Nurseryman 
Portland, Ore. 



Smalley Force-Feed 
and Silage Cutters 



are sold by 



Tacoma Implement Go. 

1521-23 Pacific Avenue Tacoma, Wash. 



FRUIT AND POULTRY 

We have facilities to handle quickly and advantageously 
„ YOUR FRUIT, POULTRY AND EGGS 
We make prompt returns of proceeds on all consignments. We answer 
promptly all inquiries as to market, prices, or of any other nature. 
Twenty years of satisfactory service to growers our best recommendation 
923-6 Railroad Ava. CHAS. UHDEN SPOKANE, WASH. 



Waikiki Farm 



IRA P. WHITNEY, Supt. 



Breeders of 

JERSEY and AYRSHIRE CATTLE 

DUROC JERSEY SWINE 
SHROPSHIRE SHEEP 

Route 7, Spokane, Wash. 



WALTER BOW EN & CO., Inc. 

WHOLESALE COMMISSION, PEUITS AND PRODUCE 

Phone: Main 59. SEATTLE, WASH. 1111 Western Ave. 

Goods handled strictly on commission. Prompt returns our specialty. 
Wire or write us at any time for market quotations. 

References: National Bank of Commerce, Seattle; Merc. Agencies; Ship- 
pers on Pacific Coast. 

WE CAN SELL TOUB GOODS 



174 

a silo. 

6. Many crops will be saved and 
utilized for feed that would other- 
wise have been a total loss because 
of unfavorable weather for handling 
the crop as hay. 

7. More feed can be stored in a 
given space in the form of silage 
than in that of hay or fodder. 

8. A well filled silo is a guarantee 
against shrinkage of milk when pas- 
tures dry up. 

9. Silage can be used for supple- 
menting pastures more economically 
than soiling crops, because less labor 
is required and the feed is more pal- 
atable. 

10. More stock can be kept on a 
given area of land when silage is the 
basis of the ration. 

11. Silage has a beneficial effect 
on the digestive organs. 

12. With the silo full a good, pala- 
table feed is always on hand regard- 
less of how bad the weather is or 
how busy men and teams are at field 
work. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



something else. On irrigation pro- 
jects it is the Ditch Company or the 
Reclamation Service, as the case may 
be. 

"I have just returned from a trip 
through the East. I know of nothing 
that will make a thoughtful man sad- 
der than the contemplation of the 
abandoned farms in some of the East- 
ern states. There is as great a work 
in the reclamation of worn out lands 
of the Atlantic coast and Southern 
states as there is in the irrigation of 
Western lands. Neither can be suc- 
cessfully accomplished except through 
standardizing farming and educating 
the farmer to the standard." 



FARMING STANDARDIZED THRU 
AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION. 

The following extract from a recent 
letter from a Western engineer in the 
Reclamation Record, gives the view 
point of a professional man regard- 
ing the condition of agriculture in 
America. 

"In our profession as engineers we 
experience but little trouble in carry- 
ing out our construction plans be- 
cause our assistants have all been 
trained in an exact science, laws gov- 
erning which have been proven and 
are recognized by the whole profes- 
sion. The problem seems to settle 
itself into one of education. Until we 
have a professional farmer, one who 
is educated to the exact profession 
of farming, the problems of your 
Service and the rural life of America 
will not be solved. Farming all over 
this country has been a hap-hazard 
business. Men plow the ground, plant 
their seeds and trust to Providence. 
They do not know why they do not 
succeed. All they know is that they 
do not; and to ease their own con- 
science they blame the weather or 



EIGHT HOUR LAW 

In the response to inquiries sent 
to a number of our readers, viz.: As 
a farmer, are you in favor of a gen- 
eral 8-hour law, the following replies 
indicates some of their views: 

L. V. B., Chehalis — No. Too expen- 
sive, farm work can't be done at 
some seasons of the year on an 
8-hour basis. More silos are needed 
here. 

J. M., Chehalis — No. Because I 
work 15 hours a day at farming and 
dairying and then find it difficult to 
make any margin over taxes and a 
living. I had 18 acres of land as- 
sessed at $5 per acre. It was cleared 
at a cost of over $100 per acre, and 
was then taxed at $35 per acre before 
a crop was grown. Such method I 
consider outrageous. 

H. W. A. T., Chehalis — Not in favoi 
of an 8-hour law because on a dairy 
farm like mine it would require 2 
shifts of help and no farm would 
stand that. If the wage is lowered 
then help is not available and to farm 
with just the owner is neither profit- 
able nor desirable. 

A larger cash market for the pro- 
ducts of our farms is in my opinion 
a most essential feature for the people 
of this district. 

Li. R. J.,Chehalis — Yes, I am in 
favor of an 8-hour law but I have to 
work 16 hours on the farm. I am 
going to leave it and let the Grange 
do the farming. I am of the opinion 
they need an evangelist. 



IRRIGATION 



Adequate, available moisture 
at all seasons. 



IRRIGATION, IT'S BROAD MEAN- 
ING 

Converting deserts into fruitful 
aereas is only a part of the mission 
of irrigation. To increase general 
production, by suppementing rainfall 
and making agriculture more profit- 
able is its wider scope. 

The fact that irrigation can be, and 
indeed often is, called into service in 
districts which have an ordinary rain- 
fall, establishes that irrigation does 
not take the place of natural precipi- 
tation, but rather helps it. Irrigation 
farming is a movement in advance 
on farming by rainfall. The farmer 
in a rainy country may suffer fully 
as much because it rains too copi- 
ously at the wrong time, as he does 
because it does not rain when his 
crops need moisture. It might al- 
most be said that there are no two 
plants which require exactly the 
same quantity of moisture at exactly 
the same stage of growth. 

In the coast section of Washington 
are thousands of acres of fertile val- 
ley lands where the forage, fruit or 



garden crops could be doubled by a 
judicious use of water available from 
the foot hill streams and now going 
to waste. In numerous cases under- 
ground piping has been done and by 
means of whirligig sprinklers the 
crops have been greatly increased. 
This method of irrigation will be 
more generally employed during the 
months of July and August through- 
out western Washington in the future. 

Under irrigation, the exact degree 
of moisture can be applied to suit 
any crop. The very color and tex- 
ture of fruits and vegetables can be 
regulated. The plants can be kept 
growing until they have attained 
their maximum development, and 
then, with the water shut off, can be 
ripened quickly. For instance, onions 
cultivated in this way have the most 
perfect keeping qualities; while pota- 
toes which are kept always evenly 
moist are smooth and free from se- 
cond growths. Irrigation farming is 
the only system that ordinarily per- 
mits of the intelligent treatment of 
every individual crop. 

Irrigation is beneficial to any coun- 



Satisfaction 

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get it with a 

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Cutter 

with Blower or Carrier Elevator. 

Will fill the highest silo with the least 
amount of power. The Blower Cutter has 
the knives and the fan blades on the bal- 
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pipe, the gears will not break and the 
straight knives are easily sharpened and 
quickly adjusted. 

Let us figure with you on your ensilage 
proposition. 

Catalogue mailed on request. 



Poison Implement Co. 

Cor. Columbia and Westlake Ave. 
Seatttle, Wash. 



Please mention this Paper. 




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Ground Phosphate Rock 

The Natural Plant Food and Permanent Soil Builder 

1000 lbs. per acre once in each four years will cost about $1.00 per acre 
per year. At Penn. State College $1.05 invested in Bock Phosphate gave In- 
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$22.11 — over 1000%. At Ohio station each dollar paid for itself and gave 
$5.68 profit. At Illinois Station $2.50 gave the same return as $250 Invested 
in land. 

Bach ton contains 280 lbs. of phosphorous, not rendered available arti- 
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UNITED STATES PHOSPHATE CO., Salt Lake City Utah 

Write for literature. 
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A SCHOOL 
FOR BOYS 



Ideally located on picturesque Steilacoom 
lake. A homelike and healthful school. 

TRAINS FOR LEADERSHIP 

To give each boy individual attention, only a limited 
number admitted. Upper school prepares for Colleges 
and Technical Schools. Lower school for younger boys. 

Our 23rd school year opens Sept. 17. Write now for 
our illustrated catalog. 

D. S. PULFORD, A. M., J. R. EDEN, A.B.. Principals 
P. O. Address: South Tacoma, Wash. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



175 



try because it promotes intensified 
methods of farming. In a given area 
it can be made to produce even ten 
per cent, more than it could by the 
ordinary methods; then everyone 
share in greatly increased prosperity. 
Firstly, the cultivator himself ob- 
tains bigger returns per acre, with a 
correspondingly bigger income. More 
labor is required on the land. Closer 
settlement is caused — in fact, irri- 
gation and the "syndicate farm'' are 
not compatible. The basis of agri- 
cultural prosperity is the small farm 
worked by, and supporting, the large 
family; and this is what irrigation 
tends to strengthen. WHth a large 
number of people working on the 
land, all with a larger spending cap- 
acity, there would be a greater cir- 
culation of money and an increased 
traffic in merchandise of every des- 
cription, affecting not only the small 
country points which came into direct 
contact with the agricultural pro- 
ducer, but also the large centres 
from which suplies were obtained; 
and thus the good results would be 
like a snowball, getting bigger and 
bigger as it went. Irrigation can do 
these things; and not on a ten per 
cent, basis, but on a twentyfive, fifty 
or hundred per cent, increase. 

The modern farmer figures how 
best to make water serve in his oper- 
ations for grain and for home com- 
forts and then gradually is making 
his plans effective. 



IRRIGATION AND MANURING CORN 

The following comments are from 
the Summary of Bulletin 133, recently 
published by the Utah Agricultural 
Experiment station, Logan, Utah. 

The proper use of water is the im- 
portant question in agriculture, and 
the consistent use of manure is nec- 
essary to the establishment of a 
permanent agriculture in any country. 

The highest yields of corn to the 
acre of land was produced where 
from fifteen to thirty inches of water 
were applied. 

Where forty acre-inches of water 
were applied there was a decrease in 
the yield of corn, a waste of water, 
a loss of time in applying the unnec- 
essary water, and injury to the soil, 
hence the wise farmer will avoid the 
excessive use of water. 

Manure gave sufficient increase in 
yield of corn to make it worth about 
$2 a ton. 

The time of maturity of corn was 
delayed by irrigation, but hastened 
by manure. This is important since 
earliness in maturity of corn is very 
desirable. 

The germination of corn was most 
rapid and complete in a soil contain- 
ing a medium amount of soil moist- 
ure. 



FIELD SERVICE FOR IRRIGATION 
PROJECTS. 

Congress has made available for 
field work on Reclamation service an 
annual appropriation of $40,000 to be 
expended through the Department of 
Agriculture, without entailing any di- 
rect charge against water users. Mr. 
F. D. Farrell, one of the most capable 
leaders in the Department, has been 
given charge of this service which 
is to be carried on in co-operation 
with the work under the supervisor of 
irrigation. Mr. Farrell will perhaps 
start by assigning about 15 of the 



project field men for personal work. 

In case of special required help in 
any line, such as dairying, soil stud- 
ies, hog cholera, etc., the field men 
assigned to the project will be given 
assistance by trained specialists and 
will be backed up by the Department 
of Agriculture as a whole. This is 
a most practical arrangement, and it 
assures each project to which a field 
man is assigned of the constant serv- 
ice and assistance of trained agri- 
cultural men and, in addition thereto, 
direct touch with the immense re- 
sources of the entire Department of 
Agriculture. 

Mr. L D. O'Donnell, supervisor of ir- 
rigation, urges co-operation from the 
start. 

Place before these field men, he 
says, the difficulties connected with 
your farming and keep them informed 
of your success in overcoming special 
difficulties in order that the ideas 
you have put into practice may be 
passed on to your neighbors. 

"In many instances during my trips 
over projects,' says Mr. O'Donnel in 
Reclamation Record, "I have met with 
farmers who were up against diffi- 
culties which could not be explained 
away on the moment, and yet before 
leaving the same project I found 
farmers who had overcome the same 
difficulties. I have found conditions 
of soil peculiar to certain localities, 
and to make the maximum returns 
possible from such soil requires care- 
ful study under local conditions. On 
every project there are men who have 
studied out for themselves the best 
methods of dairying, cattle feeding 
or hog raising, and yet their methods 
are not known to their neighbors. If 
the field man does nothing more than 
carry good ideas from farmer to 
farmer, the projects will be greatly 
helped, yet this is only the begin- 
ning of the good that may be accom- 
plished. 

"Mr. Farrell is now perfecting his 
plans for this field work, and it is 
expected that the good work will 
soon be under way. 

"The more you benefit from the ad- 
vantages offered you by the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, the more that 
Department will be willing to assist 
you." 



GATE STRUCTURES FOR IRRIGAT- 
ING CANALS. 

Most of the gate structures in Am- 
erican irrigation canals a few years 
ago were of wood, but more recently 
concrete, both plain and reinforced, 
has come into common use. Wood 
has the advantage of cheapness and 
of easy handling and the disadvantage 
of rapid depreciation, while concrete 
which has the advantage of perma- 
nence is more costly. The kind of 
material used, as well as other fea- 
tures of gate structures, varies in 
different irrigated regions of the 
West. One section often uses feat- 
ures especially adapted to it of which 
other sections, that could use them 
equally well, are ignorant. The U. S. 
Department of Agriculture is endeav- 
oring to bring together such designs 
for gate structures as are adapted 
to many localities so that each local- 
ity may profit by the practices of 
others, and has just issued a new 
bulletin (No. 115) entitled "Gate 
Structures for Irrigation Canals," in- 
tended to be of assistance to engi- 
neers and others with technical 
knoyledge of the subject. 



Pumps and Pumping Plants Complete 

Write us about Pneumatic Water System. Positive 
satisfaction is the reputation we maintain. 
CLOVER AND VETCH SEED FOR SEPTEMBER SOWING 

Poole's Seed & Implement Co. 



1507-9 Pacific Ave. 



TACOMA, WASH. 



WHEN TAKING OUT STUMPS AND CLEARING LAND USE 

Vulcan Stumping Powder 

The best powder for stump blasting purposes. Low freezing. Made 
on Puget Sound for more than six years and is giving excellent satis- 
faction to thousands of users. Plain directions with every case. If 
you can't get VULCAN STUMPING POWDER from your dealer write 
us. We also sell direct. Please mention this paper. 

Puget Sound and Alaska Powder Company 



419 Commerce Bldg. 



EVERETT, WASH. 



BIG BARGAINS in 

AUTOMOBILES 

ALL TIRES SOLD AT WHOLESALE PRICES 

Here are a few bargains in used cars. Ask for special prices 
on others and on trucks. 

One 1912 Chalmers, 5-passenger, self-starter — $975. 

One Franklin, 5-passenger, in Al condition, guaranteed — $800. 

One Franklin, 5-passenger, guaranteed — $750. 

One 3-passenger Ford — $250. 

One 1912 Cadillac, electric lights and self-starter — $1,000. 
The above cars are guaranteed to be just as represented by us. 
Terms if desired. 

OVERLAND - PACKARD - HUDSON New cars and supplies complete always on hand. 

Pacific Car Co. 

North Second and Q Streets 

(Point Defiance car line) 



REMEMBER THIS IS THE 
HOUSE OF SERVICE 

TACOMA, WASH. 



Keeps The Motor Cool 

Zerolene, as its name implies, keeps the motor 
cool by perfect lubrication. Even under intense 
heat and pressure it maintains the desired lubricating 
film between the wearing surfaces and so enables the 
engine to do its work efficiently. 

ZEROLENE 

THE STANDARD OIL 
FOR MOTOR CARS 



is the best auto oil the Standard Oil 
Company can make — produced by experts of 
long experience who have studied the requirements 
of motor lubrication and who have at their command 
selected crudes and the best refinery equipment 
with which to produce an oil exactly adapted to 
meet these requirements. 

Dealers everywhere. Ask 
our nearest agency about de- 
• I * A \J>^ livery in bulk. 

Standard Oil 
Company 




(CALIFORNIA) 



9 



i 



Please mention this paper 



176 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



HOUSEHOLD DEPARTMENT 



ODMDOOMD BX MM. a A. KHUOI 



WAITING. 

Serene, I fold my hands and wait, 
Nor care for wind, or tide, or sea; 

I rave no more 'gainst time or fate, 
For lo! my own shall come to me. 

I stay my haste, I make delays, 
For what avails this eager pace? 

I stand amid the eternal ways, 
And what is mine shall know my 
face. 

Asleep, awake, hy night or day, 
The friends I seek are seeking me; 

No wind can drive my bark astray, 
Nor change the tides of destiny. 

What matter if I stand alone? 

I wait with joy the coming years; 
My heart shall reap where it has 
sown, 

And garner up its fruit of tears. 

The waters know their own and draw 
The brook that springs in yonder 
height; 

So flows the good with equal law 
Unto the soul of pure delight. 

The stars come nightly to the sky; 

The tidal wave unto the sea; 
Nor time nor space, nor deep nor 
high, 

Can keep my own away from me. 

— John Burroughs. 



POLLUTED WATER 



Two Simple Tests by Which Its Imm- 
purity May Be Noted. 

Everyone knows and admits the ne- 
cessity for pure water. When you are 
away from home and are not sure of 
the character of the water supply it 
would not be a bad idea to make a 
few simple tests. The results may 
prove that it was decidedly worth 
while to take the trouble, says the 
New York Sun. Here are two tests 
that you can make very easily: 

Fill a tumbler with water, drop in 
a lump of white sugar, cover it with 
a saucer and let it stand overnight on 
the bricks at the side of the range, on 
the kitchen mantelpiece, or, in fact, 
anywhere where the temperature will 
not sink below 60 degrees. If next 
morning the contents are clear the 
water is pure. If, on the other hand, 
the liquid is cloudy some source of 
contamination is indisputably proved. 

The second test is to drop a few 
grains of permanganate of potash into 
a tumbler of water, cover and let it 
stand for an hour. If the water is 
still of the bright rosy color to which 
the chemical turned it, it is perfectly 
safe for drinking. If it is of a 
brownish color it is impure, although 
the impurity may be of the kind that 
boiling will rob of its power to harm. 



CHEER UP. 

It's the best advice for the woman 
to follow if she is sincere in her ef- 
fort to lose years and gain dimples. 
There may be a sad, sullen, somber 
beauty, but it's not the kind worth 
working for nor the kind one wants 
to look at day in and day out, sum- 
mer and winter, in sickness and in 
health, till the final parting, says a 
writer in Farm and Fireside.. 

The woman we love is the woman 



with the sunshiny heart. And she's 
the woman we think of when some- 
one speaks about the various types of 
modern beauty. Perfect features, rose 
leaf complexions, may last for a 
time as the cover for a snarly nature. 
But when they vanish the unmasking 
is complete. 

The free indulgence in emotions 
may be all very "temperamental." It 
may seem to be the hallmark of gen- 
ius. It may distinguish you from 
your companions and make them 
treat you a bit different, catering to 
your whims, which is very flattering. 
But — it is the quickest and most 
complete way of destroying health, 
happiness and good looks that you 
can find. 

One fit of anger means one year of 
age added to your life. 

One hour of jealousy means one 
month of caring and massag and 
cold creaming before the marks are 
entirely gone. 



THE BEST MEDICINE. 

Many of the most familiar fruits 
and vegetables have distinct medici- 
nal values. The proper attention to 
the things we eat, then, will make 
them serve both the purposes of food 
and medicine, and will enable us to 
save some of the money spent on 
remedies and doctor bills. The fol- 
lowing are some articles of diet 
which are Known to have medicinal 
qualities, according to Kansas City 
Star: 

Apples, carrots and Brazil nuts are 
excellent for sufferers from constipa- 
tion. 

Asparagus stimulates the kidneys. 

Bananas are beneficial to sufferers 
from chest complaints. . 

Beets are fattening and good for 
people who want to put on flesh. So 
are potatoes. 

Celery and onions are nerve tonics. 

Cranberries are astringent and cor- 
rect the liver when it is suffering 
from inaction caused by overeating. 

Dates are nourishing and also pre- 
vent constipation. 

Grape juice is a laxative, but the 
skin and seeds are likely to cause 
constipation. 

Honey is a good substitute for cod 
liver oil. 

Lemon juice is excellent as a gargle 
for sore throat. 

Lettuce has a soothing effect on the 
nerves and is excellent for sufferers 
from insomnia. 

Onions are conducive to sleep. 
They quiet the nerves and are good 
for colds. 

Parsnips, like sarsaparilla, are good 
for the blood and to tone up the 

system. 

Tomatoes are good for a torpid 
liver, but they should be avoided by 
gouty people. 

Water cress is an excellent blood 
purifier. 



SLEEP ESSENTIAL. 

Sleep is the greatest restorer. It 
gives the body a chance to get rid of 
the fatigue poisons and to make 
necessary repairs. Lack of sleep will 
kill more quickly than lack of food. 
A sleepless animal, Professor Har- 
ris says, is as miserable at the end 



.1 



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stove for 
the farm 



FOR BEST 
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USE PEARL OIL 




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there's no wood, coal or ashes to lug. The 

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OIL COOK STOVE 

burns kerosene — the clean, cheap, easily-handled 
fuel. Its blue flame gives an intense heat and 
you can regulate it to any degree you want — 
just like a gas range. It doesn't smoke — nor 
taint the food. An ideal summer stove because 
it doesn't over- heat the kitchen. Many use it 
the year 'round. Dealers everywhere. 

Standard Oil Company 

(California) 



Headquarters for 

OREGON CHAMPION GOOSEBERRY 

and Perfection Currant 
Attractive prices made now for Advance Orders 
Also a very complete line of general Nursery Stock, including a 
choice assortment of one-year budded and two-year Apple and Pear. 
Correspondence solicited. 

Portland Wholesale Nursery Co. 

301-302 Stock Exchange Building. PORTLAND, OREGON 

The Place to Buy your Supplies 



Live Stock Market 

Send for our quatations on cattle, hogs, sheep, poultry and hides. 
We buy stock cattle. 

Try the parcel post service for our meats; anything in the packed 



line. 



Occasionally we have some good dairy cows. 
Write, giving particulars. 



1508 Pacific Ave 



Tacoma Meat Company 

TACOMA, WASH. 



COPPER ORE PAINT 

For your Barns, Silos, Roofs, etc. Red — Brown — Protective — Permanent. 
Trial gallon delivered by parcels post on receipt of $1.00. 
Write for prices on quantities. 

HASHALL PAINT CO., Tacoma, Wash. 



Clover, Timothy and Vetch Seed 

Strictly high grade both in purity and vitality in actual tests. Ready for 
early September sowing. Please submit estimate requitements. Now is a 
good time to plant more thousand headed Kale in the Coast section. 50c 
per pound, post paid. 

AABLING-EBRJGHT SEED CO. 

85=89 Pike Street, Seattle, Wash. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



177 



of three or four days as a starved 
one at the end of ten or fifteen. In- 
deed, sleep to a degree will take the 
place of food. People who sleep past 
breakfast often are not hungry until 
the middle of the day. 

It takes some seven to eight hours 
of sleep for adults to permit the sys- 
tem to scour out the clogging poisons. 
To skimp on necessary sleep is as 
bad for efficiency as it would be to 
allow grit to accumulate in the bear- 
ings of an engine — and for the same 
mechanical reasons. 



YEAST IN BREAD MAKING. 

"Home made yeast is much better 
than dry yeast in making bread, 
says Dean Henrietta W. Calvin of the 
Home Economics department, O. A. 
C. "It may be likened to the seed 
saved by a good gardener from his 
own healthy and vigorous plants. 
When thus prepared it contains many 
millions of live growing plants of 
microscopic size. The liquid yeast 
can be kept in a cool, dark place 
about two weeks. Sugar is a good 
yeast food. A little added to the 
bread does not affect the flavor of the 
bread, but it does quicken the action 
of the yeast. Salt is used for flavor. 
The small quantities in which it is 
used in bread does not retard the 
growth of the yeast plants but it adds 
to the whiteness of the bread. The 



5. What does the father adminis- 
ter punishment with? Golden rod. 

6. What does the brother do then? 
Balsam. 

7. What is her father's name and 
office in the Presbyterian church? 
Elderberry. 

8. What is her sister's name and 
the color of her eyes? Black-eyed 
Susan. 

9. What is her lover's name and 
what does he write with? Jonquil. 

10. What does her lover often 
lose? Batchelor's buttons. 

11. What flower does she give 
him? Heartsease. 

12. What candy did he give her? 
Candytuft. 

13. What did he do when he pop- 
ped the question? Aster. 

14. What did she say when he 
knelt before her? Johnny jump up. 

15. To whom did she refer him? 
Poppy. 

16. What flowers did he wish to 
press? Tulips. 

17. What flower was lacking on a 
cloudy day? Sunflower. 

18. What flower did they look at 
in the evening? Moonflower. 

19. Who married them? Jack in 
the pulpit. 

20. In what city did they live and 
what was her position in society? 
Baltimore belle. 

21. What was she when she went 




Master Paul Dahlia, one of the new popular varieties grown by O. J. Win- 
gren, La Co nner, Wash. 



bacteria that cause sourness are de- 
veloped when the bread is kept too 
warm. Bread that feels warm to the 
hand is too warm to make sweet, 
light and well flavored bread." 



A FLOWER COURTSHIP. 

There are many flower courtships, 
but here is one that may be new to 
you. It was new to the guests at a 
porch party where the decorations 
consisted in garden flowers, where 
nasturtium sandwiches and flower- 
decked salad were served, and where 
the prizes for the various winners in 
the guessing contests were lovely 
bunches of flowers from the hostess' 
garden. 

The answers to the questions are 
all flowers. Here are the questions: 

1. What is the maiden's name and 
the color of her hair? Marigold. 
1 2. Who is her favorite brother? 
Sweet William. 

3. What does her brother like to 
do in winter? Snowball, 
i 4. At what hour does her brother 
wake her father? Four o'clock. 



West? Prairie queen. 

22. What chimes rang out when 
they were visiting an English cathe- 
dral? Canterbury bells. 

23. What feeling did they share 
when they were in London? London 
pride. 

24. What did they feel when they 
went walking in a London fog? Love 
in a mist. — Ex. 



TRAINING ANOTHER'S CHILD. 

They all sat 'round in friendly chat 
Discussing mostly this and that, 
And a hat. 

Until a neighbor's wayward lad 
Was seen to act in ways quite bad; 
Oh, 'twas sad! 

One thought she knew what must be 
done 

With every child beneath the sun — 
She had none. 

And ere her yarn had been quite spun 
Another's theories were begun — 
She had one. 



EXHIBIT 

YOUR LIVE STOCK AT THE 

Western Washington Fair 

PUYALLUP 
Sept. 29-30 and Oct. 1-2-3-4, 1914 

Again Using the Old Slogans': 

" Bigger and Better and the Fair That Makes Good" 

The Live Stock, Horticultural, Machinery and Educational 
Exhibits will be Grand. 750,000 People Within a Radius 
of 50 Miles. Attendance 1913, 60,000. Send for Premium 
List. 



W. H. PAULHAMUS 

President 

PUYALLUP, WASH. 



J. P. NEVINS 

Secretary 




Olympic Pancake Flour 

Self-rising, nutritious; has a taste that makes every mem- 
ber of the family its friend, and it digests easily for all. 
Four-pound cartons. 

The Puget Sound Flouring Mills Co., Tacoma, Wash. 



$82 we a ek Earning Capacity 



"KING OF THE WOODS" DRAG SAW 



With or Without Buzz Saw Attachment 
Will saw 20 to 40 cords of wood per day at a cost of 
$1.00. PULLS ITSELF up the steepest HILL and 
over the roughest ground. Costs less than other makes. 
One man writes he sawed 56 ricks in 10 hours. 
Another sawed 40 cords in 9 houre. There's 
more you ought to know. Write for FREE cat- 
aloe containing full description with testimonials! 
frnm enthusiastic users. WRITE TODAY. A 



Reierson Machinery Co. 



SOLE MANUFACTURERS 



PORTLAND, OREGON 




NORTHWEST 
GROCERY CO. 

HEADQUARTERS 

FOR HOTEL AND 

CAMP SUPPLIES. 

A one-cent postal with name and 
address will bring an up-to-date 
cash price list. Buying supplies on 
time is expensive. Conditions are 
improving. Why not make money 
by buying right? 

Northwest Grocery Co. 

13th and Commerce Sts., 

Tacoma, Wash. 

Oldest and Largest Mail Order 
House in the State. 



In Color 
and Flavor 

both — to please the eye as 
well as the palate — 

Mapleine 

is unique. It is particularly 
appropriate at this season for 
making mapley cakes, des- 
serts, ices and dainties. 

Adds zest and color to 
meat gravies, soups, etc. 

Your grocer sells it. 

Crescent Manufacturing Company, Seattle, Wn. 




r 



SAMSON STUMP PULLER 



1 




THE 

ANNIE WRIGHT SEMINARY 

TACOMA, WASHINGTON 
Thirty-first Year 

An endowed Church School for 
Girls, College Preparatory and 
General Courses. Certificate ad- 
mits to Smith, Wellesley, Vassar 
and the leading State Universities. 

Special advantages in Domestic 
Science, Music and Art. 

ADELAIDE PRESTON 

Principal 



PRICE $67.50 

The onlv REAL, HAND POWER 
MACHINE MADE. A boy can pull 
more than a team. Our Booklet 
No. 2 tells all about the SAMSON 
and shows pictures of the ma- 
chine at work. Sent FREE. Write 
for it. 

SAMSON MANUFACTURING CO. 

112 Western Ave. Seattle, Wn. 



WANTED — Family to live on a farm. 

Man must be first-class milker and 
dairyman, and wife a good cook; must 
have at least two children of school 
aire, boys preferred. Wife may board 
other help on the farm. House rent 
free, unfurnished, running- water in 
house. Write for particulars. 
W. T. Putnam, Lake Cushman, Wash. 



178 

The third was not so sure she knew, 
But thus and so she thought she'd 
do- 
She had two. 

The next one added, "Let me see, 
These things work out so differently." 
She had three. 

The fifth drew on her wisdom store 
And said, "I'd have to think it o'er." 
She had four. 

And then one sighed, "I don't con- 
trive 

Fixed rules for boys, they're too much 
alive." 

She had five. 

"I know it leaves one in a fix, 
This straightening of crooked sticks." 
She had six. 

And one declared, "There's no rule 
given, 

But do your best and trust to heav'n." 
She had sev'n. 

— Selected. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



EGG ALBUMEN IN BAKING 
POWDER. 

The attempt to discredit the use 
of white of egg as an ingredient in 
baking powder seems to have been 
originally planned and conducted very 
largely by the baking powder manu- 
facturers who do not use this ingre- 
dient. 

Egg albumen has been used in the 
manufacture of baking powder for 
fully forty years by various baking 
powder manufacturers. Every objec- 
tion raised against its use in baking 
powder can be traced directly to man- 
ufacturers who for selfish purposes to 
save the slight increase in the cost of 
production have hoped to bar the use 
of a wholesome product, which serves 
several valuable purposes, an impor- 
tant one being that of retaining the 
gas when the baking powder comes in 
contact with moisture. Practical 
methods of baking all require the ad- 
dition of moisture to the baking 
powder, in connection with the flour 
and other companion ingredients, be- 
fore it is subjected to any tempera- 
ture in the oven. It is highly desir^ 



able that as little as possible of the 
leavening power of the baking pow- 
der be lost before the baking goes 
into the oven. Egg alDiimen has a 
tendency to retard the action of the 
baking powder in the dough before 
it is subjected to the oven heat. 

Some manufacturers have been 
prompted to make a still wider mis- 
statement to the effect that the addi- 
tion of egg albumen makes a baking 
powder appear much stronger than it 
really is. This is such a gross mis- 
statement that it has not been cred- 
ited by thinking people. The mix can 
rise in the glass no higher than it 
is driven by the gas produced by the 
powder. 

By means of this ingredient, it ia 
possible through a simple test, to 
determine the amount of available 
leavening gas present in the goods 
on the merchants' shelves. Conse- 
quently manufacturers using egg al- 
bumen are able to extend to every 
dealer a guarantee to keep his stock 
of their powder in good condition 
and up to the standard at all times. 
This guarantee not only protects the 
stock of the retailer, but insures to 
the housewife that she will always 
secure fresh, dependable baking pow- 
der. 

Only a minute quantity of egg al- 
bumen is required in order to ac- 
complish gas retention, which is ad- 
mitted by all practical authorities 
to be just as important as gas pro- 
duction. Egg albumen, even in the 
small quantities used, adds slightly 
to the viscosity of the mix, and is 
especially desirable where the house- 
wife must depend on water rather 
than milk, for adding moisture to 
her dough. Egg albumen in baking 
powder also adds in a small but ap- 
preciable degree to the viscosity of 
dough made from "weak" flour, lack- 
ing in the normal quantity of gluton, 
thereby increasing the tenacious pro- 
perties so much desired by all good 
cooks. 

The most absurd claim yet in the 
entire controversy was that the use 
of white of egg in the manufacture 
of baking powder constituted an adul- 
teration, which matter was brought 
up before the Federal Board last Nov- 
ember, and after several exhaustive 
hearings, at which both sides were 
heard, a decision was rendered by the 
Federal Food and Drug Board of In- 
spection that the use of white of egg 
in baking powder was not adultera- 
tion. — Crescent Manufacturing Co., 
Seattle. 



DAIRY DEPARTMENT 



Testing Dairy Cows for butter fat records of highest importance. 
Conserve Dairy Energy and figure on the Individual Cow. 



(Address any inquiries about dairying to H. L. Blanchard, Asst. Supt. Exp. 
Station, Puyallup, Wash.) 

An Ideal Dairy Farm. 



About half a mile west of Kent in 
the famous fertile White River valley 
is located an ideal dairy farm of 
which W. S. V. Robb, Vice President, 
of the Washington State Dairyman's 
Association is the owner. 

The farm consists of 4ly 2 acres 
of which 25 acres are under cultiva- 
tion, the balance being brush and 
timber land affording some pasture. 

The crops are principally oats and 
vetch, seeded in the early fall to 
be cut in June, put into the silo, and 
fed during the dry months. 

A ten acre crop of corn is growing 
to yield from 15 to 20 tons per acre 
of ensilage ready for the silo in 
October for the winter feed, A crop 
of clover, orchard and rye grass 
mixed was seeded last September and 
produced about 3 tons good hay to 
the acre and during July there was 
ample second growth of the clover 



for good pasturage or for a second 
cutting later. 

These crops afford an excellent 
system of rotation. When the ground 
has been in clover 2 years, it is plow- 
ed up and planted with corn. When 
the corn is cut for ensilage in Octo- 
ber, the ground is seeded with gray 
oats and spring vetch which, the 
next season is followed with clover 
and mixed grasses two years. Thus 
the ground is growing leguminous 
crops 3 years and corn one year, 
keeping up splendid fertility in con- 
nection with fertilizers obtained from 
the dairy. 

In the herd are 30 cows of which 
26 are in good milking condition. 
These consist of about half of high 
grade Holsteins, some high grade 
Guernseys, Jerseys, and one Durham, 
but are all of excellent dairy type, 
deep bodied, great feeders and heavy 




Among Imported Guernseys 

we offer such cows as Franceska B of 
Lee Farm, Eva G. and Grace Lee, all above the average leaders each in 
their class according to age in A. R. records. Imp. Winnie 3rd Cortil du 
Ray is sired by Masher of King's Lodge, Lady Paget 2nd by Masher 
Sequel, Duraux Rose 4th and Polly 4th by Clara's Sequel. The young 
sires Lula's Prince of Arrow Farm, Woodrow and Coquette's Boy, have 
high records on both sides. 

In Holsteins 

we offer 10 pure bred cows and heifers of Hangerveld 
De Kol breeding, with excellent records back on both sides. Also 5 pure 
bred bulls; among them Maple Lodge, 2 years old; Sir Hartog Korndyke 
and Sir Rag Apple Soldine; sires and dams on both sides all A. R. O., 
with records above 600 lbs. butter. We also offer a fine bunch of high 
grade young cows. 



FRYAR & COMPANY 



Please Mention 
This Paper. 



SUMNER, WASH. 




Holsteins ^^Grad" 



Among very choice registered stock we are offering such cows as 
Helena Pontiac, sired by Pontiac Hercules, producing 70 lbs. milk per 
day, good for 25 lbs. butter per week. Clothilde Riganeta De Kol Lady, 
a young cow sired by Madrigal Friend. Her dam Riganeta De Kol 2nd 
has a record of 76 lbs. milk per day, with 4.01 test. Jessie Cornucopia 
Pietje No. 201560, 2 years 3 months old, is out of a dam with a record 
of 18,000 lbs. milk a year, and 21 lbs. butter record per week. Pietje 
Beauty, 3 years old, has a 14%-lb. butter record at 2 years. These are 
bred to a 30-lb. record son out of King Segis, and others to a son of 
King of Pontiacs. 

We have some very choice young sires of Homestead De Kol breed- 
ing, and high record dams. 

OUR HIGH GRADES show excellent breeding, good type, great ca- 
pacity and are in fine condition. 

Numerous selections are being made. Write or make appointment 
for further particulars. 

VAN WOERDEN & FISHER 

Seattle Phone, Sidney 767. THOMAS, WASH. 

On Interurban, half way between Tacoma and Seattle. 
Please mention this paper 



Electric Ligh t Farm 

A.J. C.C. Jerseys 

FOR SALE 

Son of Gertie's Brown Lad whose 
dam has official record of 653 lbs. 
butter in one year. The dam of 
this 5-months-old calf made over 
10,000 lbs. milk and 595^ lbs. but- 
ter with first calf. Solid color, mul- 
berry fawn, priced at $100.00 for 
quick sale. 

Burt Pease Ellensburg, Wash. 



T> egistered 

*^ Jerseys 

Young bulls from heavy producers 
For Sale 
Also some choice pure bred 

Poland China Pigs 

Write for prices 

E. L. Lloyd 

Box 466 Monroe, Wash. 




THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



179 




Vetch 
Clover 
Grass Seed 

For Fall Planting 

These important crop* call for 
careful and studied seed selection. 

Cheap, inferior seed is expensiva 
at any price . Lilly's best seeds are 

99% Pure 

— and we can furnish all seed 
tested for purity and germination. 

Don't take chances. Buy the best. 

We make a specialty of grass and 
clover seed and stand ready to 
back up our claims for supplying 
the best seed possible to get. 

Sold through dealers in LiHy's Trade Marked Sachs 

Fall Catalog Ready 

Mailed free on request. 
THE CHAS. H. LILLY CO.. SEATTLE 



Picnic Luncheon, in the cow barn of WL V. S. Robb, Kent* Wash., w 
pays the owner well. Notice the many windows affording good light and 
tion prevails throughout the plant. 



here the manufacture of certified milk 
ventilation. A high degree of sanita- 



FOB REGISTERED DTJR0C JERSEY 

bred sows and male pigs, write McK. 
Edwards, Valley, Wash. 



producers, the herd averaging about 
300 to 400 quarts a day for more than 
ten months of the year. During July 
the feed is principally oat and vetch 
ensilage with a little barley and 
shorts for. concentrate, about one 
pound fed for each 4 pounds milk. 

The barn is thoroughly modern and 
sanitary, arranged for economical 
working. There are plenty of win- 
dows, raised cement floors with 
water for flushing the gutters 
and for washing the cows previous 
to milking. As an evidence of clean- 
liness a picnic luncheon was given 
in this barn recently as shown in the 
illustration. At one end of the barn 
is the milk house which contains a 
laundry room, wash room, sterilizing 
room, cooling room and an ice and 
storage room. The cows' udders are 
kept clipped, and the cows carefully 
washed with a damp cloth before 
each milking. The milkers bathe and 
don clean suits before milking. The 
milk is poured into the cooling vat 
from which it percolates over a 
cooler through which iced brine is 
pumped by means of a small rotary 
pump run by electricity, cooling the 
milk at once, nearly to the freezing 
point and it is then immediately 
bottled and sold to the certified milk 
trade at a very attractive price. 

The high grade cows of different 
breeds produce milk blended, having a 
proper proportion of butter fat, casi- 
ene and a good rich color, but Mr. 
Robb is careful in the breeding, not 
to cross any of the dairy breeds. 

Steam is generated by means of a 
5 horsepower boiler and all the dairy 
utensils are thoroughly sterilized af- 
ter each milking by subjecting them 
to 180 degrees of heated water for 
half an hour. 

Cleanliness is the watchword 
throughout this plant, nearly all the 
feed used is produced on the place. 
It is virtually a manufacturing plant, 
converting the raw material into cert- 
ified milk at handsome profit every 
day of the year. 



FIFTY GUERNSEY COWS 

The last fifty Advanced Register re- 
cords of Guernsey cows approved and 
ready for certificates show some inter- 



esting figures relative to the records 
being made by this breed. 

Thirty-six out of the fifty gave an 
average of over 505 lbs. butterfat, 
showing the standard that many 
Guernsey breeders are setting for 
their herds. Four of the number aver- 
aged 622 lbs. and two were 713 lbs. 
each. 

To the dairyman who does not as- 
pire to making world records, but 
wishes to know what he may reason- 
ably expect from Guernsey cows, the 
foregoing figures are worthy of note. 
He is proud to know that a Guernsey 
cow, May Rilma 22761, holds the 
World's record for butterfat produc- 
tion, with a yield of 1073.41 lbs. but- 
ter-fat in one year, and perhaps 
equally pleased to know that he has 
selected a breed the rank and file of 
whose cows show such averages. 

When he considers further the cost 
of production and sees that he has 
received greater returns from his 
feed and the care given than he 
could have obtained with others, he 
has renewed cause for satisfaction. 

In this group of cows, four records 
are for their second year, and three 
for their third yearly records, demon- 
strating that they "come back" re- 
peatedly and improve their previous 
year's work. As illustrating this, we 
cite the case of Anton's Patience 
24474, whose three years' records 
are as follows: 

Pounds Milk 

First year 7618.80 

Second year 10358.80 

Third year 11934.00 

Pounds Fat 

First year 430.15 

Second year 572.82 

Third year 643.16 

While these are not phenominal re- 
cords, they show the great value of 
A. R. work to the dairyman in follow- 
ing just what his cows are, or should 
be doing. The number of breeders 
who are taking advantage of this 
work is steadily increasing. 



GRADE AND PURE-BRED HOL- 
STEINS. 

Thirty-six head of choice grades 
and some registered Holsteins were 
received by Van Woerden & Fisher 



WHY EXPERIMENT? 



IDEAL 
GRfciK ." LF. D 
SILO 



When you can buy a silo built by a con- 
cern that knows how. 

The Ideal Green Feed Silo has many 
practical patented features which are neces- 
sary to keep and preserve ensilage. A little 
investigation will convince you that it will 
pay to erect a silo. 



The next question is "What silo?" 
cannot afford to experiment. 



You 




You want a silo that by many years of 
use has proved its worth. 

Profit by the experience of others who 
have built cheap home-made re-sawed silos in order to save a 
little expense in the start and later on replaced them with the 
Ideal Green Feed Silo. 

Your wife wouldn't experiment with a leaky can or jar for 
putting up fruit, etc. Then, why should you take a chance on 
your ensilage put up in a common water tank type of silo when 
you can buy an absolutely air-tight tongued and grooved Ideal 
Green Feed Silo that has been used successfully for the past 
twenty years. 

Write for silo folder C for full information. 



De Laval Dairy Supply Company 



101 DRUMM STREET 

SAN FRANCISCO 



1016 WESTERN AVENUE 

SEATTLE 



Ensilage Cutters and Alpha Gasoline Engines 



Holsteins For Sale==A. r. o. Breeding 

We offer 12 females of the very best and most promising heifers 
raised here, five coming fresh this late fall and winter; also a young bull 
ready for service. All out of A. R. O. dams. 

J. H. DE HOOGH & SON 

Twin Brook Stock Farm Lynden, Wash. 



HOLSTEIN HEIFERS - -Choioe High Grade Stock 

We are offering to sell 30 young Holstein cows, fall freshening; also 
a choice bunch of Holstein heifers out of registered bulls with dams on both 
sides great producers, bred to registered sires, will freshen in early spring. 
If you want something of this kind, tubercular tested, write for particulars 
at once and mention this paper. 

F. F. FOLSOM, 
204 4th Ave., Kent, Wash. 



ISO 

about the middle of July and by Au- 
gust 1st nearly that number from 
their herd had gone to new owners. 
Notwithstanding the dry season the 
demand for cows in the city supply 
and condenser districts have been 
good, indicating that feeding prepara- 
tions have been made without regard 
to pasturage conditions. 

Among the registered cows in this 
herd in fine condition are Helena Pon- 
tiac with 70 lbs. milk per day record 
and good for 25 lbs. 7-day butter 
recoid; Vale Burke, Charlotta Burke 
and Alice Burke, all registered, are a 
very choice trio, 2 years old and over, 
bred to a 22-pound record son of 
King of the Pontiacs. 

Clothilde Riganeta Dekol Lady is 
another fine young cow out of a clam 
with record of 76 lbs. a day and 4.01 
test. 

The cow Jessie Cornucopia, Pietje 
201,560, is out of a dam with a yearly 
record of 1,800 pounds milk and a 
7-day butter record of 21 pounds. She 
is bred in the 30-lb. record line of 
King Segis. 

Mr. W. E. Wall, of Centralia, was 
one of the buyers, taking over a fine 
show bull, 8 months old, weighing 865 
pounds crated, a grandson of Home- 
stead Jr., De Kol. 

In the herd is a fine bunch of 
high grade cows coming fresh in the 
early fall and some calves of most 
excellent types. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



TESTING GUERNSEYS. 

In the registered Guernsey herd of 
Augustine & Kyer, Seattle, there are 
several cows to be entered in the 
yearly test. The cow Willows Chart- 
ruse, a daughter of Imp. G. Chartruse, 
has produced 2,080 pounds of milk 
and 108 pounds of butter in 82 days 
in her two-year form. Under correct 
treatment her record will be consid- 
erably above 500 pounds butter at 
mature age. 

The dam of Melba's Prince pro- 
duced 508 lbs. fat at 3y 2 years of age. 
The young calves from this breeding 
therefore can hardly fail to make 
good as producers and breeders. 



GUERNSEYS AND HOLSTEINS. 

Some of the leading dairymen sup- 
plying milk to the certified trade in 
Seattle and Tacoma find it a good 
practice to mix the milk from cows 
of the different breeds, but Mr. B. S. 
Fryar of Sumner cautions against the 
crossing of pure-bred Guernsey and 
pure-bred Holstein or any other of 
the pure breeds. Holsteins excel in 
quantity while the Guernseys produce 
color and a greater proportion of fat 
and a mixture of their clean milk is 
attractive to buyers and brings the 
price. The crossing of these breeds 
produces mongrels, ugly in appear- 
ance and of very uncertain capacity, 
therefore it is advisable to keep the 
breeds separate. 

Several of the young Guernsey cows 
in Mr. Fryar's herd are out of im- 
ported dams and are showing A. R. 
records above the average leaders of 
their respective classes. There are 
also some fine young registered 
Guernsey male calves from noted an- 
cestry, among them Lula's Prince of 
Arrow farm, Wood row of Arrow farm 
and Coquettes Boy of Long Meadows. 

In Holstein sires, Sir Rag Apple 
Soldine, 2y 2 years of age, is out of a 
32-lb. record dam. Sir Hartog Korn- 
ryke is another high record animal 
and Maple Lodge, a coming 2-year 



old, is sired by Pontiac Boreas, dam 
Heroine Friend Vale. These are all 
out of A. R. O. ancestry, both sires 
and dams being above the 600 pound 
butter per year record. The pure 
bred calves in the herd are in excel- 
lent condition and there is a good 
bunch of high grade cows from which 
selections are being made. 



HOLSTEIN BULL CALF AT $20,000. 

Dairymen in the Pacific Northwest 
are naturally a little slow in putting 
hard earned money into bull calves 
the return in profit for which they 
must wait a long time. But when 
such plan can be properly financed no 
investment pays better providing an 
animal with good parental records is 
obtained. The dairymen in the mid- 
dle states are realizing this fact from 
experiences in selling cows to the 
coast dairymen. In the matter of 
care and feed the cost of raising a 
pure bred cow which will produce 
400 pounds butter per year or over 
is no greater than that of a grade 
or one producing only 250 pounds 
but there is a great difference in the 
selling price or actual values. 

As an indication of high mark in 
estimating the valu,e of a good sire 
the Western Holstein Breeders' Con- 
signment sale June 5 the Holstein 
bull calf, King Segis Pontiac Chicago, 
brought the record price of $20,000, 
the crowd doing a tremendous cheer- 
ing stunt when the hammer fell. The 
calf was sired by the great King Segis 
Pontiac, with 33 A. R. O. daughters, 
and his dam was Johanna de Kol Van 
Beers with a butter record of 40.07 
lbs. in 7 days, 151.43 lbs. in 30 days, 
288.06 in 60 days, 418 lbs. in 90 days 
and 541.35 lbs. in 120 days, which is 
the worlds butter record for that per- 
iod. To manufacture that amount 
she produced 10,498.10 lbs. of milk. 
The calf was consigned by R. E. Hae- 
ger, Algonquin, 111., and T. E. Getzel- 
man, Hampshire, 111., and was eager- 
ly competed for by many of the own- 
ers of the great Holstein herds of tne 
country, but three Chicago men staid 
the longest and got him for their 
herds at Barrington, 111. They are H. 
Stillson Hart, Geo. E. Van Haagen 



WAR 



Has caused the price of wheat to advance. Farmers are not 
selling freely. Flour mills have not commenced operation. 
Mill feed is very scarce and hard to buy at any price. 

Prices on Cane Molasses, Oats, Barley and Linseed Oil Meal are 
reasonable. Hence, we are able to manufacture 

ALBER'S MOLASSES FEED 

at a price that makes it the cheapest feed on the market, when 
the feeding value is taken into consideration. 

Albers Molasses Feed is a combination of Cane Molasses, Ground 
Barley, Oat Middlings and Linseed Oil Meal. It is a milk-maker 
and can be fed at a profit. 

If your pasture has dried up, start feeding Albers Molasses Feed 
today. Your dealer can supply you. 

ALBERS BROS. MILLING CO. 



TACOMA 



Largest Cereal Millers in the West 



SEATTLE 



Fresh High Grade Cows 

We are offering for sale High Grade Cows which are very 
satisfactory producers at reasonable prices. Some of them 
are nearly pure of the best in Holstein breeding, some are 
high grades of other dairy breeds but all of excellent dairy 
type. We also have a fine bunch of youngsters from 
which to make selections. For many years we have been 
supplying dairy cows to condensor patrons. 

Write for prices and particulars and submit wants. 

J. D. ROSS & SON Kent, Wash. 



HOLSTEIN HOME 

Home of Maldeta Canary Mercedes, grand champion at Washington State Fair 
1913, and the record price cow ($1800) west of the Rockies. If you want a 
bull of the producing and show kind to head your herd let me tell you about 
some of my young ones. 



E. B. MARKS, Proprietor 



North Yakima, Washington 



Registered and High Grade Holsteins 

We are constantly preparing to supply the needs of dairymen in the northwest with 
Registered and High Grade Holsteins, the kind which affords buyers the highest measure of 
satisfaction in production. Tuberculin tested. Specify your wants and write for particulars. 

E. H. THOMPSON, Mt. Vernon, Wash. 



Electric Lighting Systems g»WMiE 



lig-ht can be had instantly and no. danger from fire. 



lamps when a clean, brilliant 
Let us tell you more about them. Catalog- free. 






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lit 


P V 


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IBI| M 

is in 


$ i3§ 




m 




RACINE BOAT & AUTO COHPANY, Poison Bldg., SEATTLE, WASH. 



Please Mention this Paper 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



181 



and Spencer Otis, Jr. It is not only 
the record price paid for a bull of 
dairy breed, but for all breeds in 
Chicago. 

Other bulls offered sold for plenty 
of money, but of course the prices 
they brought seemed insignificant in 
comparison, with the record breaker. 
King Frontier Pontiac made $1,700 
and others smaller figures. 

Cows at Good Prices. 

A wonderful bunch of cows was 
sent up by T. E. Getzelman, Pontiac 
Lady de Kol, little more than a two- 
year-old, but out of Pontiac Lady 
Korndyke, holder of two world re- 
cords for butter when made, selling 
for $2,850. Pontiac Korndyke Maid, 
butter record 33.76 lbs. in 7 days, 
brought $1,350, and her daughter, Pon- 
tiac Korndyke Maid 2d, calved March 
13, 1913, $1,005. Iowana Farms 
bought the splendid, great, big cow, 
K. P. Lilith Clothilde for $2,150, this 
matron's butter record being 29.04 lbs. 
in 7 days made from milk testing 
over 4 per cent. fat. K. P. Elinda, 
still in the same consignment brought 
$1,500, record for butter in a week 
being 24. 62 lbs. and her test 4.24. 

A great crowd of fully 500 people 
was gathered at the ringside, the sell- 
ing space being arranged in shape 
different from that in vogue at sales 
of beef cattle. With the auctioneer's 
box at the south side of the ring, a 
small raised platform is in front of it, 
and a gentle, much-handled dairy 
cows stand there quietly while being 
sold. The first 78 head sold averaged 
$450; when 145 had changed hands 
the average had siren to $800. 



GUERNSEYS AS FAVORITES 

The consumers of milk in all cities 
are demanding better milk, richer 
milk, and the Guernsey cow is the 
dealer's salvation, says E. M. Fitz 
Maurice, in Guernsey Breeders Jour- 
nal. The Guernsey cow is not only 
the milk dealer's cow. She is also 
the farmer's cow. She will produce 
more rich milk with the amount of 
food consumed, than cows of any 
other breed. This has been proven 
by tests at the New York and New 
Jersey experiment stations. 

The Guernsey herds stand at the 
top at the creameries. Milk conden- 
sers, too, prove the worth of the 
Guernsey cow. The Pacific Coast 
Condenser Company, located here, pay 
by test, using 4% as a basis. For in- 
stance, the price of 4% milk is $1.65 
per hundred. How many Holstein 
herds will average near 4%? They 
will get around $1.50 for their pro- 
duct. Owners of Gearnsey herds re- 
ceive $2.10 and upwards, because of 
high tests. 

Yearly records are what prove the 
worth of a cow. Any ordinary cow 
ought to do well for at least a week. 
But the Guernsey cow must produce 
well for a full year, and the large 
number in the advanced registry, 
prove the worth of the Guernsey. 

I am personally acquainted with 
the records of the first two daughters 
in milk sired by the Guernsey bull 
"Marcia's Glenwood of Pinehurst," 
owned by Mr. Coffin of Eau Claire, 
Wisconsin. These two heifers entered 
the Illinios dairy contest. They finish- 
ed second and third over all breeds 
under three years of age, and third 
and fourth over all breeds and cows 
of any age. Your readers are familiar 
with the work of those other Glen- 




MAKES 



More 
Milk 



The only practical feed that meets fully the vital 
necessity for bulk, palatability and succulence. 

YOU have only to watch your cattle eat Larrowe's Dried Beet Pulp 
just once to appreciate how palatable it is. They take It raven- 
ously. They like it because it is a natural vegetable foouVICven 
while in the pasture they will eat it with great relish, and when de- 
prived of green food do not suffer in health or fall off in milk production 
if a suitable proportion is Included in their ration. 

Larrowe's Dried Bret Pulp is as digest ibln, a.n it Is. palatable. It 
also makes digestible the entire ration in wl^plrTt ispiVfcluded, because 
it makes the whole loose and bulky. This one fact explains the reason 
why, while rations can be made up of various feeds so that they will 
contain equal nutriment, judging by analysis, the Dried Beet Pulp can- 
not be omitted from any ration without a distinct loss that affects both 
the health of the cow and the amount of her milk. A light, loose food 
in the cow's stomach is open to the action of the gastric juices, while a 
solidly massed food repels them and makes digestion difficult. Larrowe's 
Dried Beet Pulp swells from 5 to 0 times its bulk when moistened. 
It is practically the only feed which does not become a solidly packed 
mass. 

PROVE ITS VALUE WITH ONE SACK 

Go to your feed dealer today and get one 100-pound sack and test 
it on one cow whose milk record you know. You'll get instant results — 
1 to 5 pounds more milk per day from each cow. 

lie sure you yet "Larrowe's." It is never blackened 
or burned. Always uniform. Keeps indefinitely. 



READ THESE CONVINCING LETTERS 



From Hazlewood Dairy Farm. Christ Nae- 
gell, Prop., Oregon City, Ore. 

"After much persuasion I consented to give 
Dried Beet Pulp a trial for the feeding of 
dairy cattle. I will admit further that I con- 
sented with considerable reluctance, for I did 
not think the pulp could be profitably bought 
and fed, holding to the idea that beets could 
be .raised for much less than the price which 
I paid for beet pulp. 

"I have demonstrated to my own satisfaction 
that a dairyman can buy the pulp for much 
less than he can raise the beets, and that the 
dried pulp is as good feed as the green beets, 
and as a milk producing feed when the grass 
is gone I have not yet found its equal, not- 
withstanding the fact that we of the Willamette 
Valley can raise cow kale to perfection and 
very cheaply. 

"Last season I did not start to feeding beet 
pulp until very late, but this year will com- 



mence as soon as the grass is gone, and will 
feed it in connection with miU feed, all win- 
ter." 

(Signed) CHRIST NAEGELI, Prop. 



From Mr. A. Zeeuw, Thomas, Wash., one of 
the best known dairymen in the northwest. 

"I have fed your dried beet pulp for the past 
two seasons and expect to feed it again the 
coming fall and winter. 

"I find it an excellent feed, both as a milk 
producer and a conditioner. I can highly rec- 
ommend it to anyone in the dairy business, as 
it keeps the cows in a healthier condition than 
when feeding shorts or ground grains." 



MOlASSES-DfSIED 
BEET PULP 



is preferred by many feeders on account 
of its sweetness. Just the plain beet 
pulp with beet molasses dried. Fine 
for fattening ; also for horses, hogs, 
etc. It is put up the same way as the 
plain and sold on the same basis. Ask 
your dealer for it. 



(Signed) 



A. ZEEUW. 



Write For Our Booklet "Profitable Feeding" 

With full information and feeding instructions. Sent free on request. 

THE LARROWE MILLING COMPANY 

Sixth Floor, Central Building ' LOS ANGELES, CAL. 



wood Guernseys "Dairymaid of Pine- 
hurst" and "Jedetta of Pinehurst" in 
the Iowa contest. 

Guersey breeders can do much for 
the Guernsey cause, and at the same 
time help the owner of scrub cattle 
to work into higher producing cows 
by first proving to him the merits of 
the Guernsey, and then selling him 
a pure bred sire at a reasonable fig- 
ure. 



The Larrowe's Molasses-Dried Beet Pulp 

and other Stock Feeds are sold by our firm. 
Write for prices on trial-lot shipments. 

THE W. W. ROBINSON COMPANY 

Hay, Grain and Feeds— Wholesale 1717 Railroad Ave. S., Seattle, Wash. 



CHICONA FARM GUERNSEYS 



To be Shown at Northwest Fairs. 

In a recent letter to the Northwest 
Horticulturist and Dairying, Mr. A. L. 
Gile, manager of the Chicona Farm 
of noted Guernsey cattle, Berkshire 
hogs, and Belgian horses, Chinook, 
Wash., writes that it is his intention 
to show at the Spokane Interstate 
Fair, and the State Fairs at Salem 
and North Yakima. His Guernsey 
herd is of higher quality than last 
year, and no doubt will win their 
share of the ribbons. 

The demand for stock has been 
good only three young bulls remain- 
ing unsold, one whose dam milked 
close to 50 pounds per day. She has 
a daughter producing 2 pounds butter 
a day average for six months, now 
under test for advanced registry. Mr. 
Gile is proceeding in the right direc- 
tion to maintain his reputation for 
producing practical and profitable 
purebred Guernseys. 




Flies Can't Stand It 

but it doesn't hurt the milk-— use 



FLY 
KILLER 



t 



freely on your stock — it'll save you 
money which means making money. 

All Dealers 35c quart, 

"Don't Sit on the Cow'. Tail" 00 S a,lon > $ 350 for 5 8»»<>n8. 

The CHAS. H. LILLY COMPANY, Seattle 



HOLSTEINS WITH HIGHEST RECORDS 

Our Registered Holstein Cows are well up near the 1,000 pound per 
year butter record. One of our two-year cows gave 19,510 lbs. milk and 
825 lbs. butter in 365 days. 

In her 3rd year she starts with 2,336 lbs. milk and 108 lbs. butter in 30 
days. Our entire herd is above the 500 lb. butter record. 

Do you want some youngsters of this breeding? Then write for 
particulars and prices. 

J. H. Hollingsworth, LADNERS, B. C. 



VAN WOERDEN & FISHER'S SHIP- 
MENT 

The July shipment of Holsteins for 
Van Woerden & Fisher arrived on 



nnnnr icnrn/ 

P E AS III -S": P .£ DIGS £E>OW$>S$P 
IJUIUMj ULI\ULI 



A herd of the best blood of the best 
strains headed by Champion of the 
Northwest No. 107287, a boar that has 
never been outclassed at any ags. 

Write for prices. 

THE E. N. PEASLEE CO., 
Clarkston, Wash. 



Oregon 



Collie KennelS Established 42 
years. 

Choice Pupplss 

(either sex) 
Breeding Pairs 
Bitches In 
whelp and stud 
dogs for sale. 

Bend 2c stamp 
for Illustrated , 

catalog. 

c. d. WAntjr 

Shadeland 

Farms 
X. F. D. I 
Amity, Oregoa 




182 

the 13th in good condition for immed- 
iate buyers. 

Some of their regular custumers 
have been on the waiting list for this 
announcement for some time. Both 
the grades and the registered stock 
are choice throughout, of excellent 
breeding and ideal type. A number 
of the cows are bred to a good son of 
the King of the Pontiacs and their off- 
spring cannot fail to make good in 
any herd. This shipment will supply 
only a small part of the demand foi 
cows from now on during the fall. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



DAIRY INTERESTS AT CHIMACUM 

Northwest Washington particularly 
the Olympic peninsula, is becoming 
noted for excellent records made by 
several breeders of the leading dairy 
breeds and for the developement of 
dairy products commercially. 

The Hon. D. S. Troy is a tireless 
worker, always ready to lend sub- 
stantial aid to those desiring to en- 
gage in dairying and who require 
help as beginners. 

He is the manager of the Glendale 
Creamery Company and of several 
other plants in Jefferson and Clallam 
counties. Both butter and cheese 
are made at the Glendale plant. The 
Jersey breed predominates with the 
patrons of the seven creamery plants, 
and Mr. Troy is constantly breeding 
up to get a higher average butter 
fat production. He has some regis- 
tered dams and sires related well up 
in blood to Adelade of Beechlands 
which produced nearly 1000 pounds 
of butter in a year. As a rule pas- 
ture is good in the Chimacum valley 
but oats and vetch the combination 
silo crop for early and corn for win- 
ter silage, together with some roots 
will figure in the future feeding plan. 

Hon. Wm. Bishop, the famous Hol- 
stein breeder has had good success 
from the importations made last 
spring from New York. He has now 
a fine crop of youngters from Vee- 
man Hengerald breeding sire of his 
great cow Chimacum Wayne Boone, 
whose 4-year record is 33.69 pounds 
butter in seven days and 137.22 lbs. 
butter in 30 days. His senior year- 
ling sire is a son of Margie Newman, 
the cow for which the Canadian 
Government paid $2000. This animal 
has the highest milk record of dams 
on both sides of any bull known to 
history, and is a record for which 
Mr. Bishop, his district and his state 
may justly feel proud. The offer of 
$5000 was refused and preparations 
are being made to show at the P. P. 



Exposition in 1915. 

Mr. Chas. Eldridge whose farm be- 
came famous through the great Hol- 
stein milk producer Margie Newman, 
has some youngsters whose records 
at maturity is likely to eclipse that 
of Margie. Excellent pasture through- 
out most of the year is a valuable 
feature here. 

Mr. Hugh Nesbit, of Chimacum, 
started to breed registered Holsteins 
by buying from the home breeders 
in the valley a few cows tor foun- 
dation. Lated he bought from Morris 
& Sons, California, the calf Segis 
Riverside Pontiac whose dam has a 
record of 31.47 lbs. butter in 7 days. 
His sire is closely related to the 
young bulls recently sold in Chicago 
at fabulous prices, and some noted 
records are likely to be made at 
this place. 

Mr. Thos. Yarr, Chimacum, has 
also a fine herd of pure bred and 
grade Holsteins and is taking pains 
to breed up with the best herd sire 
obtainable with high ancestral re- 
cords. 

Those engaged in pure bred lines 
as well as those in this district who 
are making butter or selling cream 
and milk have found by experience 
that it pays to get the best obtain- 
able in pure bred sires. Conditions 
here naturally prevailing affords pas- 
ture during a large part of the year, 
but with good producers the feed 
problem is not difficult to solve, es- 
pecially where oats and vetch silage 
and root crops are produced so 
abundantly. 



KEEPING UP THE MILK FLOW 

The leading dairymen in the White 
River Valley are keeping up a good 
average milk flow during these dry 
weeks of August because they have 
made previous preparations. Some 
are using good ensilage made from 
oats and vetch, others use alfalfa 
and concentrates. Mr. Zeeuw, of 
Thomas, feeds the following mixture 
in combination with hay: 

Dried beet pulp 200 lbs. 

Shorts 160 lbs. 

Alfalfa meal 200 lbs. 

Oil meal 100 lbs. 

These feeds are thoroughly mixed 
and soaked, fed as a concentrate in 
proportion to the amount of milk pro- 
duced per cow. 

Several other dairymen in the val- 
ley are feeding about the same dairy 
ration and are now getting the full 
benefit of the increased price of the 
market on butter fat. 



Registered Guernseys 

For Sale 

We Offer an Excellent Young Bull from Helba's May Prince and Imp 
Chartreuse. The dam of May Prince produced 508 lbs. fat at 3y 2 years 
and the dam of the young bull is under A. R. test, with an average of 
41.3 lbs. milk per day for 104 days to July 1, and 4.3 per cent. fat. We 
offer male calves of like breeding which can be obtained at lower prices 
now than several months hence. 



Write for prices and further particulars, 
parties. 

Augustine & Kyer 



Terms to responsible 

115 First Street 
Seattle, Wash. 



Brady 

Farm 

Guernseys 



We have for sale several fine heifer 
calves from two weeks to six months 
old. Also one bull calf from a fine 
producing cow. 

E. R. BRADY 

Satsop, Wash. 



Meadow Brook Farm 



Breeders 'of 

Pure Bred 
Ayrshire 
Cattle 

A. P. Stockwell, Aberdeen, Wash. 



We have for sale some very choice pure bred bulls, 
ranging in age from three months to three years old, 
from the choicest strain of Ayrshire Cattle. We have 
the only herd in the State of Washington that is tested 
under supervision of the U. S. Government. With ev- 
ery animal we furnish a certificate from the govern- 
ment that he is free from tuberculosis or any other In- 
fectious disease. Address all correspodence to 



A. J. C. C. JERSEYS 

Big Producers 

For Sale — A fine bull calf, sired by Gertie 's Stoke Pogis 33rd, 
out of Dixie Bertha, a sister of Morrow's Select, which made 826 
pounds butter in one year. A bargain at my price, considering 
quality. Have both Island and American bred. Ancestral records 
of the very best. Particulars on application. 

J. B. EARLY 

Grandview, Wash. (Yakima County) 



STOCK 



Pure Bred Holstein Records 

Our herd bull is Johanna Colantha Champion, grandson of Colantha 
Johanna, also grandson of Sir Fayne Concorda, full brother to Grace 
Fayne 2nd Homestead. His dam is Johanna Colantha, 26% lbs. butter in 
7 days. Her daughter J. Colantha 2nd made 32.85 lbs. butter in 7 days. 
Two of our 5-year-old cows each made over 27% lbs. butter in 7 days. 
8-year-olds 20 to 23 lbs., and a 2-year-old 17 lbs. 

A few bull calves 5 months old and younger, out of these heavy 
producers for sale. Write at once for prices. 

WILLIAM TODD & SONS 

NORTH YAKIMA, WASH. 



GROWING PORK 

The annual increase of horses, cat- 
tle, and sheep ranges from fifty to 100 
per cent. The increase of hogs 
should be from 500 to 1,500 per cent. 
The sow has the advantage in bring- 
ing forth two litters a year and far- 
rows several at each litter. 

Dr. Warrington in "Chemistry on 
the Farm', states that for each 100 
pounds of feed consumed, the different 
animals make gains as follows: Cat- 
tle, 9 pounds; sheep, 11 pounds; and 
hogs,23 pounds. Pigs then make near- 
ly two and one half times the gain 
over cattle for the amount of grain 
consumed. 

G. H. Glover, of the Colorado Experi- 
ment Station, states; 



The man who hauls hogs to market 
instead of corn or other grain, is the 
one who should make money. Be- 
cause of the fact that hog raising 
when properly managed has been so 
profitable, the hog has been styled 
the "Mortgage Lifter." The one ene- 
my to the business is hog cholera. No 
doubt much can be done in controll- 
ing cholera by the farmers cooper- 
ating in adopting measures which will 
prevent the dissemination of cholera. 
It is up to the farmers themselves 
on last analysis to confine cholera on 
the one farm where it starts by 
strictly following the advice of sani- 
tary authorities and all working to- 
gether to this end. I know of a 
farmer who kept his hogs healthy 



CASH FOR. CREAM 

Highest market price. Guaranteed test. Prompt cash payment 
for each shipment. We are also in the market for eggs. 

MILLER BROS. CO. 

1532 Commerce St., Tacoma, Wash. 



AYRSHIRES 

Herd of 300 registered animals to select from. Has made three 
World's records for production. Write for catalog and prices. 
J. W. Clise, Owner WILLOWMOOR FARMS, 

Redmond, Washington 



Please mention this paper 



Please mention tnis paper 



for four years while all the neighbors 
were losing their hogs from cholera. 
He did it by eternal vigilence in 
keeping infection out, and this man 
made a regular chore of cleaning 
the hog pens every Saturday after- 
noon. 



LIVESTOCK IMPORTING PROV- 
VISIONS 

Persons interested in the impora- 
tion of live stock should obtain the 
latest regulations (B. A. I. Order 209, 
effective July 1, 1914), by application 
to the Chief of the Bureau of Animal 
Industry, Department of Agriculture, 
Washington, D. C. 



WOODLAND BERKSH I RES AND 
ARTICHOKES 

The Woodland stock farm at Lacy, 
Wash., is preparing to show at some 
of the fall fairs. They have a fine 
lot of youngsters by Centralia Duke 
and Silver Lee 3rd, in all about eighty 
head under six months of age. Sales 
have been good, in fact they have 
had to ask two buyers to leave their 
purchases until after the fairs. 
This farm is becoming noted for the 
fine crop of artichokes grown. One 
field has an immense crop after being 
pastured for four years without 
replanting. Artichokes and peas with 
a little other grain finishes the hog in 
fine shape. 



SILAGE AND ALFALFA FOR BEEF 
PRODUCTION IN WASH- 
INGTON. 

C. H. P., of Sunnyside, Wash.,1rals- 
es a question of wide interest, viz.: 
"Can I make any profit by feeding 
my crops of silage and alfalfa into 
beef?" He is offered cattle of any 
age, the feeder to receive the gain 
produced as payment for his feed and 
labor. He asks how much gain he 
should secure per day, what age cat- 
tle he should select and whether he 
should receive more than market 
price for the gain made. 

According to the reply of R. C. 
Ashby, in the Gazette, under present 
conditions he should be able to make 
a profit from his feed, but there are 
several factors to consider. The de- 
tails of such an agreement, as decid- 
ed upon by owner and feeder, would 
have an important bearing upon the 
result. 

For two reasons select' young steers 
rather than old, and steers not too 
fat. First, the younger cattle will 
produce more gain from the same 
amount of feed, and, second, thinner 
cattle will make larger gains from 
the ration he suggests. 

Regarding influence of age, Bulletin 
132 of the Nebraska Station has de- 
termined that the cost of feed for 100 
lbs. gain of calves at $4.10 and year- 
lings at $7.61. Cost of feeds— Corn 
66c per bushel, alfalfa $10 per ton, 
silage $3 per ton. 

Older cattle would finish better, but 
the writer believes quantity of gain 
more important than finish in this 
case. Hay fed beef comprises a large 
part of the market supply on the 
Coast. Grain feeding is increasing, 
but thus far hay fed stuff really 
holds the balance, and grain must be 
used wisely. On the other hand, ex- 
travagant use of grain is not neces- 
sary for good results as is shown by 
the Pennsylvania Bulletin 118. Two 
lots of light plain feeders were fed 
during the winter of 1911, for 126 
days. 

Figured on the basis cost of feed- 



THE NORTHWEST 

ear corn 70c per bushel, silage $3.50 
per ton, cottonseed meal $32 per ton, 
the cost of 100 pounds ot gain was 
$11.36 where the ear-corn was the 
principale part of the ration, and 
$9.02 where corn silage was the prin- 
cipal feed, or $2.34 in favor of the en- 
silage. 

The following shows how the feed- 
ing was done: 

Lot 1 Lot 2 
lbs. lbs.' 

1st 56 days feeding: 
(Dec. 1-Jan. 26) 

Daily gain per steer.... 2.52 2.40 

Av. daily feed per steer: 

Ear corn 11.85 

Cottonseed meal 1.90 1.90 

Corn silage 27.65 48.09 

2nd 56 days feeding: 
(Jan. 26-Mar. 22) 

Daily gain per steer... 1.33 1.30 

Av. daily feed per steer: 

Ear corn 15.28 13.18 

Cottonseed meal 2.06 2.06 

Corn silage 18.91 22.56 

Last 70 days feeding: 

Av. daily feed per steer: 

Ear corn 15.03 , 13.54 

Cottonseed meal 2.24 2.24 

Corn silage 18.47 21.54 

With silage alone very good gains 
were secured on Lot 2 during the 
first two months' feeding. Then when 
put on grain they continued to do 
as well as Lot 1. The same results 
would not always be obtained, but a 
heavy grain ration is not essential to 
gains where good silage is available. 

Starting with 900-lb. cattle, the 
feeder should secure average gains 
of 1.6 to 2 lbs. per head daily for 
two months or more. The latter 
would be a very good gain. A good 
ration would be — silage 20 to 25 lbs. 
per head, allowing the cattle to eat 
as much alfalfa hay as desired. A 
ration of 25 lbs. silage and 15 lbs. 
alfalfa hay would supply 2.+ pounds 
of digestible protein and 20.+ pounds 
of dry matter daily. While furnish- 
ing more protein than required such 
a ration would prove very satisfac- 
tory. The proportion of silage to al- 
falfa should depend upon the supply 
of silage available and the cost of 
alfalfa. Some seasons excellent feed- 
ing grades of wheat or barley (rolled) 
can be secured in Eastern Washing- 
ton at $23 to $26 per ton, delivered 
in car lots. At such cost one should 
carefully consider the use of a light 
grain ration for a couple of months 
at the close of his feed. 

At the Washington Station last sea- 
son, the writer produced gains on 
Shorthorn yearling steers at a cost 
not exceeding 9c per lb. This was 
on a grain and alfalfa ration, grain 
costing $23 and $24 per ton. 

H. C. Davis, of Granger, one of the 
leading dairymen of Washington, cuts 
all the hay for his cows and would 
feed it no other way. All the alfalfa 
is put through his ensilage cutter. 

Twenty tons of silage and five to 
seven tons of alfalfa hay per acre 
afford opportunity for beef produc- 
tion. Moreover the winter climate 
of the Yakima Valley is unexcelled 
for feeding operations. The soil is 
light enough to pay large returns on 
the manure produced by the steers 
and a manure valuation of $1.50 per 
ton is probably quite low in this re- 
gion. It is the writer's opinion that 
this will be a great feeding and fin- 
ishing section within a few years. 

The larger packers feed many cat- 
tle and their buyers contract thous- 
ands of head at the ranches and on 



HORTICULTURIST 



183 




You Wouldn't Put Axle 
Grease on Your Watch 

Isn't it almost as ridiculous to use ordinary farm oil on 
your cream separator? It's delicate mechanism demands 
a special oil. We make good harvester and gas engine 
oils, but we do not recommend them for separators. If 
your separator is to do its best work, you must lubricate it 
with 

Standard Hand 
Separator Oil 

It is made especially to suit the peculiar mechanism of 
cream separators. It is of just the right body. It does 
not gum." It keeps the bowl running swiftly and 
smoothly — you get all the cream. There is no better oil 
— regardless of price. Dealers everywhere. 

Standard Oil Company 

(California) 



HAMPSHIRE SWINE 'ZS? FFoZW 

Has them all beat for rustling and making the most meat at the least 
cost. It is the bacon hog for the Coast section. Large litters. Get 
your foundation stock from 

W. P. TYLER, Route 1, Granger, Wash. 



PUGET SOUND HERD 

Holstein-Friesian Cattle 
Duroc Jersey Swine 

Home of Sir Chimacum Wayne, the 
world's greatest milk and butter bull; 
"Chimacum Wayne Boon" (dam of the 
above) A. R. O. record at 4 years 33.69 
lbs. butter in 7 days, 137.26 lbs. in 30 
days, and full sister "Alice Veeman 
Hengervelt," butter at 4 years 28.04 
lbs. "Doris King of the Pontiacs," the 
best bred daughter of "King of the 
Pontiacs" in the West; she is sister 
to the 44-lb. cow. 

75 A. R. O. cows in herd. All bulls 
for sale are from official tested dams. 

Wm. Bishop, Chimaoum, Wash. 

Chicona Farm 
Guernseys 

A few registered bull calves from 
heavy producing dams and sired by bulls 
of the best blood lines. Address 



H0LSTEIN BULL FOR SALE 

Chimacum Aaggie Cornucopia No. 
64100, H. F. H. B., bred by M. S. 
Nye, Preble, New York. Calved 
August 15th, 1909. His grandam 
Aaggie Cornucopia Pauline is a 34- 
lb. cow. Sired by Aaggie Cornu- 
copia Johanna Lad Junior No. 36,- 
974 H. F. H. B. Dam Onda Doro- 
thy Concordia Paul No. 67853 H. F. 
H. B. A splendid animal, his 
youngsters are making excellent 
records. 

A few choice cows for sale. Write 
for prices or call. 

F. I. MEAD 
524 California Bldg. Tacoma 



A. I,. CriLE, Prop. 



CHINOOK, Wash. 



SOLID LIGHT COLORED JERSEY 
BULL CALF 

Born October 10th, 1913; sire one of 
the best sons of Eminent; dam an Amer- 
ican bred cow strong in the blood of 
Tormentor and Pedro; this cow is on 
test for the Register of Merit and in 
first six months produced 5665 lbs. milk. 

Price of calf $75, registered and 
crated. 

DAVID C. DILW0RTH Opportunity, Wash. 



Purebred Durocs 
and Berkshires 

Very choice young Duroc pigs of- 
fered at reasonable prices. Early 
application should be made. 

Berkshires — We are offering 
some good breeding sows to make 
room for others. We buy and sell 
large quantities of choice hams and 
bacon. Quality is our motto. 
Write today. 

AUGUSTINE & KYER 
115 First St. Seattle, Wash 





WRITE FOR CATALO C 

CHAS. M. TAJLMAD 

±L 1 Box 3 

NEWPORT. WH.J 



WANTED GOATS — To buy two or 

three milk goats; state amount of 
milk at last kidding and oblige 

Peter Egrerers, 
15th & Dock. Tacoma, Wash. 



DT iCV LOSSES SURELY PREVENTED 

lll /lljH by Cutter's Blackleg Pill*. Low- 
mJX^CV V1V priced, fresh, reliable; preferred by 
Western stockmen, because they 
w Protect where other vaccines fail. 

m Write for booklet and testimonials. 

. r • "W 10-dose pkge. Blackleg Pills $1.00 
J-^A-^VaA 50-dose pkge. Blackleg Pills 4.00 
Cutter's Blackleg Pill Injector 1.50 
Discounts: 230 doses. 10 p. ct. : 500 doses. 20 p. ct 
Use any injector, but Cutter's simplest and strongest. 
Every package dated, unused pills exchangeable for 
fresh after date on package. Do not use old vaccine (ours 
or any other), as it affords less protecUon than fresh. 

Insist on Cutter's. If unobtainable, order direct. 
Send check or M. O.. we pay charges and jhip promptly. 
THE CUTTER LABORATORY, Berkeley, California- 

GOOD REGISTERED BERKSHIRE S 

Choice pigs. $10 each at weaning timt. 
"W. D. GOOD, Mt. Vernon, Wash. 



184 

the range. These cattle are put on 
the market when ordered. Grain fed 
cattle do not always bring their real 
value in competition with hay-feds. 



THE NORTHWEST 

Experience is feeding is invaluable. 
C. H. P. has a good opportunity to 
market his crops to advantage and 
enrich his farm. 



HORTICULTURIST 



POULTRY DEPARTMENT 

For Information on Poultry Raising- or Dairying- write Poultry 
Editor, Box 1604, Taooma, Wash. 



SOME POULTRY PROBLEMS 



Queries by Reader. 

1. Will a well conducted poultry 
farm pay in the coast section of 
Washington? 

2. Will one mating of hens make 
all eggs fertile? 

3. What number of eggs will the 
average hen produce during a full 
lifetime? 

4. What is meant by forcing the 
laying of eggs? 

5. What character of food produces 
such results? 

6. Is there any strain barred Ply- 
mouth Rocks, that compare in egg 
laying with the White or Brown Leg- 
horn? 

7. Is the White Leghorn as healthy 
as the Brown under like conditions? 
Why is White preferred? 

8. Would asphaltum floor for chick- 
en houses be good? 

Reply: Yes, there are several poul- 
try plants in Washington containing 
from 2000 to 3000 fowls, where the 
net profit is between 5 and 8 dollars 
per day. One man with only 2 years 
experience figured that his 200 Leg- 
horns paid him 80 cents per hour for 
all the time devoted to them. 

2. About one for every 12. 

3. A hen usually lays best in her 
pullet year, the second year may be 
nearly as good, but from then de- 
clines rapidly. In one case a record 
kept up to the 5 th year showed less 
than one-third as many eggs as dur- 
ing first year. The average hen lays, 
perhaps less than 100 eggs in her 
best year, but the average should be 
above 150. 

4. Feeding for heavy egg laying. 

5. A well balanced ration rich in 
protein, composed of the usual dry 
hopper mixtures and wheat. It is 
more important that none of the es- 
sentials are lacking and that there 
is plenty rather than to have an 
over abundance of varieties. 

6. The Leghorns as a class are 
keeping at the head in the recent egg 
laying contests. Individual fowls of 
the B. P. Rocks with long bodies and 
large pelvic arch could be selected 
which would, under proper conditions, 
produce high egg records, but as a 
breed being raised for both meat 
and egg production have a lower egg 
record unless selections are made 
entirely of the egg type fowl. We 
know no strain of this class bred 
strictly for eggs. 

7. Yes. The whites seem to be 
easier to keep up to standard and 
uniformity. 

8. Asphaltum covered with litter 
might do for part. The natural 
ground floor where it can be sunned 
and spaded as part of a floor is pre- 
ferred by the fowls. 



EGG IMPORTS AND PROSPECTS 

By opening the country to the im- 
portation of Chinese eggs produced 
from filthy feed, in the opinion of 
D. Tancred, Mr. Wilson has demoral- 
ized the whole poultry industry, now 



one of the greatest in this country. 
Not being concentrated those engag- 
ed in it are not in position to. secure 
their own protection. The markets 
are now thrown open to the eggs, 
largely a product of refuse under 
the care of 6 cents per day labor. 

Mr. Tancred states: I have been 
a Democrat in all national politics 
ever since I cast my first vote for 
Grover Cleveland, but if Wilson — 
Bryan et al have not succeeded in 
starving me before next election I 
will vote to retire these gentlemen to 
Princeton and Chatauqua. 

The Nothwest Horiculturist and 
Dairymen has astonished me by the 
amount of business it has turned my 
way in a frightfully dull season. I 
shall continue to advertise with you 
and believe that the great increase 
in the demand for eggs next season, 
because of the famous world's fair 
will pull the poultry raisers out of 
the hole and by that time we will 
surely have organized sufficiently to 
put an end to this Chinese bogey. The 
California producers are organizing 
splendidly — taxing themselves 5 cents 
per case to pay the cost of the fight. 

Surely the men of the northwest are 
their equals in spirit and enterprise. 



SUMMER CULLING 

We are now in the midst of the 
culling season. And as this is a 
season which taxes the vigilance of 
the poultry keeper we are going to 
venture a few suggestions gleaned 
from our experience plus such other 
sources as happen to be available. 
It is at this time that the loafers 
and boarders of the flock exact their 
steady toll until caught at it. 

Most poultrymen can make a 
shrewd guess as to when a hen is 
not laying and by using the pelvic 
bone as a check one need not sell 
off but a small percentage of the 
layers. We find that by watching 
the combs and the plumage we can 
spot the non-layers with considerable 
accuracy and then by feeling of the 
pelvic bones and going to the trap 
nest record of the pen, we can tell 
whether it is time to remove the bird 
or to give her another chance. All 
that are thus gradually culled out are 
thrown into a portable fattening 
coop. Here they are collected and 
fattened until there is enough for a 
shipment when they can be sent to 
market. 

From station reports and private 
sources as well as indicated by bur 
own experience it is pretty well dem- 
onstrated that it does not pay to 
keep over the hen that starts in to 
moult before September or October. 
We have found that our best layers 
continued to lay until September and 
later and that they commenced lay- 
ing again about January, or as early 
as the ones that commenced moult- 
ing in July. There are exceptions, 
but certainly not enough to justify 
holding onto and wasting feed on 
bulk of the early moulting birds. 

From time to time we note articles 



Insures 
Full Milk 
Pail 

Cows give more milk 
and make milking 
safer and easier when 
not bothered and bit- 
ten by flies. Relieve 
their distress by spraying them with 

Conkers Fly Knocker 

Gives cattle the peace and comfort that insures 
more milk, greater weight and productiveness. 
Does not harm skin nor coat 

Keeps Flies Away 
From Cattle and Horses 

One ounce sprays two animals. 

TRY IT 15 DAYS, Money Back if Not Satisfied 
Try a can today. Gallon $1.00, 5 Gallon $4.00. 
Sold by most dealers. 
Inland prices; Gallon 
$1.25; 5 Gallon $5.50. 



The G. E. Conkey 
Company 

Cleveland, Ohio 
Coast Distributors 

Seattle Seed Company, 

Seattle 
Inland Seed Company, 

Spokane 
Routledge Seed & Floral 
Company, Portland 



Fine Registered 
Duroc Jersey Pigs 

For Sale — Young Pigs, Brood Sows 
and extra fine Herd Boars. Write 

JAS. S. COURTNEY 
White Salmon, Wash. R.F.D. No. 1 

Registered Jerseys BE J£JX M 

Some choice cattle out of St. Lam- 
bert and Adam Stevens breeding. Pure 
bred, prize winning Berkshires, Shire 
horses and pure-bred poultry. Write 
for prices. 

A. G. WOODWARD 
Route 1, Box 12 Fairbanks, Wash. 

REGISTERED DUROCS 

(Immune to Cholera) 

All ages for sale, male or female, from 
prolific families. 

Shamrock Wander heads the herd. 
Shamrock Daisy farrowed 12 pigs. 
Shamrock Rose farrowed 14 pigs. 
Selah Agness farrowed 16 pigs. 
Write for prices. 
A. H. IRISH, Wapato, Wash. 



UROC PIGS 

REGISTERED and REA- 
SONABLE. EITHER SEX 

Conkey s Fly Knocker j. hanks & son, E..en.burg.w..h. 



D 



Is Sold by 
POOLE'S SEED & IMPLEMENT CO. 

1507 Pacific Ave., Tacoma, Wash. 

Write or call for it 



PEERADA BERKSHIRES 

| Headed by Artful Masterpiece 8rd 
splendid son of Masterpiece, the 
world's most famous Berkshire. 
Bred gilts, boars and weanling pigs. 

NEWTON H. PEER 



Mention this paper 



TACOMA, WASH. 



SOME CHOICE PURE BRED and 
cracking good ^Q^^J^§ 



3 to 7 months old 
Write us for prices. 
Herd of Berkshires. 



'The B.K.M. 



WOODLAND FARM, 

Lacey, Thurston County, Washington 



Berkshires 

Very prolific, early maturing 
stock of high quality. Some fine 
youngsters ready for delivery. Sat- 
isfaction assured. 

PETER HANSON, 

Box 62, East Stanwood, Wash. 



O.I.Cilogs 



Pigs farrowed in May, 
from my Champion 
and Grand Champion 
sows at 1913 Washing- 
Fnnlich Chirp ton State Fair are now 
LliyilMI OHM C booked to fill orderg at 
HA PC PC weaning time. Al) 

IIUI Ota stock sold strictly 

first class. English 
Shire stallions 1 to 3 years old. Write for prices. 
A. L. PIERCE, Granger, Wash. 



English Berkshires 

Sunset Duke the 4th, 156579, heads 
my Registered Herd. Champion Sow 
1912-13 State Fairs. 

Write for prices and particulars. 
J. A. SIMONSON, 
Route 7 North Yakima, Wash. 



FOR SALE 

Guernsey Bulls 

Strongly bred from highly test- 
ing ancestors. Write for Particular! 

Plateau Farm 
VASHON, WASH. 

8. M. SHIPLEY, Proprietor, 
Haller Bldg., Seattle. 



DUCKS 

The Best In 
White Runners 

WE ARE NOW OFFERING FOR SALE 

Drakes, Trios & 
Breeding Pens 

Bred from the Best American Strain 

Write for prices and booklet 

E. E. BLOOMFIELD 
Hlllhurst, Wash. Box 22D 



PEDIGREED 

COCKERELS 

From Trapnested 

S. C. White Leghorns 

and 

Barred Rocks 

Blanchard Poultry Yards 

C. WESTERGAARD, Mgr. 
Dept. H HADLOCK, WASH. 



Rocks 



BARRED WHITE, 
PARTRIDGE and BUFF 



Choice cockerels at $5 each, prize win- 
ning stock, good layers. Eggs $2.50 for 
setting. Special prices on lots. 

UBS. D. F. ALWAKD 
Orting, Wash. 



White P. Rocks 

First old and first young pen, Ta- 
coma Show. Five blues at King Coun- 
ty Fair. My large flock is a leader 
both in standard and prolific quali- 
ties. Write for prices on Eggs and 
Stock. 

WM. SMITH 
Bremerton, Wash. 



EGGS and BABY CHICKS 

Leghorns, Wyandottes, Minorcas, 
md Barred Rocks. Day Old Chicks, 
Leghorns, Brown, White and Buff, at 
$15.00 per 100. Choice males offered. 

EGGS from any of above breeds, 
$2 per setting or $8 per 100. 

Write for mating list and grit ma- 
chine circular. 

FRED A. JOHNSON 

518 35th St., Tacoma, Wash. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



185 



CD 



This Dairy Feed contains the best grade of alfalfa blended with molasses, which is practically 50 per cent sugar, 
that is converted into milk without waste and loss of energy. 




O 
CD 



CD 



Leading dairymen all over the Northwest are using large quantities of it. They begin with about one quart of Shady Brook Dairy 
Feed per head twice daily — mixing with bran, shorts or other ground feed, for three or four days; then gradually increase the Shady 
Brook and decrease other feed until from four to seven quarts are used at each feeding. 

If your dealer does not handle it, write us. 

GARDEN CITY MILLING CO., Seattle, Wash. 



SI 
r- 

CD 
(ft 
(ft 

o 
o 
(ft 



WALTER SCOTT, MGR. 
317 Board of Trade Bldg., Portland, Ore. 

Seattle Dealers include — Chas. H. Lilly, J. L. Court, Galbraith, Bacon 
Co., Lehman Bros. 



H. P. PRESTON, MGR. 
Seattle, Wash. 

Tacoma Dealers include — Kenworthy & Son, South Tacoma; J. B. 
Stevens, Coast Trading Co., Hill Cereal Co. 



Must Have Albers Calf Meal 

Lakewood, Wash. 

Aug. 4, 1914. 

Albers Bros. Milling Co., 

Seattle, Wash. 
Dear Sirs : 

Would you kindly ship me 50 pounds of your calf 
meal by express as soon as possible C. O. D. English, 
Wash. Would not ask this favor but am unable to 
buy it at our local stores. In the last three days I have 
driven over thirty-five miles looking for your Calf Meal 
and could not purchase it. Would not be fussy only we 
have had good results with your Calf Meal and some 
awful poor results on some of the other so-called Calf 
Meal. I have tried Lakewood, Florence and two stores in 
Silvana and all wanted us to try other brands. We are 
raising a number of calves now and expect more and am 
in a hurry. 

Thanking you in advance. 

Respectfully, 

(Signed) JAS. C. SHAY. 



in the poultry press relative to 
forcing the molt. As indicated by the 
above experience we would say 
rather emphatically "go slow" un- 
less you are an expert and have 
proved that you can do it with a 
profit. For it must be remembered 
that eggs are beginning to command 
a respectable price in July and 
August, or just about the time when 
we are supposed to commence forc- 
ing the moult. 

We are convinced that it is little 
■ use to try by any artificial means to 
make hens lay during the months of 
October and November. 

We are content to give the hens 
the best of care and then leave it to 
the individual as to how late in the 
fall she is going to continue working. 

For fall and early winter eggs we 
are willing to depend on the pullets 
which have hatched before May. To 
be sure there will always be a per- 
centage of these pullets that will 
moult, — but those that do moult gen- 
erally get thru in from thirty to sixty 



AUCTIONEER 

WM. ATKINSON 

Vancouver Blk., Vancouver, B. C. 

Specialist in dairy breeds; grad- 
uate of Jones' National School of 
Auctioneering. Thoroughly exper- 
ienced and wide acquaintance in the 
Pacific Northwest. Write for par- 
ticulars. 



High Prodncing Kolsteins 

A young bull offered for sale from 
Lunde Oregon Fine, that has milked 
over 100 lbs. in a day, over 3000 lbs. 
in 30 days, over 20,000 lbs. in a year. 
Other bulls from her high producing 
daughters. 

OTTO RUNDGREN, Mt. Vernon, Wn. 

days as shown by trapnest records. 
And the price obtained for eggs of 
those that continue laying will more 
than make up. It must be remem- 
bered that most hens do not need 
much of an excuse in order to stop 
laying in the fall. 

C. WESTERGAARD, 

Hadlock, Wash. 



CLOVER SEED 



VETCH TIMOTHY 
RYE ETC. 



We have the seed for early fall seeding, over 99 per cent, 
pure. 

Don't forget we handle CONKEY FLY KILLER, Conkey 
Lice Powder and all of their Poultry Remedies. 

BARTLETT'S Calf Meal, the perfect milk substitute. 
CYPHER'S Incubators and Brooders. 
Send for Catalog and list today. 
Please mention this paper. 

Seattle Seed Company 

SEATTLE, WASH. 




Vetches; Alfalfa, Clover, Grains and Grasses 

We offer our new crop of "Diamond Quality** 

| SELECTED, RE-CLEANED FARM & FIELD SEED at Lowest Market Prices. 
SgsetofaS Mixtures for Special Purposes 

Cover Crops for Orchards — Dry Land Pasture Mixtures 

WET LAND PASTURE — SPECIAL MIXTURES FOR BURNED-OVER LAND 
MIXTURES FOR PERMANENT HAY CROPS AND PASTURES 



Our Seed Laboratory is in charge of a skilled analyst and all "Diamond 
Quality" seeds are TESTED for PURITY and GERMINATION. 



WRITE TODAY FOR SAMPLES 



NOTE THEIR PURITY AND WEIGHT 
Or send In your order direct. We guarantee full value 

/or the money sent and will give ynvr inquiries our 

prompt and care/ al atientiun. *^oRTLAN^ 



Ask for Catalogue Ho. 50 

Portland Seed Co. < 

PORTLAND, OREGON 



The BROOKS 
NURSERY 

A. L. BROOKS, Prop. 

LAFAYETTE, OREGON 



A complete line of Fruit, Shade, Orna- 
mental nursery stock. Guaranteed true 
to name. My nursery stock is free from 
disease and pests; first-class in every 
respect. Extra large roots, also large in 
calibre. Any one wishing to set in large 
lots will get the benefit of wholesale 
prices. Also a choice lot of prune trees, 
6 to 9 feet in height, which I will sell 
at reduced prices. It will surprise you 
in getting my price list before buying 
elsewhere. 



180 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 




o 

H 
M 

<! 



H 
K 



3 



Mortgage Lifters 

Have You a Mortgage on Your Farm? 

IF SO OR NOT 
BUY HIGH CLASS GRADE HOLSTEIN DAIRY COWS 
FROM THE 
SPOKANE GRAIN CO. 
THE COWS WILL DO THE REST. 
IF YOU CANNOT BUY COWS, BUY HOLSTEIN 
CALVES. WE HAVE BOTH FOR SALE, AND GOOD 
ONES. COME AND SEE US. IF YOU CANNOT COME, 
WRITE US. 

We have some Fresh Cows ready for immediate delivery 

Spokane Grain Company 

Phone Sidney 444 4915 Eighth Ave. So. 

SEATTLE, WASH. 



Registered 

and High Grade 



H 



OLSTEIN 
CATTLE 



While actual buying was a little quiet last month on account of the 
dry weather, the numerous inquiries coming show that dairymen will 
increase their herds owing to cheaper feed and higher butter fat. We 
are offering fresh and coming fresh cows that cannot fail to please 
buyers. Our young stock heifers and pure-bred bulls are developing in 
fine shape ready for the increased demand sure to prevail in the near 
future. 



H. S. ROYCE 



Savage-Scofield Bldg., A St. 

TACOMA, WASH. 



Please mention this paper 



Christopher Nursery Co. 

Established at present location for 25 years. Nurserymen for four 
generations is the record. 

APPLE TREES — All leading varieties 4 to 7 feet stocky trees: Yellow 

Transparent, Gravenstein,. Wealthy, Wagener, King, Olympia, Baldwin, 

Winesap, Winter Banana, etc. 
PEAR TREES — A fine stock of Bartlett, Anjou, Bosc, Angoulene, Cornice 

and others; also Dwarfs. 
CHERRY TREES — A choice lot of Lamberts, Montmorency and other 

kinds. 

PLUM AND PRUNE TREES— Strong Italian, French, Sugar Bradshaw. 

SMALL FRUITS — Gooseberry, Currants, Blackberry, Raspberry, Logan- 
berry and other classes. Strong plants. 

ORNAMENTALS— Roses affording satisfaction, Azalias, Hollies, berry- 
bearing; Rhododendrons, English Laurels, Blue Spruce and other 
coniferous, and small evergreens. 

Write for prices and complete list and please mention this paper. 

JOHN A. STEWART & SON, Christopher, Wash. 



Shrubs = Plants - Vines = Trees 

Having taken over the entire stock of the Richland Nursery, we are 
prepared to fill orders for all kinds of Flowering Shrubs, Vines, Clarke's 
Seedling Strawberry Plants, European Grape Vines and Shade Trees in 
choice grades. Please let us know your needs early and get a copy of 
our catalog and prices. 



BREITHAUPT NURSERY CO. 



C. F. Breithaupt, Prop. 



Kennewick, Wash. 




Mid = Summer 
Clearance Sale 

of a large stock of rebuilt autos at 
prices that are right. Terms to suit. 
Our Stock is the largest in Northwest. 




We buy in large quantities for cash and sell on a small margin. We 
own our salesroom, do our own selling. Draw your own conclusions 
about bargains. Here they are: 

Ford, Model T — Just out of paint shop, tires good $300 

Ford, Model T — Kellogg self-starter, perfect all around $475 

Jackson — Like new, 5-pass., electric lighted, late model $600 

Ford — Fine shape, late model $400 

R. C. H. — Hup make, run very little, a dandy car $400 

Classy Little Roadster— Electric lights, tires all good $350 

Overland — Four-pass., nice car for small family $390 

Chalmers-Detroit — A dandy family car $390 

One Elmore — Four-pass., perfect in every way; snap $375 

Studebaker Delivery Car — Like new $500 

Auto Delivery Car — Fine car for ranch, capacity 1500 lbs $300 

Studebaker — Classy four-door car, nickel trimmed; grab this $475 

Three-fourths High Wheel — Sears Roebuck, light delivery $140 

One Pass. Car — A dandy snap $400 

Winton — One-ton truck, fine shape $225 

A Very Serviceable one-ton truck $300 

Studebaker "25" — Like new, small family car $525 

One Pass. 1913 Studebaker — Electric lights and starter $1000 

Extra Special — One 6 cylinder 7 Pass. Mitchell $490 

Steven's Duryea — Fine car for ranch, capacity 1500 lbs $300 

This is only a partial list of our stock. 

We also deal in Oils, Lamps, Tops, Tires and in everything pertaining 
to the auto business. Open every day, evenings by appointment. Write 
or call and inspect machines. 

South Tacoma Auto Brokerage Co. 

5615-17-19 So. Union St. SOUTH TACOMA, WASH. 

Please mention this paper 




Twenty-seventh Year 



TACOMA AND SEATTLE. WASH., SEPTEMBER, 1914 



No. 9 



Evaporation of Apples 

The choice apples of the Pacific 
Northwest command the very highest 
prices which world wide markets 
can afford to pay for the fancy trade, 
but this class of markets have a 
limit. The largest part of the world's 
apple crop goes to consumers who 
can afford to pay only what appears 
to them fair prices and in too many 
cases the expense between the pro- 
ducer and the consumer prevents any 
profit to producers for the ordinary 
grades. 

Increased production and the uncer- 
tainty of ready markets abroad as is 
the case the present year brings to 
mind the advice of the English fruit 
buyer who was present at a meet- 



ing of the Washington Horticultural 
Society three years ago. He said, 
"When your local markets have been 
supplied evaporate your second and 
third grades and don't depend on the 
European market for anything but 
the first grade." This was before 
the completion of the canal but what- 
ever are the changes in the European 
countries, it is safe for apple growers 
to make preparation for evaporation 
from this time on, besides the best 
of cold storage facilities that can 
be made available. 

The assistant pomologist U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, H. P. 
Gould has given careful attention to 
evaporation of apples in farmers 
bulletin 291, in which he mentions 
different styles of evaporaters in use 



as follows: 

1. Cook stove evaporators. 

2. Portable outdoor evaporators. 

3. Kiln evaporators. 

4. Tower evaporators. 

5. Miscellaneous types. 

Some of the cook-stove evaporators 
are small box-like structures, usually 
made of sheet iron or galvanized iron, 
of such a size that they can be placed 
on top of an ordinary cook stove. 
They are arranged for holding a 
series of small trays, on which the 
fruit is placed after it has been pre- 
pared for drying. Various sizes are 
in use, from one, coverine «r3y a 
portion of the top of a common 
kitchen stove and having a capacity 
of only a bushel or so a day, to 
those requiring the entire top of a 



stove on which to operate it. 

Portable evaporators usually have 
a capacity of 5 to 10 bushels a day. 
The dimentions are usually 2y 2 feet 
wide by 3 feet long and may be from 
4 to 6 feet high or higher. These 
may be if wood or sheet iron except 
the fire box which must be of iron 
and far enough separated from the 
wood to be safe. There is space for 
ten trays, with drop doors at the 
sides. The drying inclosure should 
be absolutely tight at sides and ends, 
the air entering underneath and pass- 
ing off through the^i' 1 loul Of the 
toy. 

Any person with ordinary mechan- 
ical genius can make an evaporator 
of this kind. 

(Continued on page 189.) 




THE VAST PALACE OF HORTICULTURE AT SAN FRANCISCO. 
STUPENDOUS GLASS DOME ONE OF THE 
WORLD'S ARCHITECTURAL MARVELS 

This illustration of the Palace of Horticulture was taken at a point 125 
feet above the ground, the photographer being stationed on the huge Tower 
of Jewels, which is 435 feet in height. The Horticulture Palace is one of 
the most remarkable and beautiful structures upon the grounds of the 
Panama-Pacific International Exposition. The building is 600 feet long and 
300 feet wide. The huge dome in the center is 186 feet high and 152 feet in 
diameter. The architecture of the domes and minarets resembles that of 
the mosque of the Sultan Ahmed I, at Constantinople, while the details of 



the facades, spires and other decorations suggest the Eighteenth Century 
French Renaissance. 

An idea of the magnitude of this dome may be had when it is com- 
pared with some of the most famous domes now in existence. The diameter 
of the Pantheon at Rome is 142 feet; that of the Duomo of Santa Maria del 
Fiore at Florence, 139 feet; the United States Capitol, Washington, D. C, 
135% feet; while the famous dome of St. Peter's at Rome is 139 feet in 
diameter. The other dimensions of the Palace of Horticulture are equally 
imposing, the building covering 223,000 square feet of ground, as against 
62,000 feet covered by the Moque of St. Sophia. The building was erected at 
a cost of $341,000. 



1SS 



NORTHWEST 



HORTICULTURIST 

Agriculturist and Dairyman. 

C. A. TONNESON, 
Editor and Proprietor. 

Subscriptions 50 Cents per Tear when 

PaM in Advance. Otherwise 76 Cents. 

Six Months, SOc. Three Months, 20o 
In Advance. 

Canadian, other foreign, also when deliv- 
ered y carrier in Tacoma, 75o a year. 

Subscribers will indicate the time for 
which they wish the paper continued. 

Payment! are due one year in advance. 

Addreei all Communications to th« 
Tacoma Office 
KOKTICULTUBIST, Box 1604, Tacoma, 
Wash. 

Office, 511 Chamber of Commerce 
Building - , Tacoma, Wash. 

Seattle Office 

420 Globe Bide-, Constantine Advertising Agency 
Established October, 1887. 
Entered as Second Class Matter at the 
Postoffice at Tacoma, Wash., under Act 
of March 8, 1879. 

EDITORIAL STAFF CONTRIBUTORS 

Geo. Severance, State College Agri- 
culturist. 
Byron Hunter, Agriculturist. 
W A. Linklater, Supt. Exp. Sta. 
H. L. Blanchard, Poultry and Dairy. 
- u^^^nitiirist. 



The propuseu ^ it3 ~ 

a very popular measure with farmers 
according to a number of letters which 
we have received from our subscrib- 
ers. 



THE NORTHWEST 

culty may be summed up in the one 
word — selfishness. Civilization self- 
centered increasing in military 
strength for years finally reaches the 
point of explosion. Germany as well 
as other nations will benefit by this 
struggle, but what awful sacrifice. 
Sacrifice is the ladder by which 
humanity is elevated, but why will the 
people not as individuals and as na- 
tions willingly sacrifice selfish inter- 
ests to gain the same high state of 
perfection which is otherwise attained 
by an unwilling sacrifice? 



The stamp selling plan has been 
adopted by certain apple growers to 
obtain funds for advertising apples. 
The promoters might include stan- 
dardization, that is, apple packages 
designated with a stamp should con- 
form to certain specifications. The 
stamp would thus have a significant 
meaning to consumers and its adver- 
tising value become doubly effective. 



According to decisions of the 
courts, the International Harvester 
Company, is not a bad trust but, as it 
does not conform in every detail to 
the Sherman Anti-Trust Law, must 
be dissolved. In view of the large 
exporting business built up by this 
company, which could not have been 
done by the smaller concerns, the 
question might be asked, "Is the 
Sherman Anti-Trust Law consistent 
with the best interests of the people, 
or does it need modification to dis- 
tinguish between voluntary associated 
business and that which is brought 
together by forced means and 
methods. The Harvester case will be 
appealed. 

THE FAIRS. 

Farmers should attend the fairs 
with a criticizing though not fault 
finding spirit. Exhibits afford com- 
parison which is one of the best 
means of education. Whether of the 
very best or of the ordinary product 
it takes engergy to make a showing. 
Of late our fair's are conducted with 
strong educational features v promin- 
ent in the various departments. Our 
colleges and schools are doing nobly. 

Attend a fair some^ere, and af- 
ter some hours of careful observa- 
tion of the things whj^ interest 
most, you will enjoy aTnittle fun. 
Make the fair visit one of relaxation 
and pleasure, forgetting for the time 
the daily routine of home duties. 



HORTICULTURIST 

preparation and the pea combined 
with one of the grains mentioned af- 
fords the most natural feed for a 
good bacon finish. Above all it is 
necessary to have stock of good type 
which thrives well. 

In the irrigated districts east of 
the Cascade range hog raisers may 
well bank on alfalfa and corn for 
profiatable hog production. 



CARSTENS PACKING COMPANY 
DAMAGED 

The meat packing plant of Carstens 
Packing Company, Tacoma, was very 
badly damaged by fire of unknown 
origin recently. This was the most 
complete institution of the kind west 
of the Missouri River, the annual 
output being valued at $5,000,000. The 
loss sustained is placed at approxi- 
mately $600,000. 

Thomas Carstens, President of the 
Company, is truly a "Captain of In- 
dustry." During the past decade, he 
has been the leading spirit in the de- 
velopment of this valuable plant. The 



The usual market for live stock at 
Tacoma continues to prevail. 



OPPORTUNITY IN RURAL VOCA- 
TION 

It is a trying time for many while 
readjustments are going on through- 
out the world. Particularly so is the 
case with thousands of people who 
are depending upon days labor in the 
cities of this country, waiting foi 
the wheels of industry to get into 
motion. 

In this particular, most of our 
readers are more fortunately situ- 
ated even though it may become dif- 
ficult at times to meet some pressing 
obligations. Count up some of the 
comforts which abound to establish 
courage if necessary, plan intelli- 
gently and act promptly. Great op- 
portunities are before the American 
farmer and husbandman. The prob- 
lem is for the individual to thor- 
oughly fit himself for a vocation in 
one of the rural industries. 



ONE REASON FOR HIGH TAXES 

It has been estimated that the aver- 
age cost to a county for convicting a 
criminal is $10,000. Wrong doing is 
one of the costly burdens of the tax 
payer and the policy of officials who 
have charge of law enforcement 
should be that of controlling crime 
in its incipiency. 

On the contrary it appears to be 
the policy of some officials to encour- 
age what may appear to them minor 
offenses and taxpayers are beginning 
to question if such conduct is re- 
quired that a large office force may 
be perpetuated. The attorney of 
King County, Washington, has ten 
deputies. Recently a violation of 
law was brought to his notice, the 
informers promising him over their 
'" — affidavit in proof 
ecessary. The of- 
7 with a deputy 
ice of the prose- 
cutors omce as iu how far he could 
proceed without being prosecuted, and 
was told according to this minor of- 
ficial that proof sufficient for convic- 
tion was rather difficult to obtain. 

Here is a plain encouragement 
of wrong doing by the prosecutor's 
office, whose policy should be the op- 
posite particularly in giving advice 
both from a moral and an economic 
standpoint. With increasing crime, 
no wonder taxes increase. Shall we 
keep officials of this kind in office or 
will the voters and tax payers make 
one reason for not increasing taxes 
very plain? 



Selfishness! After all discussions 
of the underlying causes of the pres- 
ent European conflicts, the real diffi- 



FEED COST AND HOGS 

The increased cost of mill stuffs 
and mixed grains has caused some 
of the hog raisers in the coast sec- 
tion to do some figuring. The out- 
come naturally will, or ought to be, 
an effort to raise a little more of the 
necessary grain for the finish, feed 
period, on the farm. This can be 
done most cheaply perhaps, by grow- 
ing more peas and speltz, or peas 
and barley. These grains grow well 
together in most coast districts on 
both upland and on the valley soils. 
The sowing should be so timed that 
when the hogs reach about 120 
pounds, or from 4 to iy 2 months from 
birth they can be turned into a patch 
of peas and speltz to be made the 
basis feed for at least 3 to 5 weeks 
until they reach about 160 to 170 
pounds, then if confined to smaller 
feeding lots, and some additional 
mixed grain becomes necessary the 
amount required will have been con- 
siderably reduced by means of the 
pea-grain combination grown. A great 
variety of green stuff including clover, 
kale, and root crops is always ob- 
tainable in this section with ordinary 



HORTICULTURE AT PANAMA PA- 
CIF1C INTERNATIONAL 
EXPOSITION. 

At the Panama-Pacific International 
Exposition the lover of flowers and of 
gardens and orchards will be able to 
stroll among the most wonderful 
winter-to-winter gardens ever display- 
ed at an exposition. By means of 
three seasonal re-plantings, the gar- 
dens and courts will be kept in a 
state of unending bloom — a thing nev- 
er before attempted at an exposition. 
Indeed the whole exposition — an opal 
city of color — will be set down on a 
Persian rug of harmonious and endur- 
ing tints. This will appeal to the 
lover of the beautiful on his aesthetic 
side; and on the practical side the 
new and improved species from the 
world over, there displayed, will be 
no less alluring and uplifting than the 
rest of the $50,000,000 show place; 
for each new flower and fruit is an 
ideal visualized, even more than is 
the statue or the bejewelled Traver- 
tine marble palaces which these 
plants frame and embellish. 
Many of these exhibits, from practi- 
cally every country in the world, will 
be given up largely to the newer and 
perfected species and varieties of 
plants and fruits. Also in this depart- 
ment there will be many displays of 
growing plants and fruit trees with 
gardeners and expert orchardists at 
work; the object being to make of 
the horticultural display an up-to-date 
school of methods and processes. 



POSTAL SAVINGS A SUCESS 

"The Tacoma Postoffice ranked 
twenty-first in the United States and 
second in Washington in postal sav- 
ings deposits at the end of the fiscal 
year June 30th. The four offices in 
the United States that have over $1,- 
000,000. on deposit are New York 
with $4,400,000., Chicago, $2,300.000., 
3rooklyn, $1,500,00., and Boston $1,- 
100,000. The four offices in the state 
having over $100,000. on deposit are 
Seattle, $341,000; Tacoma, $317,000; 
Roslyn, $106,000., and Bellingham, 
$100,000. Tacoma shewed an increase 
in deposits during the year of 
6 per cent., a gain of 4 per 
cent. In the number of depositors 
which on June 30th aggregated 1,986. 
The average account of the Tacoma 
postal savings depositor has increased 
from $137. in 1912, to $157. in 1913, 
and $160. in 1914. 

$38,420. of deposits have been con- 
verted into United States Postoffice 
bonds. 

Deposits may be made at South 
Tacoma Station from 8 a. m. to 6:30 
p. m. and at the Main Office from 

8 a. m. to 8 p. m., Saturdays until 

9 p. m. 

Cash or United States Government 
checks will be accepted. 

Depositors may send deposits by 
mail or personal representative, a 
form being provided to cover such 
cases. 

Withdrawals may be made at any 
time during office hours given above. 
P. L. STOCKING, Postmaster, Tacoma 



FAIR DATES. 



Ore., 
Ore., 



September 21-26 — Pendleton, Ore., Um- 
atilla County Pair. 

September 21-26 — North Yakima, 
Wash., Washington State Fair. 

September 22-25 — Eugene, Ore., Lane 
County Fair. 

September 22-25 — Toledo, Ore., Lin- 
coln County Fair. 

September 22-23 — Fossil, Ore., Wheeler 
County Fair. 

September 22-24 — La Grande, Ore., 
Union County Fair. 

September 22-26 — Moscow, Idaho, 
Latah County Fair. 

September 23-26 — Myrtle Point, Ore., 
Coos and Curry County Fair. 

September 23-25 — Scio, Ore., Linn 
County Fair. 

September 23-25 — Forest Grove, Ore., 
Washington County Fair. 

September 23-26 — McMinnville, 
Yamhill County Fair. 

September 23-26 — Prineville, 
Crook County Fair. 

September 23-25 — The Dalles, Ore., 
Wasco County Fair. 

September 24-25-26 — Astoria, Ore., 
Clatsop County Agricultural Fair. 

September 24-26 — Klamath Falls, Ore., 
Klamath Caunty Fair. 

September 28-October 3 — Salem, Ore., 
Oregon State Fair. 

September 29-October 4 — Western 
Washington Fair, Puyallup Wash. 

September 29-October 3 — Lewiston, 
Idaho, Lewiston-Clarkston Fair Associa- 
tion. 

October 1-3 — Condon, Ore., Gilliam 
County Fair. 

October 5 — Salt Lake City, Utah, Salt 
Lake. Utah Fa ir. 

MANITO PARK, TACOMA 

Very large lots at acreage 
prices, on street ear line within 5- 
cent limit. Water, electric light, 
gas and phones ready for connect- 
ing. A good proposition for any 
one retiring from strenuous farm 
life and who wishes to keep 
chickens and a cow. Write for 
particulars and prices. 

Real Property Department, 
Norl Invest Horticulturist, 
Box 1604 Tacoma, Wash. 

WASHINGTON STATE FAIR 

North Yakima, Sept. 21-26 
Those interested in dairy and 
other live stock will find this fair 
attractive. It is a good place to 
come for practical co-operative 
ideas. Excursion rates from all 
points. See your local agents. 
Premium list on request. 

J. E. Shannon, Sec, 
North Yakima, Wash. 



October 5-10 — Colfax, Wash., Whitman 
County Fair. 

October 8-9-10 — Moro, Ore., Sherman 
County Fair. 

November 16-21 — Spokane, Wash, Spo- 
kane National Apple Show. 

November 25-28 — Walla Walla. Wash., 
O.-W. R. & N. Corn Show. 

November 30-December 5 — Lewiston, 
Idaho., Northwest Livestock Annual 
Show. 

December 7-12 — Portland, Ore., Pacific 
International Livestock Exposition, 
Union Stock Yards. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 189 



EVAPORATION OF APPLES 

(Continued from front page) 
Last year a fruit grower bought a 
commercial oat-sprouter from the 
Poole Seed and Implement Co., and 
used it successfully for drying fruit, 
and subsequently for sprouting oats 
for the fowls. 

Kiln Evaporators. 
For large orchards these are usu- 
ally two stories high, the central 
portion being 20x40 feet which con- 
tains the floors where the fruit is 
prepared. The wings on each side 
which contains the kilns where the 
fruit is dried, are each 20 feet square. 
The apples are carried to the second 
floor by means of an elevator and 
dumped into a large bin, and from 
there drop through funnels to the 
paring table on the first floor. The 
paring and slicing is done by mach- 
inery and the apples is again elevated 
to the second floor, placed in another 
bin until enough is ready to spread 
over the kiln floor to dry. 

An evaporator of this kind was 
built in Wayne County, N. Y. has a 
capacity oi 300 bushels for 10 hours. 
The cost was: 

Building $1800. 

5 parers '60. 

.1 slicer 37.50 

Engine 450. 

2 furnaces 150. 

1 bleacher 75. 

1 chopper 8. 

Installation • 100. 



Total $2,860.50 
Excluding the building and an en- 
gine for operating the machinery the 
cost of the kiln is not heavy. Whether 
the evaporation is small with only 
one kiln or large with several of 
them the most satisfactory size of 
kiln is about 20 feet square. This 
is convenient so far as preparation 
of enough fruit is concerned, the heat 
can be well regulated, made suffici- 
ently intense and evenly distributed 
drying the fruit uniformly. 

The kiln consists essentially of a 
floor made of slats and placed over 
a furnace room or over a system of 
steam pipes. The floor is usually 
built from 10 to 12 feet above the 
ffoor of the furnace room. Provision 
is made for regulating the heat by 
means of small openings at the base 
of the walls. If the air becomes too 
hot the current should be faster. In 
frame-built evaporators the walls are 
usually lined with asbestos paper 
to lessen the danger of fire, or they 
may be plastered. Double walls are 
better to keep up an even tempera- 
ture and to increase the efficiency 
of the plant. The height of wall 
above drying floor should be about 6 
or 7 feet. The hot air escape is 
through the hip part of the roof in 
the form of a tower extending from 
3 to 8 feet above. 

The kiln floor is constructed of 
strips, usually of poplar or bass wood, 
seven-eights of an inch thick, 1 inch 
wide on top surface and half inch 
wide on lower side. These strips 
are laid one eighth to one fourth 
inch apart on the upper surface. 

On the North Pacific coast but 
very little apple evaporation has 
sn done. The ordinary prune 




dryers have been used to good ad- 
vantage. The principle employed 
is the same except trays are used 
which are made of metal screen and 
the evaporators are built to suit the 
handling of these trays most ex- 
peditiously. There are several styles 
the one in most common use of late 
years is that known as "stack dryer." 
One of the principal points to observe 
in the construction of a large dryer 
is that of getting a maximum quan- 
tity of product of uniform high quality, 
at a minimum cost. 

Paring Tables and Mashines. 

There are two general plans of con- 
struction. One consists of a single 
long table common to all the ma- 
chines; the other, individual tables, 
one for each parer. 

Where several hand parers are 
used they, are commonly placed on 
opposite sides of a relatively wide 
table, through the center of which, 
between the two rows of parers, is a 
sluice 10 or 12 inches wide and as 
many inches deep. An endless belt 
the width of the sluice covers its 
bottom. This belt works on rollers 
and is operated by means of a crank 
at the outer end. As the apples are 
trimmed they are thrown into this 
sluice, and the helper who attends 
to the bleacher fills the crates or 
trays in which the fruit is handled 
by turning the crank which moves 
the belt forward, carrying with it the 
fruit which has been placed thereon. 
By this means all the trimmers con 
tribute to the filling of a single tray, 
thus making it possible to get all the 
fruit into the bleacher in the shortest 
possible time after it is pared. This 
is considered essential in order to 
make the highest grade product. Such 
a table as this is especially adapted" 
to small evaporators which are run 
entirely by hand power. 

Paring machines are made for 
operating either by hand or power, 
The more recent patterns have two, 
or even three, forks for holding the 
apples while they are being pared. 
The attendant puts an apple on one 
of the forks while one on another 
fork is being peeled. 

The number of bushels which can 
be pared in a given time of course 
varies with the size and condition of 
the fruit, but 70 or 75 bushels for a 
day of ten hours (or even more if 
the fruit is of good size and the 
machine is speeded up to its limit) 
is not an unusual amount for a good 
power machine. 

The hand machines are equally 
complete and satisfactory in their 
working. Under favorable conditions 
an experienced operator will pare 60 
or more bushels a day if the fruit is 
not too small. 

Bleaching and Slicing. 

In order to make the fruit as white 
as possible, it is subjected to the 
fumes of burning sulphur. The ap- 
paratus in which the fumes are ap- 
plied is called a bleacher. 

The form and manner of construc- 
tion vary greatly, as do most of 
the other appliances. The requisites 
are a perfectly tight compartment 
having a capacity commensurate with 
the size of the evaporator and the 
necessary facilities for burning the 
sulphur. 

Perhaps the simplest form of con- 
struction consists of a box suffici- 
ently long to meet the requirements, 
placed horizontally, and large enough 
in cross section to admit the boxes 
or crates in which the fruit is hand- 
led. Rollers are placed in the bottom, 
in which the crates rest, which per- 



The Scandinavian American Bank 



OF TACOM A 



With assets of over TWO MILLION DOLLARS 
invites your business 

DO YOUR BANKING BY MAIL 



COFFMAN, DOBSON & CO., BANKERS 

CHEHALIS, WASHINGTON 

Twenty-elffht years without change of management, and every demand 
unequivocally paid with Leg-al Tender. 

Distinctly a Fanners' Bank with thousands of farmers for Its cus- 
tomers. 

Fami_Lioana__f or _AgrlcuIturaI Development- 



For Going to 
Town 

For hurry-up trips for repairs or provisions — 

For those little hauling jobs that come up on every 
ranch — 

For the Sunday visits — the holiday rides — and the 
neighborhood social affairs, nothing is handier than a 

Maxwell 25 



It is a car to be useful, and at the same time to be 
proud of. 

Being light, its up-keep cost is low. On a week's trip 
from Tacoma to Rainier National Park recently, one of 
these Maxwell 25 's ran 248 miles on 9 gallons of gasoline. 
No water or oil was used except what was put in at the 
start, and no repairs or adjustments were made. 

A fine hill-climber, and travels any kind of roads. 

See the car on display here, or write us for literature 
and information. 



Maxwell-Gramm Service 



Cor. 7th and C Sts. 



Tacoma, Wash. 



mit them to be moved along with 
but little friction. The crates are 
entered at one end of the bleacher, 
those previously put in being pushed 
along to make room for the following 
ones. The sulphur is usually burned 
immediately below the point where 
the fruit is put into the bleacher. 
A short piece of stovepipe is placed 
at the opposite end for the escape of 
through the bleacher. When the fruit 
through the blecher. " When the fruit 
has been carried through the bleach- 
er, it passes to the slicer, which is 
located in close proximity to the 
bleacher. 

There are several styles of slicers 
now obtainable which are operated by 
band, foot or mechanical power. In 
general, they consist of a table in 
which a series of knives is so ar- 
ranged that when the apples are car- 
ried over them by a revolving arm 



they are cut into slices. In at least 
one type the apples are delivered to 
the slicing table by an attachment 
which works automatically. 

The capacity of slicers varies some- 
what, as does the industry of the 
men who operate them, but from 200 
to 400 bushels for a day of ten hours 
may be expected of a good machine. 

Small hand slicers which slice only 
a single apple at a time are some- 
times used in the smaller evaporators. 

Quartering machines are used in- 
stead of slicers, if it is desired to 
dry the fruit in quarters instead of 
slices. 

Heating Apparatus. 

Satisfactory results are so depend- 
ent upon the heating apparatus that 
this becomes one of the most im- 
portant features of an evaporator. 

In the smaller type of evaporators, 
where comparatively little is involved 



190 

and the question of fuel does not en- 
ter seriously into consideration, al- 
most any small stove commensurate 
with the size of the particular evap- 
orator in question may be used. 

In the larger kiln evaporators the 
matter is a more important one. For- 
merly, ordinary cast-iron stoves were 
used considerably, two or more of 
them frequently being required to 
heat a single kiln, but these have 
largely gone out of use. In their stead 
large furnaces are now most com- 
monly used. These are suecially de- 
signed for the purpose and are pro- 
vided with relatively large fire pots, 
correspondingly large ash pits, and 
large radiating surfaces. As it is 
necessary to burn a relatively large 
quantity of fuel in a given time, the 
size of the grate is made with this 
end in view. For a kiln floor 20 feet 
square, or 400 square feet of surface, 
the grate surface is usually about 3 
feet in diameter, containing from 5 
to 7 square feet. 

Apples Suitable for Drying. 

Prices are governed not only by 
the supply but also by the grade. 
The cleanest, whitest fruit, that is 
well cored, trimmed, bleached, ringed, 
and dried, is most in demand. Care- 
lessness in any particular injures the 
product. 

Primarily the economic usefulness of 
an apple evaporator is through its 
utilization of windfalls and the poor- 
er grades of fruit which can not be 
marketed to good advantage in a 
fresh state, and it is these grades 
that are most often evaporated. But 
the magnitude of the crop also influ- 
ences the grade of the evaporated 
product in a decided way. In seasons 
of abundant crops and low prices for 
fresh fruit large quantities of apples 
that would ordinarily be barreled are 
evaporated and the grade of stock 
produced is correspondingly improved. 
On the other hand, in years of scanty 
crops, when all apples that can pos- 
sibly be shipped are in demand at 
high prices, only the very poorest 
fruit is evaporated, as a rule, thus 
lowering the grade of the output. 

The commercial grading of evapo- 
rated apples is based primarily on ap- 
pearance rather than on dessert qual- 
ity, and the fact that one variety may 
make a better flavored product than 



THE NORTHWEST 

another is not considered. As a ruie, 
a product of high commercial grade 
can be made from any sort wnicn has 
a firm texture and bieacnes to a sac- 
lslactory degree of whiteness. A va- 
riety of higli dessert quality, such as 
the Northern Spy, may be expected to 
make an evaporated product of cor- 
respondingly high flavor. Tne Waxen 
is a fine drying apple, also Graven- 
stein and Esopus, wnile such as tne 
Ben Davis and Baldwin are fair. 
Drying Process. 

In the case of kiln evaporators, the 
sliced fruit is evenly spread on the 
floor to the depth of from 4 to 6 
inches. A kiln 20 feet square will 
hold the slices of from 120 to 150 
bushels of fresh fruit, depending upon 
the amount of waste in the apples 
and the exact depth to which they are 
spread on the floor. 

If the fruit is in quarters or is 
dried wfiole, it may be somewhat 
thicker on the floor, since in these 
forms it does not pack down as close- 
ly as the slices do and hence does not 
impede the circulation of hot air 
through it if the depth is somewhat 
increased. 

In tower evaporators and other 
types where the fruit is handled on 
racks the slices are seldom placed 
much more than 1 inch in depth. A 
rack 4 feet square will hold from 
three-fourths of a bushel to a bushel. 

The fruit is generally put on the 
floor of the kiln as fast as it is sliced, 
and the fire is started in the furnace 
below as soon as the floor is filled, 
or, in many cases, before it is entirely 
covered. 

The temperature maintained in 
kilns or other drying compartments, 
in actual practice is largely a matter 
of experience, not a factor governed 
by any definite standards or regulated 
in accordance with thermometer read- 
ings, as might be expected. In gen- 
eral, the object in view is to force 
the heat as high as possible without 
endangering the fruit. A probable 
temperature which has been suggested 
by some of the operators is 150 deg. 
F., or more when the fruit is first put 
into the drying compartment, drop- 
ping to about 125 deg. F. as the dry- 
ing process nears completion. 

A good kiln evaporator should dry 
a floor of slices in about 12 hours, 10 



HORTICULTURIST 

to 14 hours being the range of varia- 
tion. Where the fruit is handled on 
racks the time required is much short- 
er as the fruit is usually only 1 or 2 
inches thick on the racks. For slices, 
5 hours is required with a range of 4 
to 6 hours. 

It is estimated that quarters will re- 
quire from 18 to 24 hours in the aver- 
age kiln, while the time for whole ap« 
pies will range from 36 to 48 hours. 

The fruit should be so dry that when 
a handful of slices is pressed together 
firmly into a ball the slices will be 
"springy" enough to separate at once 
upon being released from the hand. 
In this condition there will be no fruit, 
or only an occasional piece, that has 
any visible moisture on the surface. 
In a slice of average dryness, it should 
not be possible to press any free juice 
into view in a freshly made cross sec- 
tion of it. The general "feel" of the 
fruit, as it is handled, should be a soft, 
velvety, leathery texture. 

When a quantity of fruit is consid- 
ered dry enough, it is removed from 
the kiln and put in a pile on the floor 
of the curing room. Every day or two 
the pile should be thoroughly shov- 
eled over to make uniform the 
changes which take place. Thus man- 
aged, the pile in a few days will be- 
come thoroughly homogenous. The 
pieces that were too dry will have ab- 
sorbed moisture, the superflous mois- 
ture of other pieces will have disap- 
peared, and the entire mass may be 
expected to reach the condition above 
described. 



PLANTING FOR POLLINATION 

While selecting fruit trees through 
the agent or otherwise for either a 
commercial or domestic plant it is 
well to observe requirements for the 
intermixing of pollen. In the humid 
climate of the coast section it seems 
more difficult to get a good fruit set 
because of defective intermixing of 
pollen than where the atmosphere is 
drier at blooming time. Some years 
Bartlett pear trees seem to be more 
self fertile than in other years, and 
the same may be said of the large 
sweet cherries and of some of the 
apples. Considerable experimenting 
has been done of late years by sta- 
tion workers to solve the question 
of best varieties to plant together 



for pollination. 

The sum and substance of these 
experiments thus far determined, sug- 
gests the planting in close proximity 
of three or four varieties of the same 
class, which bloom about the same 
time. 

In apples the Rome Beauty seems 
to be a good pollinizer for several 
other varieties, the Angouleme in 
pears pollinizes the Bartlett, and 
several other varieties. In cherries 
it seems necessary to have Bings, 
Lamberts, Royal Anns and one of the 



OR 

IALLOOWING 

"Diamond Quality" 
TESTED 

CLOVERS— ALFALFA 
VETCHES— GRAINS 
GRASSES and FIELD 




MIXTURES for DRY LAND- 
WET LAND— BURNS— Permanent 
HAY CROPS and PASTURES- 
COVER CROPS for ORCHARDS 

WRITE FOR SAMPLES 

[and Prices or Send in Your 
I Order — You will Receive 
| Prompt Service and Full Value 

ASK FOR CATALOG No. 50 

PORTLAND 
SEED CO. 

Portland, Ore. 
Agents "CLIPPER" Fanning Mill* 



FINE GOAT RANCH 

800 acres of good land. Over half 
of it can be plowed when cleared. 
Balance fine pasture. Watered by 
creeks and springs. Located on the 
Northern Pacific Railway between 
Portland and Tacoma. Price $15 per 
acre. Good terms. The best proposi- 
tion for a goat ranch in Western 
Washington, subsequently to become 
a dairy farm. This apportunity merits 
careful consideration by any prospec- 
tive stock farmer. 

ACME REALTY COMPANY 
401 Equitable Building, Tacoma. 




GAS ENGINE STUMPING MACHINE 

Our 50-Horse Power Stumping Winches have been clearing land successfully in Western Washington, Western Oregon and California the past year, 
giving excellent satisfaction. The machine consists of an eight-horse-power engine, %-inch cable, steel beam frame, double drum, rapid puller and haul- 
back. The stumps are first shattered with powder and two men will pull and pile faster than can be done by any other method. When attending the Western 
Washington Fair, Puyallup, and stopping off at Tacoma you are welcome to call at our shop to see this machine at work. Otherwise come when convenient 

or write for full particulars. Please mention this paper. 

GLOBE IRON WORKS Fifteenth and A Streets, Tacoma, Wash. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



191 



Dukes or Montniorencys planted in 
close proximity. The Northern Spy 
is a late bloomer, is self sterile and 
therefore another late blooming var- 
iety should be selected for inter- 
planting. 

The experiment station at Pullman, 
Wash., has a bulletin in preparation 
giving results of some of the pollina- 
tion tests which was undertaken by 
Assistant Horticulturist, W. J. Young. 



LARGE CABBAGE SEED CROP. 

The cabbage seed crop this year of 
A. G. Tillinghast & Son, LaConner, 
Wash., was about 300 acres and the 
yield was excellent, about 200,000 
pounds, a fine grade of plump seed. 
The principal part of the crop is sold 
to Eastern seed firms, and represents 
a small fortune. The cabbage magot 
is becoming a serious pest, but is 
kept under control by applying a so- 
lution of creosote, carbolic acid and 
water, about a pint being poured 
around each plant through a hose at- 
tached to a tank on a wagon hauled 
between the rows for the purpose. 

It is necessary to go through the 
field to repeat the operation several 
times during the season. 

Mr. Tillinghast is experimenting 
with numerous classes and varieties 
of seeds. The new garden pea Lax- 
tonian, which originated in England, 
is very prolific, with large pods, grain 
of even size and promises to become 
one of the popular late varieties. The 
seed crop generally is of good quality 
this season. 



RASPBERRIES NOT SUMMER 
PRUNED 

The raspberry plant finds an especi^ 
ally favorable climate in most of 
the State of Washington. The crops 
produced are usually far above the 
average for the United States. The 
plants are extremely vigorous and 
productive and the quality of fruit 
produced is the best. 

The practice of summer pruning 
does not seem to be well adapted to 
this plant. The vines grow tall, often 
reaching a height of seven to nine 
feet, and if cut back in the early 
summer, will branch and send out 
good strong limbs. If pruned a little 
later in the summer the tendency is 
to cause the vines to winter kill and 
suffer to such an extent that the crop 
is greatly lessened the following year. 

Tests along this line at the Experi- 
ment Stations of Washington indicate 
that the best returns will be obtained 
by giving thorough, clean cultivation 
and doing all of the pruning in the 
winter time. Some growers report 
fair succes with summer pruning, but 
the general indications are that sum- 
mer pruning will result in injury to 
the plants, while in a very few cases 
it resulted in definate benefit to the 
plants or to the crop produced. 

Some patches have been practically 
killed by the late summer pruning. 
O. M. MORRIS, 

Horticulturist. 



HOW TO MAKE PURE GRAPE 
JUICE 

The best way to do it is to select 
only clean, well ripened fruit, and 
by selecting certain varieties, most 
any flavor may be had. Most any 
device like a cider press may be used 
for squeezing out the juice, or they 
may be crushed by hand. If a light 
colored juice is desired, place the 
grapes in a bag and press out the 
juice or let it drip through. Heat the 



juice to 175 degrees, F., but never 
above that as it will have a cooked 
taste. But if not allowed to go above 
175 degre s it will have the delicious 
taste of ripe grapes. The bottles or 
other receptacles should be sterilized, 
by dipping in hot water before put- 
ting in the juice. Cover the stop- 
pers lor the bottles with parafflne or 
sealing wax to aid in keeping out the 
air. Grape juice put up in this man- 
ner does not contain any alcohol, but 
is simply the pure essence of the 
grape without the seeds and skins, 
and may be kept indefinitely. 

Apple juice is made in a similar 
manner. 



COAST APPLE CROP. 

According to an estimate by the 
Northwestern Fruit Exchange, apple 
crop of Washington is 6,363,000 boxes 
or more than that of Oregon,, Cali- 
fornia, Idaho and Montana combined, 
the total of all these Pacific Coast 
States being 10,710,000 boxes. Even 
if Eastern states and the foreign mar- 
kets do not require much of our apple 
crop, the territory west of the Mssouri 
river ought to consume a crop of this 
size without the markets being over- 
crowded. 



STORAGE FOR FRUIT. 

Handling apples for storage is the 
subject of Bulletin No. 72, of the 
State College, Pullman, Wash., by 
W. J. Young. Among his suggestions 
for those who build store houses on 
the farm are to have ventilators 
which can be opened at night and 
closed during the day admitting the 
cool air near the floor while another 
series of ventilators carries off the 
warm air through the ceiling and 
roof. If the walls are carefully in- 
sulated such storage houses keep 
fruit in good condition for some 
weeks and are very useful as tempor- 
ary storage for the apples until they 
can be graded and packed. 

Storing for several months, apples 
should be kept at a uniform tempera- 
ture as low as possible without 
freezing, which is in practice about 
31 or 32 degrees. 

The air in the storage house should 
be fairly moist to check evaporation 
and prevent shriveling, though actual 
dampness induces rot and apples 
should not be stored where moisture 
condenses upon the surface of the 
fruit. 

Scald is the name applied to the 
brownish discoloration which often 
appears in the skin of certain vari- 
eties, especially toward the close of 
the season. It appears to be due to 
the death and oxidation of the super- 
ficial cells. It is confined to the skin 
and does not effect the quality of the 
apple, though the appearance of the 
fruit is injured and its commercial 
value is therefore lessened. Varieties 
differ in susceptibility to the scald. 
It is usually most troublesome on 
green or yellow fruit, and in red ap- 
ples appears first on the less highly 
colored side. Immature, poorly col- 
ored, and over-ripe fruit is especially 
subject to scald. Delayed storage in 
warm weather and high or uneven 
storage temperatures promote scald- 
ing. To reduce scald to the mini- 
mum, develop mature highly colored 
fruit and store promptly at a low 
even temperature. 

The usual behavior in storage of 
most of the varieties of importance 
in the state is indicated in a general 
way in the following notes. The 
varieties are listed in approximately 



VETCH SEED 



CLOVERS, 
ORCHARD 
AND RYE 
GRASS 



Early application is advisable to be sure of present minimum prices 
of grass seeds. More fall sowing will be done in the Coast Section than 
ever before. If you need feed cutters or anything else in the implement 
line, remember, "Positive Satisfaction" is our motto. 

Poole's Seed & Implement Co. 

1507-9 Pacific Ave. TACOMA, WASH. 




CLOVER 
VETCH 

and other high 
quality grass 
seeds. Order 
early. 



Tacoma Implement Go. 

1521-23 Pacific Avenue Tacoma, Wash. 

Please mention this paper 



Turner & Pease Co., Inc. 

813-8l5-8i7 Western Ave. , Seattle 

Leading Manufacturers of Butter in the State 

We pay cash for butter fat and eggs at 
correct market prices. 



Loganberry Plants 

We have a full line of Loganber- 
ries, Mammoth Blackberries. Also 
choice grades of nursery stock and 
will be pleased to have you make 
your wants known to us. "Would 
like to get in touch with some good 
live salesmen. Good opportunities. 
Write for particulars. 

Address 

Albany Nurseries, Inc. 

ALBANY, ORE. 

G. W. Pennebaker, Mgr. 



1 



mmm 



(TRADE MARK) 



APPLE PICKER 



VETCH SEED 

We make a specialty of vetch seed 
and you will find our prices the very 
lowest. 

CLOVER SEED 

We are located in the best clover 
producing country in the U. S. and 
buy the very best lots for our own 
use. 

When you are in need of vetch, 
clover or any kind of seeds, write us 
for prices. You will always find our 
prices the lowest. 

D. A. WHITE & SONS 

SEEDSMEN 

Salem, Oregon 




the order of season though it should 
be born in mind that various factors 
of environment and methods of hand- 
ling may modify the season of a vari- 
ety to quite an extent. 

Yellow Bellflower. Season October 
or November to January. Cold stor- 
age limit March. Improves in color 
in storage and usually does not scald. 
Does not stand heat well before stor- 
age and goes down quickly. Often 
loses in quality and becomes mealy. 
Shows bruises badly. 

Molntosh.. Matures unevenly, hence 
is an uneven keeper, often showing 
considerable loss quite early in the 
season. Does not stand heat well be- 
fore storage and goes down rather 
gradually. Loses in quality and 
shrivels. Season same as Yellow 
Bellflower. 

Grimes. Season November to Jan- 
uary. Cold storage limit March. Does 
not stand heat well before storage 
and goes down quickly. Scalds bad- 
ly after midwinter. May shrivel and 
lose in quality and firmness. 



Wonderful ~ saving 
device, it saves 
much fruit, time 
and destruction to 
trees, it is not an 
expense as it pays 
for itself many 
times over. 
Many boxes fruit 
saved each week 
that otherwise it 
would be impossi- 
ble to get. Save 
the extra profits 
by using the 
Economy Apple 
Picker 

We need extra salesmen in every fruit 
section. An opportunity for the live 
salesman. Secure agency for your sec- 
tion now. 

Made Exclusively by 

Economy Manufacturing Co. 

1211 11th St. South Tacoma, Wash. 



FARMS WANTED 

Wanted to hear from owner of good 
farm or unimproved land for sale. 
Send description. 

NORTHWEST BUSINESS AGENCY 
Minneapolis, Minn. 



Delicious. Season same as Grimes. 
Keeps with little loss, but goes down 
quickly after deterioration begins. 
Loses in quality and color. Mealiness 
begins at the core and spreads out- 
ward to the surface. 

Jonathan. Season about with 
Grimes, but keeps better. Goes down 
gradually. Loses quality and shrivels. 
Does not scald but is very subject to 
Jonathan fruit spot, which often ap- 
pears quite early in the storage 
season. 

Winter Banana. Season November 



192 

to February. Cold storage limit April. 
Stands heat fairly well before stor- 
age and goes down gradually. Scalds, 
loses in quality and color, and often 
shrivels. Keeping quality seems to 
he considerably influenced by the en- 
vironment. 

Tompkins King. Season variable; 
about with Winter Banana. Often 
considerable loss early in the season. 
Stands heat fairly well before storage, 
but goes down quickly after deteriora- 
tion begins. Loses in quality, scalds, 
and becomes mealy. 

Monmouth (Red Cheek Pippin). 
Season about with Winter Banana, 
but seems better adapted to cold stor- 
age than that variety. Sometimes 
shows considerable loss early in the 
season. Goes down quickly. Usually 
does not scald, but loses in quality 
and becomes mealy. 

Missouri Pippin. Season midwinter. 
Cold storage limit April or May. 
Stands heat well before storage and 
goes down gradually. Often softens 
and scalds. 

White Pearmain. Season same 
as Missouri Pippin. Goes down grad- 
ually. Does not scald badly, but 
loses in quality and becomes mealy. 

Wagener. Season same as Missouri 
Pippin. Does not stand heat well be- 
fore storage and goes down quickly. 
Loses in quality and color and may 
become mealy. Scalds very badly 
after midwinter, especially if poorly 
colored. Scalds quickly after re- 
moval from storage. 

Esopus (Spitzenburg). Season 
varies but averages a little later than 
Wagener. Often goes down quickly, 
but stands heat fairly well before 
storage. Shrivels or becomes mealy 
and often bitter in the skin, but does 
not scald nor lose noticeably in 
quality until late. 

Stayman Winesap. Season Novem- 
ber to March. Cold storage limit 
May. Stands heat fairly well before 
storage and goes down gradually. 
Loses firmness, becomes mealy, and 
scalds badly late in the season. 

Lawver. Season about with Stay- 
man Winesap. Stands heat well be- 
fore storage and goes down gradually. 
Sometimes becomes mealy. 

Rome. Season December to March. 
Cold storage limit June. Stands heat 
well before storage and goes down 
gradually. Color improves in storage. 
Usually does not scald but may devel- 
op Jonathan fruit spot late in the sea- 
son. Loses in quality and becomes 



THE NORTHWEST 

mealy. 

Ben Davis. Season January to 
April. Cold storage limit July. Stands 
heat fairly well before storage and 
goes down gradually. Retains color 
well but sometimes scalds slightly 
late in the season. May shrivel or 
become mealy. Keeps well after re- 
moval from storage. 

Gano. Season same as Ben Davis. 
Stands heat well before storage and 
goes down gradually. May lose color 
and scald late in the season and often 
shrivels or becomes mealy. 

Arkansas (Black Twig), Season 
and behavior in storage similar to 
Ben Davis, but much more subject to 
scald. 

Winesap. Season about with Ben 
Davis, but not so reliable a keeper 
late in the season. Stands heat well 
before storage and goes down gradu- 
ally. Scalds unless well colored and 
may lose in color and firmness and 
become mealy. 

Arkansas Black. Season spring. Of- 
ten keeps well until July or August. 
Does not scald if well colored, but the 
color may become dull in the season. 
Goes down gradually. Sometimes 
shrivels. 

Yellow Newtown. Season spring 
or late winter. Often keeps until 
August. Keeping quality much modi- 
fied by environment. Probably does 
not stand heat before storage as well 
as most late varieties. Goes down 
very gradually. Scalds late in the 
season. 

Immature, partly colored fruit is 
poor in texture and quality, tends to 
wilt and scald, and seems to offer lit- 
tle resistance to decay. Over-ripe 
fruit tends to mealiness and physiolo- 
gical disintegration. A warm summer 
and fall tends to overmaturity and 
poor keeping unless the fruit is pick- 
ed and stored very promtly. Over- 
grown fruit lacks firmness and does 
not keep so well as medium sized 
firm textured apples. Better keeping 
quality results if the fruit is left until 
it is well grown and fully colored but 
still firm. This is known as the hard 
ripe stage. The seeds are brown 
and the stems tend to separate readi- 
ly from the fruit spurs in picking. 
When varieties of different season 
are grown it is customary to pick 
them in order of maturity. 



HORTICULTURIST 



WESTERN WASHINGTON FAIR. 

The Western Washington Fair, Puy- 
allup, September 29 to October 4th, 



THE 



DRAIN TILE QUESTION 
SETTLED 



Note these prices on carload lots of first quality burned 
Clay Drain Tile: 

Weight per ft. Per Thousand ft. 

3- inch 51/2 lbs. $15.00 

4- inch 7y 2 lbs. 20.00 

6-inch 131/2 lbs. 33.00 

F. O. B. cars Seattle. Minimum carload 30,000 lbs. 
If you cannot use an entire carload, unite with your neigh- 
bors and make up the required weight. 

PAMPHLET 

FREE for the asking, "Hints on Farm Drainage." 



DENNY-RENTON CLAY & COAL CO. 

Department D 
Hoge Bldg., Seattle, Wash. 



inclusive, showing a steady growth, 
will be "Bigger and Better." It is 
the Fair that makes good. Their 
attendance last year was about 60,- 
000. Do you realize that there are 
in the neighborhood of 750,000 people 
within a radius of 50 miles of this 
Fair ground? That is one reason 
why a successful Fair is held here. 

This year the exhibits promises to 
be larger and better in all depart- 
ments. Good horses, cattle and hogs 
are being entered. The poultry de- 
partment under the supervision of 
Fred A. Johnson will probably be the 
largest and best fall show in the 
northwest. Wm. Coats, poultry judge, 
of Vancouver, B. C, made the re- 
mark last year, "No doubt the West- 
ern Washington Fair had the cham- 
pion fall fair poultry show of the 
Pacific coast and was handled far 
better than any poultry show 1 
ever attended." As to the fruit and 
vegetable departments, under the gen- 
eral supervision of Deputy State Hor- 
ticulturist, Henry • Huff, promises to 
far surpass any previous attempt. 




Snohomish County 



FAIR 

SNOHOMISH, WASHINGTON 
SEPTEMBER 22-26 



Visit us. If you don't 
you'll miss one of the BEST 
all round Fairs ever held any= 
where. 

Interesting and instructive 
exhibits in great variety, illus- 
trating and showing the prog- 
ress and products of our great 
region. 

Lotes of wholesome fun for 
both old and young. Watch The 
local papers for program. 
For premium lists and entrance 
blanks, apply to 

J. A. WINSTON, Sec'y 

SNOHOMISH, WASH. 



The Western Washington Fair 
order, this year. 



'uyallup, Wash., will show live stock, garden, orchard and other exhibits of a high 



HAY 



Alfalfa Hay grown on our 
Mabton Ranch, cut and 
cured so as to afford highest 
feeding value, sold direct to 
users in car lots. 

First and second cuttings 
ready to ship. Order now 
an dtake advantage of low 
opening price. 

KARR INVESTMENT CO. 

16 North 6th St. 
NORTH YAKIMA, WASH. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



193 



County exhibits are expected from a 
much greater number of sections of 
the State than heretofore. The as- 
sociation and special prizes are go- 
ing to bring out some fine individual 
exhibits in both the fruit and vege- 
table departments. The floral de- 
partment including potted plants and 
cut flowers will be very superior. 

The schools are making great ef- 
fort to bring out creditable exhibits, 
and it is anticipated that the educa- 
tional department will be a fair with- 
in a fair. 

The ladies' department. Neddie- 
work, art, cullinary, canned goods, 
and etc., under the supervision of 



the Ladies' Auxilary of the Associa- 
tion probably surpass any fair west 
of the Rock Mountains. 

The automobile exhibit in the fine 
exhibition hall erected for this de- 
partment last year will be an eye 
opener if you are in any way inter- 
ested in automobiles, motor cycles, 
bicycles and supplies see this exhibit. 

In the Better Babies Department, 
lectures will be given by doctors and 
nurses. The care of the children, 
physical and mental development 
will figure in the judging contest 
in this department of best crops. 

J. P. N. 



AGRICULTURE 



The Basis of 
Prosperity 



ELECTRIC LIGHTING 



11 



The Modern Low Voltage Installation. 

The state of perfection of the Low 
Voltage Electric Lighting Systems 
has proven a boon to the suburban 
resident and farm resident districts 
where it is impossible to obtain the 
high voltage service from municipal 
or service corporation, and the im- 
mense demand for this class of light- 
ing service in the past few years 
shows that people living in the iso- 
lated districts are desirous of hav- 
ing every convenience that their more 
fortunate neighbors in the city enjoy. 
There have been a great many instal- 
lations of various sizes of lighting 
system made and the demand is in- 
creasing steadily. 

There is no reason why every home 
throughout the country should not 
have the convenience of electric 
lighting as the cost of complete in- 
stallation is within the reach of the 
average person. It is considered good 
insurance as everyone knows that 
fire in isolated districts is one of the 
most dreaded dangers that can come 
to one where there are no fire-fight- 
ing facilities. In addtion to this, it 
is clean, instantly at one's command, 
saves many hours of disagreeable 
labor for the household and gives 
a far more brilliant light than any 
other system of lighting. 

A recent installation made by the 
Racine Boat & Auto Co., Seattle, 
Wash., of a Dayton 30 volt lighting 
system at the country home of Mr. C. 
E. Armstrong, located at Manitau 
Beach, Bainbridge Island, Wash., is 
one of the most complete and up-to- 
idate installations and gives the 
owner every convenience that he 
would have were he living in the 
city. 

Mr. Armstrong, who like many 
others, is fond of having something 
to do, and whose hobby is raising 
chickens, has the most complete 
poultry yards. His building consists 
of a three story structure twenty-five 
feet wide by three hundred and 
slopeing ground so that the second 
sixty-five feet long situated on 
and third stories which are used 
for roost and scratching pens dur- 
ing wet weather, can be connected 
to the various yards so that the full 
capacity of 2500 chickens can be 
given the run of these yards. The 
first story or basement is used for 
store room and feed; also the light- 
ing system is installed at this point 
and the engine operates both the 
ghting generator and the water 
pumping system. 

Suitable switches are installprl sn 



that lights can be had instantly at 
any place in the building or through- 
out the entire structure. At the resi- 
dence the regulation city light re- 
quirements are complied with and 
give the use of electric coffee per- 
colator, vacuum carpet cleaner and 
other appliances, all of which add 
comfort and pleasure through this 
system of lighting. The much in- 
creased demand shows that it has 
come to stay. 



AGRICULTURAL EXHIBITS 
AT SOUTHWESTERN FAIR. 

The agricultural exhibits at the 
Southwest Washington Fair was of 
exceedingly choice quality. The sup- 
erintendent L. A. Degeler assembled 
what was considered the most com- 
plete and best exhibit of agricul- 
tural products in the hall that he has 
been able to secure in the past six 
years time that he has been in charge 
of this division. He had, according 
to the Chehalis, Bee Nugget, 27 vari- 
eties of oats, 20 of wheat and 13 of 
barley, arranged seperately, the pur- 
pose being to furnish information to 
farmers and visitors who are interest- 
ed in growing better varieties of 
grains for specific purposes. In Mr. 
Degeler's department he has seven 
interesting varieties of macaroni 
wheat that have produced a yield that 
is little less than remarkable. The 
seed is secured from the department 
of agriculture at Washington, D. C, 
and came originally from the new 
Crimean country where macaroni 
wheat is grown commercially. While 
it is generally presumed that macar- 
oni wheat is a dry land wheat, Mr. 
Degeler's demonstration shows that 
it will do as well or better here than 
anywhere else. Also there is shown 
a splendid sample of corn wheat. 
There is in Mr. Degeler's depart- 
ment a wonderful collection of hemp, 
flax, buckwheat; beardless, hulless 
barley; rye, eight feet and one inch 
in height; timothy six feet in height; 
remarkable display of vetch, which 
with the extensive introduction of 
the silos on the dairy farms in this 
section, will become more and more 
valuable as a forage crop. Various 
specimens of alfalfa, peas, kale, corn 
and in fact practically everything that 
is of importance to the man engaged 
in general or special farming and 
stock raising. 



THE DAIRY BARN. 

Whenever possible the stable 
should be on high ground with good, 
natural drainage. Poultry houses, 
privies, hog sheds, manure piles, or 



COMPLETE ELECTRIC LIGHTING PLANT 

FOR YOUR HOME AND FARM BUILDINGS 

We install the Dayton system, operated at a very reasonable cost. 




mmmm 



ilMMliffi 



This 

Individual 
Plant 
Gives 
You the 
Same 
Light 
Service 
as in 
the City. 



With a small engine to be used also for other power purposes, the 
cost of charging the batteries is very little and in some cases practic- 
ally nothing. 

The lighting plant, illustrated, consists of a Dynamo, Engine, a 
Switchboard and a Storage Battery. The dynamo charges the bat- 
tery, the battery acts as a reservoir, which supplies current to the 
lights when and where desired. 

This independent light plant in your cellar, barn or pump house 
give you bright, clean, glowing electric light, wherever you can 
possibly use it, in your home, yard, cellar, driveways, barn and other 
buildings, always instantly at your service by merely touching the 
button. 



EASIEST LIGHT ON THE EYES 
OF FIRE. 



CONVENIENT. 
PURE AIR. 



OUT OF DANGER 
WRITE FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE AND PRICES. 



73 Columbia St. 



RACINE BOAT & AUTO CO. 



SEATTLE, WASH. 



□dVC on barn lumber 

enough to pay the carpenter i 

—same as Omer Clapsaddle did 




HEWITT-LEA-FUNCK CO.. Seattle, Wash. 
Gentlemen — Will write you a few lines to let you know how 
I like your lumber. I like it fine, and the carpenters are 
building my barn now. They say it is the best lumber they 
have used in years. They say it cannot be bought in this 
country at any price. I saved $272.80 — more than enough to 
pay carpenters. I am more than pleased to think I sent for it. 
OMER CLAPSADDLE. Letcher, S. D., May 14, 1914. 



Send 4c for 
barn book 

Here is a book for real 
farmers — shows plans of 
barns actually built by men 
who earn their living on the 
farm. Read "How to Build a 
Barn," by John H. Fleming; "17 
Barn Facts," by Harry Burton 
Bryce. Get ths book for real 
information. Yours for 4 cents. 



Send lumber list to 
learn saving 

Thequickest way to learn how 
much Hewitt-Lea-Funck can 
save you is to send list for 
freight-paid price for lumber 
and other materials. Grades 
guaranteed. We ship in 24 to 48 
hours; deliver as far as Missis- 
sippi River in two weeks. Don't 
delay— send list today. 



Hewitt-Lea-Funck Co. «3 Crary Bldg., Seattle.Waah, 



The BROOKS 
NURSERY 

A. L. BROOKS, Prop. 

LAFAYETTE, OREGON 



A complete line of Fruit, Shade, Orna- 
mental nursery stock. Guaranteed true 
to name. My nursery stock is free from 
disease and pests; first-class in every 
respect. Extra large roots, also large in 
calibre. Any one wishing to set In large 
lots will get the benefit of wholesale 
prices. Also a choice lot of prune trees, 
6 to 9 feet in height, which I will sell 
at reduced^ prices. It will surprise you 
in getting my price list before buying 
elsewhere. 



MONTE VISTA NURSERIES 

PEAR TREES — We have some very choice pear trees in both 1 
and 2-year stock of the following varieties: Anjou, Bartlett, Cornice, 
W. Nelis, P. Barry. 

APPLE TREES — Very fine Jonathans, Rome Beauty, N. Spy, New- 
town, Baldwin, Ortley, Winter Banana, King, Waxen, Gravenstein and 
Red Astrachan. Write for prices. 

A.. HOLA.DAY SCAPPOOSE, OREGON 



FRUIT AND POULTRY 

We have facilities to handle quickly and advantageously 
YOUR FRUIT, POULTRY AND EGGS 
We make prompt returns of proceeds on all consignments. We answer 
promptly all inquiries as to market, prices, or of any other nature. 
Twenty years of satisfactory service to growers our best recommendation 
923-5 Railroad Ave. CHAS. UHOEN SPOKANE, WASH. 



NURSERY CATALOG FREE 

Full of helpful suggestions to make your place beautiful,— It's up- 
to-date, Instructive. Please mention this paper and write to, 

J. B. PILKINGTON, Nurseryman 
Portland, Ore. 



194 

air and furnish breeding places for 
flies should not be near the cow 
stable. 

The silo may be connected with the 
stable by a feed room, but this room 
should be shut off from the stable by 
a tight door. This is convenient and 
also prevents silage odors in the 
stable except at feeding time. Af- 
ter the silage has been fed the stable 
can be thoroughly aired before the 
next milking period. 

An ideal site for a barnyard is on 
a south slope which drains away 
from the stable. If the baryard is 
inclined to be muddy, it may be im< 
proved by drainage and by the use of 
cinders or gravel. A clean yard is a 
great help in keeping the cows from 
becoming soiled by mud and manure. 

Very few farm buildings construct- 
ed 15 or 20 years ago meet the sani- 
tary requirements of to-day. Bank 
barns are generally dark and damp, 
as the light is often excluded from 
one or more sides, thus making the 
stable difficult to keep clean. Stables 
which have basements open on one 
side for the manure furnish a breed- 
ing place for flies. Barns which have 
many exposed beams, braces, and 
ledges on which dust may lodge are 
undesirable. In these old types of 
buildings little or no attention was 
paid to proper ventilation and dis- 
tribution of the light. Many of them, 
however, can at small expense be re- 
modled to meet all sanitary require- 
ments. 

Construction of the barn may be 
less important than careful methods 
in handling milk when the keeping 
down of bacterial content of the milk 
is considered, but the barn construc- 
tion may be such as to lighten the 
labor necessary to keep the barn and 
its equipment in a clean condition. 

The stable should have a hard 
floor which can be readily cleaned; 
for this reason a dirt floor is undesir- 
able. A cement floor is easily cleaned 
and prevents waste of the liquid man- 
ure; it is liable to be cold, however, 
and therefore extra bedding is re- 
quired for the cows to lie on. 

The gutter back of the cows should 
be large enough to hold the drop- 
pings; with a width of 16 to 18 
inches and a depth of 7 inches are 
usually sufficient. The gutter should 
incline so as to drain readily, unless 
the liquid is taken up by absorbents. 
Types of stalls and mangers are best 
which present the least possible sur- 
face for collecting dust and dirt, and 
the least obstruction to the circula- 
tion of air. Stalls of wood have many 
flat surfaces and cracks which are 
difficult to keep clean and in case of 
outbreaks of disease are not easy 
to disinfect thoroughly. Stalls made 
of metal pipes are therefore prefer- 
able. A swing stanchion is usually 
preferred, as it allows the cow plenty 
of freedom. A low, smooth manger 
without sharp angles is easy to keep 
clean. If the cows are tied, facing 
the center of the barn, the walkway 
behind them should be 5 feet or 
more in width so the walls will not 
be soiled by spattering from the gut- 
ter and the manure carrier. 

The most common defect in dairy 
stables is a lack of cleanliness, cob- 
webs on the ceiling and manure on 
the walls are too common in such 
places. The dairyman must not allow 
cobwebs, dust or dirt to accumu- 
late if he expects to produce the high- 
est grade of milk. With a tight, 
smooth ceiling and smooth walls with- 
out ledges, this is not difheult. White- 



THE NORTHWEST 

wash should be freely applied at least 
twice a year to both walls and ceil- 
ing as it helps to purify the stable 
and to keep it light. An abundance 
of light is necessary; 4 square feet 
of glass per cow is generally sufficient 
if the windows are well distributed 
and not obstructed in any way. If 
the stable is located with its length 
north and south it receives the puri- 
fying benefit of both the morning 
and afternoon sun. 

Every cow stable should have a 
system of ventilation to keep the 
air fresh and pure and the cows com- 
fortable without exposing them to 
injurious drafts. If the smell in the 
stable is disagreeable at any time, it 
indicates that the ventilation is de- 
ficient. At least 500 cubic feet of 
air space should be provided for each 
cow. Farmers who desire to provide 
proper ventilation in cow stables can 
obtain information on this point by 
applying to the Dairy Division, De- 
partment of Agriculture, Washington, 
D. C. 



HORTICULTURIST 



SUPPLY OF CATTLE HIDES. 



By George K. Holmes, U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, in 
Agricultural Outlook 

About one-third of the cattle hides 
treated in the leather manufacturing 
industries of this country five years 
ago were imported from other coun- 
tries. In the meantime the number 
of cattle on the farms and ranges 
of the United States has diminished, 
the consumption of hides has increas- 
ed, and a present European war has 
affected the international trade in 
hides, so that the industries that tan 
and otherwise treat cattle hides and 
use their leather are facing uncertain- 
ties in the supply of raw material. 

According to the census report on 
the leather manufacturing industries, 
20,516,332 cattle hides were treated in 
1909, of which 13,764, 686 were taken 
off the cattle of this country, leav- 
ing approximately one-third of the 
consumption to be supplied by foreign 
countries. The cattle slaughter of 
that year, according to the census 
report on agriculture and on slaught- 
ering and meat packing, was 13,611,- 
422, but this number did not include 
an apparent 150,000 cattle that died 
from accident and disease. 

The imports of hides into this 
country are reported in pounds and 
not in number of hides, and no fairly 
good estimate of such number can be 
made, for the reason that the import- 
ed hides are both dried and wet, or 
salted, with no separation in the re- 
port; and furthermore, the hides are 
derived from many countries, the cat- 
tle of which vary in average size, and 
some buffalo hides are included. In 
the year ending June 30, 1909, the im- 
ported cattle hides weighed 192,252,- 
000 pounds, to use a round number, a 
quantity that far exceeded the pre- 
vious record, and in the next year the 
imports amounted to the remarkably 
high total of 318,002,000 pounds. Ap- 
parently this resulted in an overstock- 
ing of the market, because in the fol- 
lowing year, 1911, the imports fell 
to 150,028,000 pounds. For 1910 and 
1911 combined, the average yearly 
imports were 234,015,000 pounds. The 
import record continued to be broken 
year by year, and cattle hides weigh- 
ing 251,013,000 pounds were received 
in 1912, after which 268,042,000 
pounds were received in 1913, and 
279,769,000 pounds in 1914. 

From 1909 to 1914 the imported cat- 



Ask your 

HORSE ! 



about Mica Axle 
Grease . If he 
could talk he would 
tell you that it makes 
the load pull a lot 
easier. 

MICA 

AXLE GREASE 

would be a good axle grease even though it contained no 
mica. But the ground mica makes it still better. It 
fills up the microscopic pores or crevices on the 
surface of spindles and resists friction and heat ./ 
It will pay you to use Mica Axle Grease. ' 
Dealers Everywhere. 

Standard Oil Company 

(CALIFORNIA) 



Samson Stump Puller 




One Man's Hand Clears Your Land with the* SAMSON. It's a Real Hand- 
Power Machine that can be operated and easily moved around by ONE 
MAN. Holds 100 feet of cable on the drum; moves a stump 100 feet with- 
out changing the rigging; has two Speeds. Mr. Varney, of Poulsbo, Wash., 
says "The SAMPSON pulled 30-inch second growth fir stumps out of hard 
clay soil on high ground." Mr. Calkins says, "The stumps I pulled with the 
SAMSON averaged 3 feet." Let the SAMSON pull your stumps. Hand and 
horse Stump Pullers from $30 up. Write now for our Booklet No. 2. It's 
free. SAMSON STUMP FULLER COMPANY 

1112 Western Avenue Seattle, Washington 



BIG BARGAINS in 

AUTOMOBILES 

ALL TIRES SOLD AT WHOLESALE PRICES 

Here are a few bargains in used cars. Ask for special prices 
on others and on trucks. 

One 1912 Chalmers, 5-passenger, self-starter — $975. 

One Franklin, 5-passenger, in Al condition, guaranteed — $800. 

One Franklin, 5-passenger, guaranteed — $750. 

One 3-passenger Ford — $250. 

One 1912 Cadillac, electric lights and self-starter — $1,000. 
The above cars are guaranteed to be just as represented by us. 
Terms if desired. 

OVERLAND - PACKARD • HUDSON New cars and supplies complete always on hand. 

Pacific Car Co. 

North Second and Q Streets 

(Point Defiance car line) 



REMEMBER THIS IS THE 
HOUSE OF SERVICE 

TACOMA, WASH. 



CLEAN VETCH SEED 

Offered for fall sowing. Write stating quantity wanted and get 
price at once. 

GIBSON BROS. 
East Sound, Wash. 



tie hides increased 45.5 per cent, in 
weight, and the number of cattle on 
farms declined from 61,804,866 in 
1910, as ascertained in the census, to 
57,592,000 as estimated by the Bureau 
of Crop Estimates of the Department 
of Agriculture, a decline of 8.4 per 
cent. It may be roughly computed from 
the foregoing figures that the import- 
ed cattle hides have reached over 
two-fifths of the consumption, but less 
than one-half. The supply from for- 
eign countries, therefore, has been a 
matter of increasing moment, inde- 
pendent of conditions of war. 

As the trade statistics are express- 
ed, the various countries that supply 
hides to the United States often vary 
much in importance from year to 
year. The reason for this is largely 
a roundabout and indirect transporta- 
tion in the ships of the United King- 
dom, Germany, France, and other 
countries. According to the record in 
this country, 25 per cent, of the 
weight of hides imported in 1913 
came from Argentina, 15.5 per cent, 
from Canada, 11 per cent, from Mex- 
ico, 8.5 per cent, from European Rus- 
sia, 7.5 per cent from France, 3.7 per 
cent, from Germany, 3.2 per cent 
from the United Kingdom, 2.7 per 
cent, each from Uruguay and the 
Netherlands, 2.6 per cent, from Bel- 
gium, 2 percent, from Columbia, 1.7 
per cent, from Venevuela, 1.1 per cent, 
from Cuba, and comparatively in- 
significant quantities from other 
countries. The countries mentioned 
supplied, on the face of the record, 
about nine-tenths of the imports of 
cattle hides. 



CLOVER SEED IN OREGON. 

Within recent years the growing of 
clover for seed has become quite an 
important industry in western Ore- 
gon. The 1913 seed crop was prob- 
ably in excess of 2,000,000 pounds, 
and the greatly increased acreage in 
1914 would normally have largely in- 
creased the total production for 1914. 
But there has been a great amount of 
damage from the clover midge, work- 
ing the head, and the clover root 
borer, affecting the crown of the 
plant. A considerable portion of the 
crop intended for esed will not be 
worth harvesting for that purpose, 
and as it has been allowed to get 
beyond the proper stage of ripeness 
for hay, will have very little value 
for that purpose. 

The damage is not at all uniform. 
Where some fields are practiaclly 
ruined, only a few miles away the 
fields generally appear to be in good 
condition. Quite a little hulling has 
already been done, and yields of six 
and seven bushels of red clover seed 
per acre have been obtained. The 
alsike variety seem to yield even bet- 
ter than the red. In Linn County, 
which is probably the heaviest clover 
seed producing county in the State, 
dealers estimate that, notwithstand- 
ing the increased acreage, the pro- 
duction will probaly be not more than 
one-half that of last year. 
Farmers Bulletin U. S. Dept. of Agrl. 



ALFALFA IN IRRIGATED 
ORCHARDS. 

Owners of irrigated orchards, who 
desire to secure maximum results 
from their trees, make some use of 
the soil between the rows, and at the 
same time keep up the fertility of the 
orchard land, will be interested in 
the following comments by Professor 
W. S. Thornber, quoted from the 
Twice-a-Week Spokesman Review, of 



THE NORTHWEST 

Spokane, Washington: 

1. Alfalfa adds nitrogen to the or- 
chard soil. 

2. It breaks up the subsoil better 
than dynamite. If alfalfa cannot get 
through the subsoil then dynamite it. 

3. It makes the soil hold water bet- 
ter — gives the water a deeper reser- 
voir. 

4. It prevents the orchard from dry- 
ing out. Oftentimes on soil which 
has not grown alfalfa the crops are 
utilizing only the upper few inches 
of soil. Alfalfa enables the roots to 
feed down for several feet into the 
ground. It effects economy in the 
use of water for the irrigator; for 
by storing the late fall, winter and 
early spring precipitation it makes 
less heavy demands for irrigation 
water in the dry portions of the year. 

5. Grown in the orchard by some 
plan, alfalfa may stunt the trees. 
Properly used it does not. It enables 
the roots of the tree to get further 
down into the ground, thus giving 
them a larger feeding area. It checks 
the late growth of wood and may thus 
prevent damage caused by freezing 
unripened wood. 

6. It makes fruit color earlier in the 
fall. This is an important element 
in marketing apples in the foreign 
markets. Alfalfa apples color from 
one week to 10 days earlier than 
those given clean cultivation. The 
color is heavier, more solid than is 
obtained under other conditions. 

7. It improves the quality of the 
apple — gets away from pithiness, for 
example. 

8. You can set it in the rchard in 
such a manner that the first cutting, 
or the first two cuttings will pay for 
the cultivation of the orchard during 
the year. It will furnish in the or- 
chard grazing for hogs or poultry. 



HORTICULTURIST 



195 



GROW RED CLOVER. 



Well Adapted to Washington Where 
Annual Rainfall is Twenty Inches 
or More. 

1. Better adapted to short rotation 
than alfalfa. 

2. Enriches the soil; adds humus. 

3. Yields large first cutting and 
fair second cutting. 

4. Is rich in protein — hence, splen- 
did crop for balanced ration. 

Its introduction on the moister 
wheat lands means more live stock, 
richer soil, heavier yields of grain, 
less waste lands, more and better 
farm homes, says George Severance, 
Agriculturist of State College, Pull- 
man. 

In the coast section, clover is not 
only the basic pasture and hay crop 
for dairymen, but it is becoming a 
source of much revenue to those 
growing the crop for seed. 

Since the war in Europe, clover 
seed growers in this country have 
the entire home market to supply. 

This fall after the September rains 
is a good time to sow the seed. Pre- 
pare the seed bed thoroughly before- 
hand by deep plowing and repeated 
disking. Coast farmers will do well 
to prepare and grow clover for seed 
as fast and thoroughly as possible. 



SEALING A SILO. 

Numerous methods are employed 
to seal the silo, from the time crops 
are put in until ready for use. Mr. 
Nis. Ostergaard writes in Wallace's 
Farmer that he used three-ply roof- 
ing paper with good success, describ- 
ing his method as follows: 

After leveling off the surface, 




Its Carley Roller 
Feed Mill ln %sz 

THE LATEST AND BESTj MILL ON 
THE MARKET TODAY 



Send for Catalog 
Manufactured only by 

Colfax Iron Works, Inc. 

Colfax, Wash. 

Successors to CARLEY BROTHERS 



VETCH TIMOTHY 
RYE ETC. OVER 99 
PER CENT PURE 



CLOVER SEED 

We have the seed for early fall seeding, over 99 per cent, 
pure. 

Don't forget we handle CONKEY FLY KILLER, Conkey 
Lice Powder and all of their Poultry Remedies. 

BARTLETT'S Calf Meal, the perfect milk substitute. 
CYPHER'S Incubators and Brooders. 
Send for Catalog and list today. 
Please mention this paper. 

Seattle Seed Company 

SEATTLE, WASH. 



$82 w ee k Earning Capa city 



"KING OF THE WOODS" DRAG SAW 

With or Without Buzz Saw Attachment 
Will saw 20 to 40 cords of wood per day at a cost of 
$1.00. PULLS ITSELF up the steepest HILL and 
over the roughest ground. Costs less than other makes. 
One man writes he sawed 56 ricks in 10 hours. 
Another sawed 40 cords in 9 hours. There's f 
more you ought to know. Write for FREE cat- 1 
alog containing full description with testimonials" - 
frnm enthusiastic users. WRITE TODAY. 



Reierson Machinery Co. 

SOLE MANUFACTURERS PORTLAND, OREGON 




Shrubs = Plants = Vines = Trees 

Having taken over the entire stock of the Richland Nursery, we are 
prepared to fill orders for all kinds of Flowering Shrubs, Vines, Clarke's 
Seedling Strawberry Plants, European Grape Vines and Shade Trees in 
choice grades. Please let us know your needs early and get a copy of 
our catalog and prices. 



BREITHATJPT NURSERY CO. 



C. F. Breithaupt, Prop. 



Kennewick, Wash. 



Headquarters for 

OREGON CHAMPION GOOSEBERRY 

and Perfection Currant 
Attractive prices made now for Advance Orders 
Also a very complete line of general Nursery Stock, including a 
choice assortment of one-year budded and two-year Apple and Pear. 
Correspondence solicited. 

Portland Wholesale Nursery Co. 

301-302 Stock Exchange Building. PORTLAND, OREGON 

The Place to Buy your Supplies 



Clover^Timothy and Vetch Seed 

Strictly high grade both in purity and vitality in actual tests. 
Ready for early fall sowing. Please submit estimate requirements. 
Now is a good time to plant more thousand-headed Kale in the Coast 
section. 50c per pound, post paid. 

AABLING-EBRIGHT SEED CO. 

85=89 Pike Street, Seattle, Wash. 



WALTER BOWEN & CO., Inc. 

WHOLESALE COMMISSION, FRUITS AND PRODUCE 
Phone: Main 59. SEATTLE, WASH. 1111 Western Ay«. 

Goods handled strictly on commission. Prompt returns our specialty. 
Wire or write us at any time for market quotations. 

References- National Bank of Commerce, Seattle; Merc. Agencies; Ship- 
pers on Pacific Coast. ^ ^ GQoi)g 



196 

brought up two rolls, rolled them out, 
and cut the paper in shape to fit the 
silo, lapping it about four inches. I 
found that the paper, by the aid of 
its own weight and the moisture from 
below, settled close to the surface 
of the ensilage, and in doing so kept 
the moisture from evaporating, as the 
air could not come in contact with 
the ensilage. 

The paper was laid down loosely, 
without being nailed or otherwise fas- 
tened, only that the rows were lapped 
over each other by about four inches, 
and the ensilage kept fine. The up- 
per half-inch of it was black, but be- 
low that it was as fresh as the rest 
of it farther down. The 5th of May, 
I quit feeding ensilage, and sealed up 
what I had left, using the same paper, 
and in spite of the dry and hot wea- 
ther, the ensilage under the paper is 
as good as ever. 



THE NORTHWEST 

Red clover 4 

White clover 4 

Upland — Permanent 

Italian rye-grass 6 

Orchard grass 4 

Kentucky blue grass 2 

Red clover 4 

White clover 2 

Upland — Temporary 

Italian rye-grass 6 

Orchard grass 6 

Red clover 6 

The red clover and Italian rye- 
grass will largely die out by the end 
of the second year, then the other 
clovers and grasses will occupy the 
land. 

Every piece of land has its own 
individuality, and is a seperate prob- 
lem. By studying the local condi- 
tions some changes may be made in 
the recommended mixture to improve 
it for the special soil conditions. The 
natural grasses will aid in this. 

The amount of seed to sow per 
acre will depend largely on the con> 
dition of the seed bed, and the ex- 
tent to which the seed can be cov- 
ered. If conditions are such that 
every seed will germinate and be 
covered, the minimum amount of 
seed should be used. If the seed bed 
is poorly prepared double the amount 
of seed will be required to secure a 
good stand. 

If the pasture can be used for hay 
or silage the spring after sowing and 
not pastured until the soil is quite 
firm and the plants well established, 
the pasture will be better for it. 
Western Washington Exp. Station. 



HORTICULTURIST 



SULPHUR AND FERTILITY. 

Prof. F. C. Raimer of the Southern 
Oregon Experiment Station concludes 
from experiments and observations 
that crude sulphur in powdered form, 
known as flowers of sulphur, has a 
beneficial effect on some soils. 

Two plots were fertilized with 
flowers of sulphur; one plot with 
iron phosphate; and check plots re- 
ceiving no fertizer were left along- 
side the fertilized plots. The plots 
receiving flowers of sulphur, iron 
sulphate, and superphosphate had 
double the yield of the unfertilized 
plots and the alfalfa had a better and 
more thrifty stand. 

These experiments were conducted 

in the Rogue River Valley of Oregon TILE FOR DRAINAGE, 
and they are being repeated on vari- The NorthweEt Horticulturist, justly 
ous types of soil in that valley to as- esteemed as it is among its many 
certain, if possible, whether all will readers for }ts numerous excellent fea- 
make similar response to the use of tures> hag never given publicity t0 any 
sulphur, the most profitable amounts sub j ect with more possibilities of 
to apply per acre, and the effect of mon ey-making or money-saving for the 
continued applications. Professor farmer than that of Farm Drainage. 
Reimer is of the opinion that sulphur In the Middle Western States, where 
will prove of less value on the most the writer res ided until recently, the 
fertile soils, and states that the most im p orta nce of this subject is more gen- 
economical form in which to purchase erally rea i ized tnan nere where only 
sulphur is the crude powdered sul- a gtart hag been made toward the vast 
phur, which may be purchased at two amount of farm drainage work that 
cents per pound. could be done wIth profit to the 

Whether or not sulphur has any ef- ownerS- 

feet on the control of diseases and in- A11 of us nave seen the advantage 

sects in plants and trees is a problem of tUe drainage> The stronger root 

unsolved and which some of our developement resu i ts in greater 

experimenters might do well to deter- drougll t-resisting qualities. Drained 

mine - land is ready for springplanting much 

earlier than undrained land. Tile 

GRASS SEED FOR PASTURE 

drainage is crop insurance. 

MIXTURES. In Iowa we found that the in- 

In choosing a pasture mixture the creased yield from tile drained land 

conditions to consider are the life of often paid the entire cost of the mat- 

the mixture and condition of the soil; erial and labor the first eyar. The in- 

thas is, whether the soil is dry, moist, crease was always clear profit after 

or poony drained. The aim is to the second year. 

choose a mixture that will cover the Mr. Kaufman is undobtedly right 

ground completely, and will give a in his statement that good hard 

succession of grasses for nearly con- burned clay tile is the preferable mat- 

tinuous pasture. This gives a great- erial to use for farm drainage. It is 

er number of grasses to choose from, safe and sure, for no acid or alkali in 

Pasture mixtures suggested for the soil can injure it. 

different types of soil, showing the His experience with cement tile 

number of pounds of seed to the failing in the ground is not peculiar 

acre for each kind of grass in each to Whatcom County or to the State 

mixture: of Washington. Many such failures 

Wet Land have occured in the State of Iowa and 

Italian rye-grass 6 failed cement tile was replaced with 

Red top 2 clay tile. 

Timothy 2 I have seen some drainage systems 

Alsike clover 2 built of cement tile that seemed to 

Moist Land he satisfactory in every way, but the 

Italian rye-grass 4 large number of failures shows ce- 

Orchard grass 4 ment tile to be an unsafe material 

Meadow fescue 3 with which to experiment. The pos- 

Kentucky blue grass 1 sibility of losing an entire crop beside 

Red top 1 the cost of the tile and labor is too 



BEAUTIFY YOUR HOMES 

We are this season enjoying an 
unusually good trade on shade and 
ornamental trees, vines, shrubbery, 
etc. For years the western home- 
builder has devoted all his energy 
to creating a productive plant. To- 
day his thoughts are turned more 
to home-making in the fullest sense 
of the term. This requires a well 
disposed arrangement of properly 
selected trees, vines and shrubbery, 
and this need we are well prepared 
to supply. We have devoted much 
time and effort to securing the 
proper class of ornamental stock 
for all sections of the West and 
Northwest, and the wisdom of this 
policy is exemplified in our largely 
increased business in this line, to- 
gether with a good volume of or- 
ders for deciduous fruits, berries, 
grapes, ets. 

Our salesmen cover practically 
every city and hamlet west of the 
Rocky mountains. If they fail to 
see you, address us, giving indi- 
cations of your wants, and we will 
be pleased to reply in detail, to- 
gether with catalog. 

We have a well equipped land- 
scape department in charge of a 
qualified landscape architect, whose 
advice is to be had for the asking 
in connection with any order we 
book. 

Our stock is, as usual, unsur- 
passed. It is grown on clean, new 
volcanic ash soil, far distant from 
old orchards or other sources of 
contamination. It is clean, well 
rooted, hardy and splendidly ma' 
tured. We solicit your patronage, 
and guarantee you satisfaction. 

All transportation charges pre- 
paid to destination on every pur- 
chase. 

WASHINGTON NURSERY CO., 
Toppeniah, Washington 

Salesmen Wanted. 




Have You Read This? 

"At my home on Nob Hill, I have 
two Walnut trees which I purchased 
from your Company. They are now 
thirteen years old; were one year old 
when planted. They have been bear- 
ing- eight years. The trees are per- 
fectly hardy, having withstood a 
freeze of 20 degrees below zero. I 
gathered over six bushels of nuts 
from those two trees last fall. My 
grocer pronounced them superior in 
size and flavor to California nuts." 
E. W. Brackett, North Yakima. 

Space here forbids much explana- 
tion, but if you will write us, we 
will gladly explain the difference be- 
tween the famous VROOMAN PURE 
STRAIN FRANQUETTE WALNUT 
and the common sort. You can af- 
ford and should have at least a few 
of these most desirable trees in your 
orchard. Write us — now. We also 
have, you understand, the largest 
assortment and stock of all kinds of 
fruits, berries, vines, roses, etc., in 
the West. ORENCO trees are plant- 
ed from coast to coast because they 
are known to be always — dependable 
■ fli'St clfiss 

FILBERTS — Good plants of such 
leading varieties as Barcelona and 
du Chilly. 

OREGON NURSERY CO. 

Orenco, Oregon 

Competent salesmen wanted. 



Nursery Stock 

FRUIT TREE8 

SMALL FRUITS 

ORNAMENTALS 

The planter always wants the 
very best paying results. There is 
but one way to accomplish this. 
The right start with our guaran- 
teed whole root, non-irrigated stock 
in fruit trees, our splendid two- 
year-old stock in small fruits and 
our unexcelled selection of orna- 
mentals will do it. Beware of poor 
stock. Disappointment Is the only 
result therefrom. 

Send for our catalogue. Agents 
wanted. 

SALEM NURSERY COMPANY 

F. J. Rupert, Mgr. 
SALEM OREGON 



AUCTIONEER 

WM. ATKINSON 

Vancouver Blk., Vancouver, B. C. 

Specialist in dairy breeds; grad- 
uate of Jones' National School of 
Auctioneering. Thoroughly exper- 
ienced and wide acquaintance in the 
Pacific Northwest. Write for par- 
ticulars. 



Lewis County Farms 

We make a specialty of Lewis 
County lands. The best for farm- 
ing, dairying and stock raising 
in Western Washington. Well im- 
proved farms that raise 100 to 
120 bu. oats, 35 to 50 bu. wheat 
or 5 to 6 tons of hay per acre. 
On daily mail, milk and cream 
routes, phone line, etc. Close to 
good market, railroad and 
schools, $50 to $100 per acre, in- 
cluding stock, tools and machin- 
ery. Write for our list. 

ACME REALTY COMPANY 

401 Equitable Bldg, Tacoma, Wn. 



Small Fruit Platns 

at 

Wholesale Prices 

Blackberries Gooseberries 
Raspberries Currants 

Loganberries Dewberries 
Strawberries Rhubarb 
Asparagus 

Write for prices. 

F. H. Burglehaus 

SUMNER, WASH. 



AUCTIONEERS 

Years of experience, thoroughly 
posted. 

Geo. A. Gue, Ridgefield, Wash. 
L. H. Linbarger, North Yakima, Wash. 
W. H. Ralph, Nez Perce, Idaho. 
Write for dates. 



^ Vetch 
^s^r Clover 
Grass Seed 

For Fall Planting 

These important crops call for 
careful and studied seed selection. 

Cheap, inferior seed is expensive 
at any price . Lilly's best seeds are 

99% Pure 

— and we can furnish all seed 
tested for purity and germination. 

Don't take chances. Buy the best. 

We make a specialty of grass and 
clover seed and stand ready to 
back up our claims for supplying 
the best seed possible to get. 

Sold through dialers in LiHy's Tradt Marled Sacks 

Fall Catalog Ready 

Mailed free on request. 
THE CHAS. H. LILLY CO., SEATTLE 



isranxmoiiaoH .EsaMHiaoN. am 



great-, to justify taking any chances 
even if the cost is somewhat less 
than that of clay. 

On this subject of clay tile prices, 
my inquiries have not brought the 
same results as related by Mr. Kauf- 
man. 

I have been rather surprised, con- 
sidering the higher cost of labor and 
the poor quality of coal here, to find 
how nearly Clay Drain Tile prices 
here approach those of Iowa. At 
least one firm, the Denny-Renton Clay 
and Coal Co., of Seattle, have offered 
to sell good clay drain tile, in quan- 



tities of a carload or more, at $15.00 
for three-inch and $20.00 for four-inch. 
These prices are lower than have 
prevailed in the past due, they say, to 
increasing demand. 

We all have a natural desire to buy 
as cheaply as possible, but we should 
not lose sight of our own interest in 
using a safe material because local 
conditions and the absence of a large 
demand make the cost of good tile 
a little higher here than in the East. 

W. E. CLARK. 

R. F. D. Box 17-A. 
Port Blakeley, Wash. 





Adequate, available moisture 


IRRIGATION 


at all seasons. 



IRRIGATION CONGRESS AT 
CALGARY. 

"One day of the International Irri- 
gation Congress, which is to be held 
in Calgary, October 5 to 9 this year, 
is to be devoted to a trip — free to 
delegates — covering a 160 mile jour- 
ney through the irrigation block lying 
to the east of Calgary, and a visit of 
inspection to the Horseshoe Bend 
dam near Bassano, which stores 
water for the largest individual pro- 
ject on this continent." This will be 
one of the most entertaining and in- 
teresting features of this year's meet- 
ing. 

Special railway rates will be avail- 
able on all important lines. Dele- 
gates and visitors will also have an 
opportunity of a journey through the 
Canadian Rockies and a visit to the 
scenic points in Western Canada and 
Western United States. One of the 
most delightful will be that to Banff 
— the playground of Canada. 

The agricultural and horticultural 
exhibition in connection with the Con- 
gres, will draw together some of the 
best irrigated and dry farm products 
of Canada and the United States, es- 
pecially when it is considered that the 
first district prize will be $500 in cash 
the largest cash award ever offered at 
any exhibition in Western Canada. 
There are five other awards in this 
class, ranging from $300 in cash to 
$50. 

The program is outlined breifly in 
the Official Call showing the subjects 
for discussion to be of international 
importance. Colonization, the regula- 
tion of water rights and community 
upbuilding are some of the subjects, 
and in these there is much to be 
learned by those on both sides of the 
International boundary. 

J. S. DENNIS, 
Chairman Local Board, 

Cargary Alta, B. C. 



IRRIGATION EXPENSE. 



Getting Your Money's Worth of Water 

How to get the most for the least 
is the problem that has held man's 
attention since the beginning of 
things. No matter what you are buy- 
ing, no matter whether the expendi- 
ture be time, physical effort or money, 
the problem remains practically the 
same. Now, when the dry season is 
on, your problem perhaps is water, 
for irrigating purposes, and you may 
have under consideration your first 
pumping plant, or you may be contem- 
plating new pumping apparatus in 
place of old. Your problem is: "How 
can I get the most water for the least 
money?" 

Engineers and power experts have 
studied the subject, and many 
methods of water pumping have been 



are by the use of a direct-conected 
electric motor or a distillate engine. 
These are the types of equipment in 
most common use. 

In considering their comparitive ad- 
vantages it is found that the installa- 
tion cost of the two equipments is 
about the same. The chief considera- 
tion therefore, is to determine which 
tried. All reports seem to indicate 
that the two most practical methods 
is the more convenient and which the 
less expensive to operate . and main- 
tain. 

Let us assume, as an example, it is 
desired to irrigate a sixty acre ranch 
requiring eighteen irrigations of one 
and one-third inches each. This will 
necessitate a pump capable of deliv- 
eiing seven hundred and fifty gallons 
a minute. A fifteen horse-power dis- 
tillate engine should be used to drive a 
belted pump of this size. The cost of 
distillate consumed as fuel, at eight 
and one-half cents per gallon, would 
be $150.02 for the eighteen irriga- 
tions. In the case of an electrical 
equipment a ten and six-tenths horse- 
power direct connected motor is 
necessary. The cost of the current at 
two cents per kilowatt hour will total 
$195.70 for the eighteen irrigations. 
These figures are based on a fair 
average of prevailing prices. They 
show that the distillate engine makes 
possible a saving of $45.68, or over 
twenty-three per cent of the electric 
cal cost. 

The electrical method had the ad- 
vantage that it is cleaner and easier 
to operate. Balanced against this, 
however, is the distinct disadvantage 
that the source of electrical power is 
generally many miles distant. The 
chance discontinuance of this power, 
through break in the transmission 
line, or for any other reason, leaves 
the irrigation plant useless and the 
owner helpless to remedy the condi- 
toin. When equiped with a distillate 
engine, the farmer or rancher has his 
pumping operations entirely under his 
own control and in practically every 
instance where mechanical difficulties 
arise they can be remedied locally 
and at once. 

If it is desired to move the pump- 
ing location even to some distant 
point on the ranch, the distillate en- 
gine admits of much easier and 
cheaper transfer, by reason of the 
fact that the outfit is complete in it- 
self and does not require the installa- 
tion of such a medium as the electric 
supply wires. 

A good type of distillate engine, 
given proper attention, and lubricated 
with a grade of oil of known value, 
such as is advertised in this Journal, 
will prove a most valuable and econ- 
omical source of power for many 
other purposes besides irrigation. 



IE ROLE HE 

Keeps ike $S 
Motor / 
Coot & 



-AX 



Dealers everywhere. Ask our near- 
est agency about delivery in bulk. 

Standard Oil Company 

(CALIFORNIA.) 



Christopher Nursery Co. 

Established at present location for 25 years. Nurserymen for four 
generations is the record. 

APPLE TREES — All leading varieties 4 to 7 feet stocky trees: Yellow 

Transparent, Gravenstein, Wealthy, Wagener, King, Olympia, Baldwin, 

Winesap, Winter Banana, etc. 
PEAR TREES — A fine stock of Bartlett, Anjou, Bosc, Angoulene, Cornice 

and others; also Dwarfs. 
CHERRY TREES — A choice lot of Lamberts, Montmorency and other 

kinds. 

PLUM AND PRUNE TREES— Strong Italian, French, Sugar Bradshaw. 

SMALL FRUITS — Gooseberry, Currants, Blackberry, Raspberry, Logan- 
berry and other classes. Strong plants. 

ORNAMENTALS — Roses affording satisfaction, Azalias, Hollies, berry- 
bearing; Rhododendrons, English Laurels, Blue Spruce and other 
. coniferous, and small evergreens. 
Write for prices and complete list and please mention this paper. 

JOHN A. STEWART & SON, Christopher, Wash. 



Milton Nursery Co. 

Pear, Cherry, Apple, Prune and Peach 

Full Line Shade and Ornamental Stock 

Quality in Nursery stock is a condition, not a theory; it is something 
we put into our trees, not say about them. Thirty-five years' experience 
enables us to do this. 

A. MILLER & SONS, INC.— MILTON, OREGON 

A Catalog and Special 

Salesmen wanted. Prices on Request. 



The Puyallup Nursery 



Hardy Ornamental 
Nursery Stock a 
Specialty 

Be sure and visit our nursery when attending the Western Washing- 
ton Fair in this city September 29 to October 4, 1914. 

Large stock of Ornamental Evergreen Shrubs and Trees propagated on 
our own grounds. Make your own selections. Shipping season begins in 
October. 

Everything worth while in Roses, Gladiolli, etc. Send for list. 

Specimen Grounds, 702 PIONEER AVENUE, EAST 
A. L1NQHAM PUYALLUP, WASH 



198 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



HOUSEHOLD DEPARTMENT 



OOHDUCMD BY MM. a A. IOMIHOM 



MOTHER. 

She is the one to whom we go, in 
joy, in sorow or dispair; 

She is the one who comforts us, with 
willing heart and tender care. 

She is the one whose smiles we cher- 
ish, whose hopes we fondly trea- 
sure too; 

Her smiles and hopes have taught us 
something, that only smiles and 
hopes can do. 

She is the one whose heart was 
bravest at times of sorow and 
oft* alone; 

And be those hands now old and 

wrinkled, we'll bless them for they 
made our own. 

To have our sweetest, tenderest love, 
there ne'er was made another; 

Then let us bow with reverence here, 
in due respect to mother. 

— Jennie Gordon. 



COURTESY IN THE HOME 

It is to be regretted that individual 
courtesy in . the household is at so 
low an ebb. We treat our guests 
with favor and bestow upon them 
every mark of polite attention; but the 
minute they are out of the house we 
slip back into the old ruts, and we 
treat those about us with an indif- 
ference that borders on contempt. 
Not that this is intention; rather, it 
is the result of carelessness, a failure 
to realize that the polite attentions, 
"the little things," count so much to 
those we love as to some outsider 
who becomes a member of the family 
for a day. 

If one would be a successful host 
one should be a successful parent 
or brother or sister, and courtesy is 
an inevitable requisite in both cases. 
The home life is a training for the 
larger life in which we meet other 
men and discuss other interests. If 
at home we learn to say "thank you," 
and mean it, we will not forget to 
say it to others at the proper time. 



SOCIAL INJUSTICE 

After all, it is easy for us who are 
safely removed from the struggle 
and stress of the toilers, to condemn 
the radicals or label men and move- 
ments with a name which smacks of 
the plague or the pestilence. It was 
a crowd like that which said of 
Jesus, "He hath a devil," and poined 
in the ready cry: "Crucify him." 

The one thing we are all apt to 
forget is, that anarchy and kindred, 
movements grow out of a soil made 
stony and hard by injustice. They 
are symptoms of a disease in the 
body social, and the ill cannot be 
cured by jailing or hanging or cruci- 
fying the men who feel the hurt most 
and cry out in their agony. — Edward 
A. Steiner. 



RURAL SOCIETY 

Discussing Rural Social Centers in 
a bulletin of the Madison, Wisconsin 
Experiment station, C. J. Gaplin 
makes the following suggestions 
which are applicable also to the 
northwest. 

The social problem of the farmer 
seems to be how to overcome the in- 
evitable handicap of a social defic- 
iency in the very nature of his oc- 
cupation, so as to extend his ac- 
quaintance with men; and secondly 
how to erect social institutions on 



the land adequate to reinforce his in- 
dividual personality so as to enable 
him to cope with his perplexities. 

The first plain necessity is for 
every farm family to extend its per- 
sonal acquaintance and connections 
from its own dooryard out to every 
home in its neighborhood and then 
out to every home in its community. 
This must become a settled policy 
for social preservation, a sacred de- 
termination, a sort of semi-religious 
principle in home, neighborhood, and 
community. In village and city, daily 
pressure brings contact. In the coun- 
try, rational procedure must take the 
place of pressure. This places rural 
acquaintance-making of a large scale 
character on the same high moral lev- 
el with the great idealisms which 
move men when bare economic com- 
pulsion is wanting. 
Children Must Know Many Children. 

Occasions must be created, plans 
must be made to bring people to- 
gether in a wholesale manner so as 
to facilitate this interchange of com- 
munity acquaintance. Especially is 
it necessary for rural children to 
know many more children. The one- 
room district school has proved its 
value in making the children of the 
neighborhood acquainted with one 
another. One of the large reasons 
for the consoildated and centralized 
school is the increased size of terri- 
torial unit, with more children to 
know one another and mingle to- 
gether. 

Unity of Homes in Social Basin. 

It only remains for some rural mind 
once vividly to conceive of the en- 
tangling unity of all the farm homes 
that stand on the same slopes of the 
social water-sheds draining into one 
village or small city — the unity of 
these farm homes and those village 
homes. When this vivid idea in 
once visualized so that a whole rural 
community .shall see its oneness in 
the same degree — at least in no 
greater degree than that in which 
the inhabitants of a modern city 
see their oneness and organize for 
protection and development, then we 
may look for rapid rural organiza- 
tion. Meanwhile the process of 
wide and deep systematic acquaint- 
ance will surely though slowly crys- 
tallize into organization, and out-crops 
of rural social institutions will appear 
on the land. 



WATER SUPPLY IN FARM HOMES 

The water supply is one of the 
most important factors in the home 
life on the farm. In the average 
country home the water is taken 
from the well, put in the pail, carried 
to the kitcthen, put in the kettle, 
turned from the kettle to the dish- 
pan, emptied from the dishpan to 
the slop pail and emptied in the 
yard. A member of the State Col- 
lege staff, Pullman, Wash, figures 
that this makes about six times the 
water is handled. Two gallons 
weigh twenty pounds. Multiply this 
by six, average the amount used for 
laundry, cleaning, bathing, cooking, 
etc., and get some faint idea of the 
thousands of pounds per day a 
woman lifts in doing ordinary house 
work. Is it any wonder that the 
elasticity is gone from her step, the 
bloom from her cheek, and that the 




Olympic Pancake Flour 

Self-rising, nutritious; has a taste that makes every mem- 
ber of the family its friend, and it digests easily for all. 
Four-pound cartons. 

The Puget Sound Flouring Mills Co., Tacoma, Wash. 



Hardware for Farmers' Buildings 

When building your barn, house or other structures it is your privilege 
to get the lowest cash figure and the highest specific quality. The natural 
question is WHERE? The answer MOHR HAS IT. 

Air Tight Heaters, Kerosene Heaters, Stove Pipe, Etc. 

Henry Mohr Hardware Co. 1 tIco^ wish! 



COPPER ORE PAINT 

For your Barns, Silos, Roofs, etc. Red — Brown — Protective — Permanent. 
Trial gallon delivered by parcels post on receipt of $1.00. 
Write for prices on quantities. 

flASHELL PAINT CO., Tacoma, Wash. 



Home Canning 
Outfit 



Put up your surplus fruits and veg- 
etables in your own home. Buy 
one of our home canning outfits, 
complete and ready for business. 
Small outlay, very little expense to 
operate; good profits. We also fur- 
nish cans, solder, labels and all 
other cannery equipment. 

Canners Supply Co. 

524% First Ave. S., Seattle, Wash. 



A. S. Johnson & Co. 




NORTHWEST 
GROCERY CO. 

HEADQUARTERS 

FOR HOTEL AND 

CAMP SUPPLIES. 
A one-cent postal with name and 
address will bring an up-to-date 
cash price list. Buying supplies on 
time is expensive. Conditions are 
improving. Why not make money 
by buying right? 

Northwest Grocery Co. 

13th and Commerce Sts., 

Tacoma, Wash. 

Oldest and Largest Mail Order 
House in the State. 



II4 C Strati 



Taooma.Wtsh. s 



PEONIES 

The popular and satisfactory flower- 
ing plant for the Northwest. 

Our strong plants set in September 
or October will bloom next spring. 

For complete information, send for 
a copy of our special peony catalog, 
free. 

BEAVERTON NURSERY 
Beaverton, Oregon. 
H. E. Weed, Prop. 




Better 
Baking 



5 

m A Better 
M Baking Powder 



With 



Crescent 





Best Glove values offered, 
direct from Denmark. 

Sent prepaid anywhere in North- 
west. Send for price list. 

K. PETERSON, 
K Street Tacoma, Wash. 



average farm woman is old at forty 
years. 

It costs about $250 to install a 



Sunshine Lamp 
300 Candle Power 

To Try In Your Own Home 

Tarns night into day. Gives better light 
than gas, electricity or IS ordinary lamps at 
one-tenth the cost. For Homes, Stores, 
Halls, Churches. A child can carry it. 
Makes its light from common gasoline. 
No wick. No chimney. Absolutely SAFE. 

COSTS 1 CENT A NIGHT 

We want one person in each locality to 
whom we can refer new customers. Take 
advantage of our SPECIAL FREE TRIAL 
OFFER. Write today. AGENTS WANTED. 

SUNSHINE SAFETY LAMP CO. 
214 Factory Bide.. Kansas Citv. Mo. 



FREE 




HORTICULTURIST 



199 




Wot a 
mixture - 
but a siraiglvt 
run refinery 
product 



RED 

CROWN 

3he best #asolin<? 
•die Standard Oil 
Company can make 





Quaker Trees 



FRUITS 
ORNAMENTALS 
SHRUBS 



A Fine Stock of Apples, Pears, Peaches, Plums, Prunes, Apricots and 
Small Fruits. 

It Is a good year to increase the ornamental planting. Thousands 
■will come to the Pacific Coast seeking homes during the next few years. 
Do you wish to sell any part of your land, or your home place, or do you 
wish to encourage settlers who have some degree of taste and refine- 
ment? Then adorn your home with some ornamental plants, shrubs and 
trees. The cost Is trifling compared with the actual value which may be 
derived. Our catalog contains valuable suggestions. 

Write for catalog and price list today. State your requirements. 

QUAKER NURSERIES 



Good Agents Wanted. 



C. F. LANSING, Prop. 



SALEM, OREGON 



Producers ft Consumers Co-Operative Company 

E. HAZELTON, Pres. & Mgr. 
1114-1116 Western Ave., Seattle, Wash. Teh Main 3689. 

(1400 Farmers in our Membership) 
We handle all kinds of farm products, making channels between producer and 
consumer as short and inexpensive as possible. If not a stockholder, write 
for our prospectus, also our wholesale provision list. State what you 
have to offer in fruit, potatoes, veal, pork and poultry. Please mention this 
paper. 



water system on the outlying farms, 
which will not only supply the house 
but the entire farm. Is this not bet- 
ter than paying the doctor and fin- 
ally the undertaker? 

The kitchen should be one of the 
pleasantest rooms of the house. Why 
not have a convenient place for two 
or three books or a magazine which 
can be looked at while waiting for 
something cooking? 

The average woman wastes a 
great amount of time, energy and 
money by not knowing scientific 
methods of conducting the home, 
use of materials, the best things to 
buy, the season of the year to buy 
-ertain commodities in, the conserva- 
"on of energy in doing the daily 
work, and the wrong mental attitude 
in regard to the daily duties. 



MEAT AND VEGETABLE SOUP 
RECIPE 

A wholesome meat and vegetable 
soup for a family of five. 
One soup bone, weighing about 24 
unces, (1/3 meat) worth 10 cents. 
After being washed it should be 
laced in a large kettle with three 
ints of cold water and heated for 
three hours when the bone and meat 
should be removed. 

One-fourth of a small head of cab- 
bage, one onion, one carrot, one large 
potato, two small tomatoes, a little 
our seasoning, value 6 cents 
Chop these vegetables and add to 
the soup. Boil the mixture for one 
hour, thicken slightly with a little 
flour and season with salt and pepper. 

The home-made soup made accord- 
"ng to the above recipe contains in 
ddition |to meat extractives, gelatin 
rom the bone, some of the food ele- 
nents in the vegetables, and a large 
proportion of the fat and meat of the 
bone. 

While the purchaser of semi-solid 
eat extracts obtains two to three 
mes the amount of meat extract 
at he does by spending the same 
oney for bouillon cubes, these ex- 
racts also are not concentrated beef 
ccording to the analyses made by 
he Department's chemist. They con- 
in from 45 to 65 per cent, meat 
tract, 15 to 25 per cent, water, 5 
20 per cent, salt, and 10 to 20 per 
ent. of ash other than salt. The cost 
f meat extracts at retail is 45 cents 
or two ounces or more. 
Fluid extracts of meat are even 
ore expensive than the semisolid 
eat extracts, consisting of at least 
ne-half water but selling at about 
L e same price, volume for volume, 
s the semi-solid extract which con- 
ins more than 25 per cent, of water. 
Commercial meat juice preparations 
ost from 50 to 75 cents for 2 ounces 
f liquid and are frequently merely 
ilute solutions of the semi-solid meat 
xtracts. When the amount of food 
ctually present in them is consider- 
d they are expensive articles of 
et. In making them the protein 
muscle-building material) which is 
ressed out of meat and is present 
in freshly made meat juice is en- 
tirely removed by the manufacturer 
in order to make a product which 
may be kept a long time without 
spoiling. Therefore, the most valu- 
able food elements of the meat juice 
usually do not reach the sonsumer 
in these commercial products. 

The bulletin contains cuts and 
tables illustrating the relative con- 
tents and food values of bouillon 
cubes, meat extracts, anl home-made 
preparations, and may be had on ap- 



THE NORTHWEST 

plication to the Division of Publica- 
tions, U. S. Deptpartment of Agricul- 
ture, Washington D. C. 



To Save Sugar. — Plums, cranber- 
ries, gooseberries, or grapes will not 
take so much sugar if a little cooking 
soda is added before putting in the 
sugar. 



Chow Chow 

Take three quarts of small green 
tomatoes chopped fine, twenty-four 
small cucumbers, four red peppers, 
two large heads of cauliflower, three 
bunches of celery, one and one-half 
pints of small onions. Put in layers 
in a crock, with salt sprinkled be- 
tween the layers and on top. Let 
stand for twelve hours, then drain off 
the brine. Cover with vinegar and 
water in equal parts, and let stand 
another 12 hours. Drain again and 
pour over one-half gallon of vinegar 
that has been boiled ten minutes, 
with four pounds of sugar, one pint 
of grated horseradish, one ounce of 
celery seed, one-half pound of mus- 
tard seed, one-fourth cup of whole 
peppers, one-half cup of turmeric, 
one-half cup of cinnamon. Let stand 
until cold and then add one cup of 
olive oil mixed with one-fourth cup 
of ground mustard. 



White Pickle. Chop 12 large ripe 
tomatoes. Put 12 large cucumbers 
and 12 large onions through the meat 
grinder. Salt the cucumbers and 
onions and let them stand' one hour. 
Strain off the juice, add the meaty 
part of the tomatoes . and cover with 
vinegar. Season with two table- 
spoonfuls of sugar, two teaspoonfuls 
of celery seed, one teaspoonful of red 
pepper. Mix all the ingredients in 
the preserving kettle, bring to a boil 
and can and seal while hot — House- 
hold department, in Woman's World 
for September. 

Spider Corn Bread — iy 2 cups corn 
meal; 1 teaspoon salt; 2 cups sour 
milk; 2 eggs; 1 teaspoon soda; 2 
tablespoons butter. 

Mix the dry ingredients. Add the 
eggs well beaten and the milk. Place 
the butter in a frying pan, melt it, 
and grease the pan well, Heat the 
pan and turn in the mixture. Place 
in a hot over and cook for 20 minutes. 

Corn Meal Muffins — One-half cup 
corn meal; 1 cup flour; 3 teaspoons 
baking powder; 2 tablespoons sugar; 
1 tablespoon melted butter; ltea* 
spoon salt; Three-fourths cup milk, 
and 1 egg. 

Mix and sift the dry ingredients; 
add the milk gradually, the egg well 
beaten and the melted butter; bake 
in a hot oven in buttered gem pans 
25 minutes. 



CANNING CORN ON AND OFF 
THE COB. 

The following recipes for canning 
corn have proven both practical and 
economical for the housewife. The 
recipes have been worked out in the 
Department's canning kitchen and the 
products tested for nearly two years. 

Corn has been put up in all types 
of containers, such as glass top, 
screw top, suction top, and tin cans. 
The method employed is the cold- 
pack method, the same as is now be- 
ing used in the best commercial fac- 
tories of the world, instead of requir- 
ing the laborious and tedious method 
of fractional sterilization of an hour 
each day for three consecutive days 
and lifting of the products in and out 
of the canning devices three times. 



The method now employed contem- 
plates but one sterilization and turns 
out the product in better shape, with 
better color, texture, and flavor than 
the fractional sterilization method. By 
following these recipes and method 



the family can have corn, either on 
or off the cob, throughout the year 
at a very reasonable expense of time, 
energy and money. 

Corn Off the Cob — Select sweet 
corn ears of uniform size and proper 



200 

ripeness. If too ripe the corn will 
color while processing. (Processing 
is the canning term for sterilization 
or cooking). If not ripe enough 
much of the food value is lost in 
cutting the corn from the cob. Use 
either glass jars or tin cans. For 
market purposes and greater safety 
in transportation, use tin cans. 

Remove husk, silk, shank, tips, and 
and injured or defective places. 
Blanch corn in boiling water or 
steam chest for from five to ten min- 
utes. The time depends upon the 
stage of ripeness, size of ears, and 
degree of freshness. Remove the 
ears and plunge quickly in cold water. 

Cut the corn corn from the cob 
with a sharp, thin-bladed knife. Pack 
well in glass jar or tin can; add hot 
water and a level teaspoon of salt 
tothe quart or No. 3 can. Place rub- 
ber and glass jar top in place, not 
tight. If using tin, solder cap in 
place and fill vent hole, or seal com- 
pletely. Process the corn from 180 
to 240 minutes in the home-made or 
hot-water commercial bath outfits; 
for iy 2 hours in the water-seal out- 
fits; for 60 minutes when using from 
5 to 10 pounds of steam pressure, 
with the steam-presure canning de- 
vices, and 40 minutes when using 
the aluminum steam pressure-cooker 
outfit. After processing remove the 
jars, tighten covers, invert to test 
the joints and cool. 

If using tin, inspect the soldered 
end caps for pin-hole leaks. Repair 
all leaks, allow to stand for 24 hours. 
If cans are still bulging at ends at the 
end of this time, one of two things is 
true — the pack is too full, or some 
live spores are still left in the can. 
If the latter, replace in sterilizer and 
process the second time from 30 
minutes to one hour. 

Canning Sweet Corn On the Cob — 
Blanch in boiling water 5 to 10 
minutes, according to ripeness, size, 
and freshness; plunge quickly in cold 
water. Pack, alternating butts and 
tips; add just a little boiling water 
and one level teaspoonful of salt to 
each quart. Place rubber and top 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



and partially tighten. (Cap and tip 
tin.) Process 180 to 240 minutes in 
hot-water bath; iy 2 hours water-seal 
outfit; 60 minutes under 5 or more 
pounds of steam; 40 minutes in alum- 
inum pressure cooker. Remove jars, 
tighten covers, invert, and cool. (Heat 
up for table use in steamer, not in 
water. If corn seems flat or water- 
logged, it has been over-cooked or 
allowed to stand in too much water.) 

Use one or two-quart glass jars if 
not needed for other products. Quart 
jars will hold two ears, 2-quart jars 
will hold from 3 two 5 ears, according 
to size of ear. Do not can large 
ears. Half-gallon or gallon tin cans 
with large openings should be used 
in the canning of ear corn when 
idle glass jars are not available. Gal- 
lon tin cans will hold from 6 to 12 
ears. They should be graded to uni- 
form size. 

In high altitudes, 4000 feet and 
over, it will be necessary to increase 
the time requirments in the can- 
ning of sweet corn about 25 per 
cent, if water boils at about 202° 
Fahrenheit and even less. 

In the average home a large num- 
ber of glass jars are idle every year. 
The use of these idle jars is recom- 
mended, but if none are available, the 
most economical and practical con- 
tainers are the half-gallon and the 
gallon tin can. 

The gallon tin cans, including sold- 
ered-hemmed caps, will cost about 
six cents apiece, but they will hold 
six to twelve ears of corn, which is 
enough for a good-sized famiily. If 
the corn is removed from can and 
steamed for a few minutes, it cannot 
be distinguished from the sweet corn 
removed from the husk in midsum- 
mer. The corn can be heated in the 
container before opening to serve. 

An ear of sweet corn on the aver- 
age dining car and hotel a la carte 
service costs 25 cents. Considering 
this, canning corn on the cob for 
the market might prove a very pro- 
fitable investment for a thrifty house- 
keeper and bring to her considerable 
pin-money. 



DAIRY DEPARTMENT 



Testing Dairy Cows for butter fat records of highest importance. 
Conserve Dairy Energy and figure on the Individual Cow. 



(Address any Inquiries about dairying to H. L. Blanchard, AiiL Supt. Exp. 
Station, Puyallup, Wash.) 



REFRIGERATION IN THE 

HANDLING OF MILK. 

The U. S. Department of Agricul- 
ture has just issued an 89-page pro- 
fessial bulletin dealing with the ap- 
plication of refrigeration to the hand- 
ling of milk. The bulletin, which 
deals in a technical and semi tech- 
nical way with the many types of 
refrigerating apparatus, is intended 
to give information to owners and 
operators of small refrigerating 
plants, and especially those used in 
the various branches of the dairy- 
ing industry. The buletin also should 
be of interest to manufacturers of 
refrigerating machinery, in that it 
discusses fully modern methods used 
in the handling of milk and cream on 
a commercial scale. 

Considerable space is devoted to 
the problem of cooling milk on the 
farm, and to the advantages of 
jacketing cans of milk while in tran- 
sit. In this connection it is pointed 
out that the temperature of an un- 



jacketed can rose 28%° in three 
hours, while one that was hair-quilt 
jacketed rose but 5%°, and one wrap- 
ped in wet burlap, 8%° in the same 
time. 

This buletin will be supplied free 
to those interested in refrigeration 
of milk so long as the Department's 
supply lasts. Thereafter it can be 
obtained from the Superintendent of 
Documents Government Printing Of- 
fice, Washingtin, D. C, at a price of 
10 cents. 



BACTERIA MULTIPLY RAPID- 
LY IN WARM MILK. 

Twenty degrees of temperature 
make a great deal of difference in 
the rapidity with which bacteria mul- 
tiply in milk, according to the dairy 
division of the department. There 
is a certain temperature which is 
most favorable for the growth of 
these tiny organisms. Below this 
temperature the growth is retarded; 
the lower the temperature the slower 



EXHIBIT 

YOUR LIVE STOCK AT THE 

Western Washington Fair 

PUYALLUP 
Sept. 29-30 and Oct. 1-2-3-4, 1914 

Again Using the Old Slogans: 

" Bigger and Better and the Fair That Makes Good" 



The Live Stock, Horticultural, Machinery and Educational 
Exhibits will be Grand. 750,000 People Within a Radius 
of 50 Miles. Attendance 1913, 60,000. Send for Premium 
List. 



W. H. PAULHAMUS 
President 

PUYALLUP, WASH. 



J. P. NEVINS 

Secretary 



Fresh High Grade Cows 

We are offering for sale High Grade Cows which are very 
satisfactory producers at reasonable prices. Some of them 
are nearly pure of the best in Holstein breeding, some are 
high grades of other dairy breeds but all of excellent dairy 
type. We also have a fine bunch of youngsters from 
which to make selections. For many years we have been 
supplying dairy cows to condensor patrons. 

Write for prices and particulars and submit wants. 

J. D. ROSS & SON Kent, Wash. 



HOLSTEIN HEIFERS- -Choice High Grade Stock 

We are offering to sell 30 young- Holstein cows, fall freshening; also 
a choice bunch of Holstein heifers out of registered bulls with dams on both 
sides great producers, bred to registered sires, will freshen in early spring. 
If you want something of this kind, tubercular tested, write for particulars 
at once and mention this paper. 

T. r. FOLSOM, 
204 4th Ave., Kent, "Wash. 



Holsteins For Sale -a. r. o. Breeding 

We offer 12 females of the very best and most promising heifers 
raised here, five coming fresh this late fall and winter; also a young bull 
ready for service. All out of A. R. O. dams. 

J. H. DE HOOGH & SON 
Twin Brook Stock Farm Lynden, Wash. 



Registered and High Grade Holsteins 

We are constantly preparing: to supply the needs of dairymen in the northwest with 
Registered and High Grade Holsteins, the kind which affords buyers the highest measure of 
satisfaction in production. Tuberculin tested. Specify your wants and write for particulars. 

E. H. THOMPSON, Mt. Vernon, Wash. 



HOLSTEINS WITH HIGHEST RECORDS 

Our Registered Holstein Cows are well up near the 1,000 pound per 
year butter record. One of our two-year cows gave 19,510 lbs. milk and 
826 lbs. butter in 365 days. 

In her 3rd year she starts with 2,336 lbs. milk and 108 lbs. butter in 30 
days. Our entire herd is above the 500 lb. butter record. 

Do you want some youngsters of this breeding? Then write for 
particulars and prices. 

J. H. Hollingsworth, LADNERS, B. C. 



AYRSHIRES 

Herd of 300 registered animals to select from. Has made three 
World's records for production. Write for catalog and prices. 
J. W. Clise, Owner WILLOWMOOR FARMS, 

Redmond, Washington 



is the growth. Bacteria that increase 
rapidly at 70° F. grow much more 
slowly at 50°, and at 40° grow hardly 
at all. Some kinds, however, tend to 
increase even at the freezing point. 

In one test made by taking samples 
from a certain quantity of milk the 
sample kept at 68 degrees developed 
242 bacteria at the end of 12 hours, 
and 3,574,990 at the end of 40 hours, 
while the sample kept at a tempera- 
ture of 50 degrees developed only 
15 bacteria at the end of 12 hours, 
and only 62 at the end of 40 hours. 
This illustrates the value of 50 de- 
gree temperature over the 68 mark 
keeping milk pure and sweet 

Many of the bacteria commonly 
found in milk produce no apparent 
change in the milk. Others may 
changes the flavor without changing the 
appearance, while some of the most 
common types of bacteria cause mark- 
ed changes in both appearance and 
flavor. In this class are included the 
bacteria which sour the milk by 
converting the sugar into lactic acid 
and those which form a sweet curd. 
Another type destroys the casein and 
albumin in the milk and causes 
putrefaction and bad odors. 

The number of bacteria in milk de- 
pends, first, on the number of bac- 
teria in the udder; second, on the 
amount of contamination from out- 
side sources; and, third, on the rapid- 
ity of the bacterial growth. The rate 
of growth depends on the tempera- 
ture at which the milk is held. 



BLOWING AIR THROUGH HOT 
MILK OR CREAM WILL RE- 
MOVE GARLIC FLAVER 

The disagreeable flavor and odor 
left in milk when cows eat wild onion 
or garlic within four hours before 
milking, can be removed by blowing 
filtered and washed air through the 
milk for 30 to 60 minutes, according 
to the stength of the garlic flavor. 

This conclusion, which is published 
in U. S. Department of Agriculture 
Farmers' Bulletin 608, shortly to be 
issued, is the result of a series of ex- 
periments made by the Dairy Disision 
on methods of removing the garlic 
•flavor which greatly lessens the com- 
mercial value of milk and cream. 

To remove the garlic flavor success- 
fully, however, the milk must be rais- 
ed to a temperature of 145 deg. and 
a method devised to keep the milk 
from foaming when the air is blown 
through it. 



COWS OF HIGHEST BUTTER 
RECORD 

It is only of recent years that 
scientific methods of breeding and 
feeding have shown such great and 
definite utility records. The actual 
pounds of butter fat have been pro- 
duced and there is no guess work 
about it. A study of the shape and 
breeding of the animals which have 
made these yields the kind of feed 
consumed and its cost is helpful to 
those who desire to make dairying 
practical and profitable. Following 
is a list of cows representing the 
Guernsey, Holstein, Jersey and Ayr- 
shire breeds with their official year- 



ly records of butter fat. 

Pounds 

Name and Breed butterfat. 

May Rilma, Guernsey 1,073.41 

Banostine Belle DeKol, Hol- 
stein 1,058.34 

Pontiac Clothilde DeKol 2d, 
Holstein 1,017.28 

Sophie 19th of Hood Farm, 
Jersey 999.27 



THE NORTHWEST 



High-Lawn Hartog DeKol, Hol- 
stein 998.34 

Colantha 4th's Johanna, Hol- 
stein 998.26 

Spermfield Owl's Eva, Jersey. 993.25 

Eminent's Bess, Jersey 962.82 

Spotswood Daisy Pearl, Guern- 
sey , 957.38 

Jacoba Irene, Jersey 952.96 

Olympia's Fern, Jersey 937.83 

Miranda of Mapleton, Guern- 
sey 927.16 

Creamelle Vale, Holstein 924.68 

Auchenbrain Brown Kate 4th 

Ayrshire 917.60 

Aralia DeKol, Holstein 913.86 

Lily of Willowmoor, Ayrshire. 888.70 



One of the Jerseys, Sophie 19th, 
has a second record of 931.97 pounds 
butterfat produced in one year. Al- 
though far down the list in butterfat, 
the Holstein, Creamelle Vale, holds 
the world's record for milk, nearly 
11% tons produced in 365 days. Lily 
of Willowmoor produced 22,106 lbs. 
milk in 365 days. 



PUGET SOUND HERD HOL- 
STEIN SALES. 

During the months of July and 
August, 5 males and 11 females were 
sold from this herd as follows: 

Otto Hansen of Eveline, Wash, the 
fine young yearling bull "Sir Fayne 
Maud," his dam Wooderest Maud has 
a record of 25.93 lbs. buter in 7 days 
and at 2 years of age she held the 
world's milk record in class for 30 
days. This bull's 3 nearest dams aver- 
age 26.36 lbs. butter in 7 days. 

James Doran, of Mt. Vernon, Wash., 
purchased two fine yearling heifers 
out of good producing cows, sired by 
Violet Blossom Sir Fayne, whose 15 
nearest dams average over 25 lbs. but- 
ter in 7 days. 

Judd Brothers, of Beverley, Wash., 
bought a Duroc Jersey boar, pig and a 
fine young bull "Sir Fayne Antje." 
This young bull's dam in a 15 lb. 
heifer, and his sire is Violet Blossom 
Sir Fayne. 

G. W. Sanderson, of Lorane, Oregon, 
puchased for foundation herd 3 four- 
year old cows, one exceptionally well 
bred heifer and a bull calf five months 
old. He ,is sired by one of the best 
sons of De Kol 2nd Butter Boy 3rd, 
out of a 31.65 lbs. 4- year-old, a 
daughter of the great cow Johanna De 
Kol 2nd, granddam of Johanna De Kol 
Van Beers who holds the world's re- 
cord for 120 days butter and was sold 
for $7,000 last April at public auction. 
The dam of this bull calf bought in 
New York last winter, calved on the 
train enroute here looks a very promis- 
ing candidate for a 30 lb. cow. Her 
grandsire is a full brother to the sire 
of Chimacum Wayne Boon. 

The three young cows are all fine in- 
dividuals, in the A. R. O. class, the 
heifer is sired by Quirinus Cornucopia, 
whose 2nd daughter to be tested has 
just completed a record of 22,48 lb. but- 
ter in 7 days, is still in test and will 
make over 35 lbs. in 30 days. She gave 
78.8 lbs. milk in one day. 

Mr. Geo. E. Hamilton, of Oregon 
City, Oregon, bought one A. R. O. 
cow and one heifer, a daughter of 
Quirinus Cornucopia. Her dam is a 
four year old daughter with a 19.6 lb. 
record of De Kol Plum. She is dam of 
De Kol Plum Copia 33.7 lb. butter in 
7 days and sold at auction for $1900. 
This young heifer is safe in calf to Sir 
Chimacum Wayne, the great young 
bull whose records of his dam and 
sires dam average: Butter 7 days 
33.24, Milk 815.2 lbs. 

C. L. Dudley, of Castle Rock, Wash., 



HORTICULTURIST 201 



Cream Separator 
Manufacturers Say 

that two-thirds of all complaints 
about cream separators are due to faulty 
lubrication. That is because the close- 
fitting, fast-running mechanism of the 
separator demands a special oil — and 
most people use "just any old oil." 

Standard Hand 
Separator Oil 

is made especially for cream separators 
and we know that it is "right" because 
our lubrication experts have made a 
study of separator construction and ex- 
actly adapted the oil to the requirements. 
It is just the right body. It doesn't 
"gum." Dealers everywhere. 

Standard Oil Company 

(California) 



A. J. C. C. JERSEYS 

Big Producer! 

A very fine heifer calf for sale that is a beauty. Sired by 
my great bull "Mermaid's Sultana's Lad 114734." Dam Oza 
of Sunnybank, dam of first prize three-year-old cow at "Wash- 
ington State Fair. Young bulls for sale of the highest breeding. 

Member American Jersey Cattle Club. 

J. B. EARLY 
Grandview, Wash. (Yakima County) 



CASH FOR. EGGS 

Highest market price. Guaranteed satisfaction. Prompt cash pay- 
ment for each shipment. We are also in the market for cream. 

MILLER BROS. CO. 

1532 Commerce St., Tacoma, Wash. 



Pure Bred Holstein Records 

Our herd bull is Johanna Colantha Champion, grandson of Colantha 
Johanna, also grandson of Sir Fayne Concorda, full brother to Grace 
Fayne 2nd Homestead. His dam is Johanna Colantha, 26% lbs. butter in 
7 days. Her daughter J. Colantha 2nd made 32.85 lbs. butter in 7 days. 
Two of our 5-year-old cows each made over 27% lbs. butter in 7 days. 
8-year-olds 20 to 23 lbs., and a 2-year-old 17 lbs. 

A few bull calves 5 months old and younger, out of these heavy 
producers for sale. Write at once for prices. 

WILLIAM TODD & SONS 

NORTH YAKIMA, WASH. 



Meadow Brook Farm 

We have for sale some very choice pure bred bulls, 
ranging: in age from three months to three years old, 
from the choicest strain of Ayrshire Cattle. We hav« 
the only herd In the State of Washington that Is tested 
under supervision of the U. S. Government. With ev- 
ery animal we furnish a certificate from the govern- 
ment that he is free from tuberculosis or any other In- 
fectious disease. Address all correspodence to 

A. P. Stockwell, Aberdeen, Wash. 



Breeders of 

Pure Bred 
Ayrshire 
Cattle 



202 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



bought the young bull Quirinus Pasma, ing, she produced 585.5 pounds of 

sired by Quirinus Cornucopia and his milk and 29.3 pounds of butter, the 

dam is Lakeside Pasma with a record highest record made in the Yakima 

of over 20 lbs. butter in 7 days and Valley up to that time and it has 

97 lbs. milk in 1 day. only Deen beaten once since. Thirty- 

W. W. Gallanger, of Port Stanley, five pounds is fully expected at her 

Wash., got three heifer calves for the next freshening. Two others have 

foundation herd of Holsteins. They been given A. R. O. records. This 

are all well bred and will make a good spring ten more good cows were 

start for Mr. Gallanger. bought from Minnesota. They stood 

The Pine Creek Dairy Co., of Cheney, the trip fairly well and all promise 

Wash., got the bull calf "Pine Creek big production. 

Cornucopia." His dam is the well bred Two years ago at the State Fair 
young cow which just completed a re- Mr. Tyson purchased from Wm. Todd 
cord at 4 years of age of 21.7 lbs. but- the bull calf, Moxie Sir Johanna 
ter in 7 days and 86.8 lbs. in 30days, Fayne, and last year had the satis- 
and 9 gallons of milk in one day. His faction of winning first in class and 
sire is Violet Bloosom Sir Fayne. junior championship with him as if 
Wm. BISHOP, Chimacum, Wash. he might be a strong contender for 
championship honors. Fairview 

OREGON REGISTER OF MERIT Homestead Burke has a bull calf that 

JERSEYS will show very strong. 

According to D. Brooks Hogan, Ore- Mr. McKelheer, a dairy breeder of 

gon breeders who will have placed wide experience and good judgment, 

in the Register of Merit by October is interested in and superintendent of 

first are: the herd and farm. The cattle are 

J. P. Stump 9 looking well and will be shown at the 

Frank Laughary 12 State Fair. 

G. G. Hewitt • 12 ; 

W. O. Morrow 4 EARLY'S JERSEY HERD 

Ed. Cary 15 Mr. J. B. Early, of Grandview, 

W. S. Ladd Estate 5 Wash., enlarged has Jersey herd 

M. Dickson and Son 3 some time ago with a car load from 

Chas. Miller Estate 6 northern Illinios. While keeping well 

— up in the quality line of pure breeds 

Total 66 and show stock Mr. Early insists on 

This gives Oregon fifth place in production at the pail and he is 

number of Jerseys on test. Twenty raising some good milk and butter 

head more would place her second, producers. 

More than this number are said to be Among his purchases in Illinios, ac- 
in sight for the Register of Merit cording to the Rural Spirit, is the 
befor the end of the year. Imported cow, Hermit's Graceful Lady 
and Emanent Lad's Grace Cloud, both 

THE TYSON HOLSTEIN HERD of noted breeding. 

Mr. Joseph Tyson, who came to Oxford Lad's Flower, another of 
the Yakima Valley some years ago the importation, has produced two 
from Iowa, is joining other Holstein pounds of butter a day as a three- 
breeders in making that part of year-old. Her calf is of very fine 
Washington famous for quality of dairy type and gives promise of mak- 
the breed. ing a great bull. 

In his herd is Tritoma Mutual Glen Eminent's Lassie, of his herd has 
De Kol, a very showy and extreme- grown into a very fine matron. She 
ly well bred animal, sired by Mooie produced three pounds, one ounce of 
Mutual De Kol, sire of thirty-two A. butter in twenty-ftur hours as a 
R. O. daughters. One of the cows, three-year-old. The herd will soon 
Fairview Homestead Burke, accord- all be put on yearly official test and 
ing to the Rural Spirit, was put on a some big records are expected, 
week's official test, but not until she Mr. Early will show at the State 
had been driven overland to and Fair at North Yakima again this fall, 
from the State Fair, ten miles away. He has recently been elected a mem- 
Even then, thirty days after freshen- ber of the American Jersey Cattle 



Registered 

High Grade 



HOLSTEIN 
CATTLE 



While actual buying was a little quiet last month on account of the 
dry weather, the numerous inquiries coming show that dairymen will 
increase their herds owing to cheaper feed and higher butter fat. We 
are offering fresh and coming fresh cows that cannot fail to please 
buyers. Our young stock heifers and pure-bred bulls are developing in 
fine shape ready for the increased demand sure to prevail in the near 
future. 



H. S. ROYCE 



Savage-Scofield Bldg., A St. 

TACOMA, WASH. 



Please mention this paper 



Brady 

Farm 

Guernseys 



We have for sale several fine heifer 
calves from two weeks to six months 
old. Also one bull calf from a fine 
producing cow. 

E. R. BRADY 
Satsop, Wash. 



Registered Guernseys 

For Sale 

We Offer an Excellent Young Bull from Helba's May Prince and Imp. 

Chartreuse. The dam of May Prince produced 508 lbs. fat at 3% years 
and the dam of the young bull is under A. R. test, with an average of 
41.3 lbs. milk per day for 104 days to July 1, and 4.3 per cent. fat. We 
offer male calves of like breeding which can be obtained at lower prices 
now than several months hence. 



Write for prices and further particulars. 

parties. 

Augustine & Kyer 



Terms to responsible 

115 First Street 
Seattle, Wash. 



Waikiki Farm 



IRA P. WHITNEY, Supt. 



Breeders of 

JERSEY and AYRSHIRE CATTLE 

DURQO JERSEY SWINE 
SHROPSHIRE SHEEP 

Route 7, Spokane, Wash. 



'THE HOG WITH- 
OUT A HOLLOW" 



HAMPSHIRE SWINE 

Has them all beat for rustling and making the most meat at the least 
cost. It is the bacon hog for the Coast section. Large litters. Get 
your foundation stock from 



W. P. TYLER, 



Route 1, Granger, Wash. 




WILLOWMOOR AYRSHIRES FOR 
HAWAIIANS. 

A shipment of Ayrshires from the 
Willowmoor Farms, at Redmond, 
Washington, was recently made to 



Hawaiin Islands, as appears in this il- 
lustration. 

The bull, Peter Pan 8th, is a son 
of their herd bull, Beuchan Peter Pan, 
Grand Champion of Great Britian and 



Mr. George Cooke, of Kaunakakai, the National Dairy Show. 



The white cow, Willowmoor Buntie 
B, was champion two year old at the 
Pacific International at Portland last 
year, and with her first calf, was 
milking at the rate of over ten thous- 
and pounds per annum. 



Willowmoor Nina, the dark heifer, 
is out of Drummondine, the sire of 
Lily of Willowmoor, the 1912 world's 
record Ayrshire cow, and which is 
now the long distance Ayrshire re- 
cord cow. 



Club and says his love of and inter- 
est in the Jersey increases with his 
years. He uses soiling crops and will 
fill his silo with corn. 



BUTTER HANDLING METHODS 
IN NEW ZEALAND. 

The butter produced in New Zea- 
land Is mostly from cows on grass 
pasture as there is luxuriant grass 
the year round. Inspection of but- 
ter is very thorough, according to W. 
D. Hornday, writing in Hoard's Dairy- 
man, an example for emulation for 
the butter producers of the North- 
west. 

Prior to the product leaving the 
creamery, each package must be 
marked on both ends with the churn- 
ing date and the number of the vat 
of cream from which it was made. 
Then, when it reaches the grading 
store, one box of each Fahrenheit be- 
low zero. At this temperature no no- 
ticeable deterioration takes place. 

The price of New Zealand butter is 
practically fixed in London. Even the 
domestic consumer must pay the Lon- 
don price, with three or four cents 
added thereto, although he may have 
a creamery at his very door. There 
has been a large increase in the price 
during the last few years. The con- 
sumer in New Zealand is naturally 
making complaint of the changed con- 
ditions, not only as applied to butter, 
but to meats. Formerly the best grade 
of butter could be bought in the local 
markets for 12 to 15 cents per pound, 
whereas the price is now above that 
which is paid by the export buyers. 



SECOND HOLSTEIN CONSIGN- 
MENT SALE. 



Great Corn Crops in Yakima Valley. 

N. W. Horticulturist and Dairyman: 

The Yakima Valley Breeders' sec- 
ond consignment sale of registered 
Holstein cattle will be held at North 
Yakima State Fair Grounds on No- 
vember 19th. 

At that time E. B. Marks, Wm. 
Todd and Sons will sell 90 head of as 
good a lot as to be had anywhere. 

The consignment of Todd & Sons 
will consist of some of the good ones 
out of their herd, and I wish to as- 
sure readers of the Northwest Hor- 



THE NORTHWEST 

liculturist and Dairyman that there 
are none better and few as good. 

The Marks consignment will be of 
a very high order, for Mr. Marks now 
has a large herd of choice animals. 
Then too the females of breeding age 
will be bred to the best bulls to be 
found in the Northwest. 

The consignment from my own herd 
will consist of yearling and two-year- 
old heifers that are as good as 
money and judgment could get to- 
gether. They will be bred mostly to 
Annie DeKol Lakeside Model, whose 
dam at two years made over 31% 
pounds butter in seven days, and near 
130 pounds for 30 days. His full sis- 
ter has for the second time made 
nearly 31 pounds. His own daughters, 
the poorest of which made at 3 years 
and 1 month of age 17y 2 pounds. 
Others at same age made from 21 to 
25 pounds, with yearlings making 
from Wy 2 to 16 pounds. 

He is a show bull and a producer 
of show animals which has been 
proven on more than one occasion. 
Eleven of his daughters in the last 
November sale averaged $672 each, 
and none can be bought for that to- 
day. 

He is now 5 years old, and while 
used only in a small herd, he has 
sired 75 per cent, or more of heifer 
calves. 

I have only tested one of his daugh- 
ters this year, and that was a two- 
year-old during the second week of 
July, with the thermometer around 
100, and she made nearly 17 pounds. 
There will be some more to test as 
well as a few of his granddaughters 
this fall, the results of which I will be 
glad to report. 

We have in this valley the best 
crops of all kinds I have seen in thir- 
teen seasons. Hay is very heavy and 
of the best quality I ever saw; corn 
is as good as anywhere in the United 
States and I think better, but some 
one would say there is some more of 
those Yakima fellows bragging. 

A man from near Tacoma, and he 
was raised in the corn belt of the Mid- 
dle West, told me he saw the best 
corn here he had ever seen any- 
where, and not only one field of it, 
but many all alike. 

H. C. DAVIS. 

Granger, Wash. 



HORTICULTURIST 
DAIRY CATTLE AWARDS. 



At Southwest Washington Fair. 
Cattle. 

Class I. — Holsteins — Bull 3 years old 
and over, Phillips & Mrachek, Che- 
halis, 1st; W. A. Hamilton & Son, 
R. F. D. 3, Chehalis, 2nd. 

Bull 2 years old and under 3 — W. 
A. Hamilton, 1st; A. Hylak, Forest, 
2nd. 

Bull 1 year and under 2 — H. W. A. 
Tramm, Adna, 1st; W. A. Hamilton, 
2nd. 

Bull under 1 year — W. A. Hamilton, 
1st and 2nd. 

Cow 3 years and over — W. A. Ham- 
ilton, 1st and 2nd. 

Cow or heifer 2 years and under 3 
—J. C. Bush, Chehalis, 1st; F. M. 
Svinth, Chehalis, 2nd. 

Cow or heifer 1 year and under 2 



203 

—J. C. Bush, 1st; W. A. Hamilton, 
2nd. 

Heifer under 1 year — H. W. A. 
Tramm, 1st; J. C. Bush, 2nd. 

Breeder's young herd, to consist of 

1 bull under 2 years, 2 heifers 1 year 
and under 2, 2 heifer calves under 1 
year — W. A. Hamilton. 

Calf herd to consist of 1 bull and 

2 heifers under 1 year — W. A. Ham- 
ilton. 

Pacific Coast Condensed Milk Com- 
pany's special — E. L. Brewer, Satsop, 
2nd. 

Class II. — Jerseys — Bull 3 years and 
over — E. L. Brewer, Satsop, 1st; Coff- 
man & Scherer, Chehalis, 2nd. 

Bull 2 years and under 3 — W. H. 
Cleveland, Ore., 1st; J. H. Taylor, 
Montesano, 2nd. 

Bull 1 year and under 2 — E. L. 
Brewer, 1st. 



Public Sale of 

Registered Holsteins 

by the 

Holstein Friesian Association 
of Canada 

at Steveston, B. C. 
October 29 B T™ S 



A total of 56 head will be sold, of which 40 are consigned 
by leading breeders of Ontario and 16 head are from the cele- 
brated herd of J. M. Steves. The cows are all officially tested 
as to production, and the heifers and other youngsters are from 
officially tested dams. Good condition and health guaranteed. 
The catalog is now in press and all who are interested will please 
send their name and address for a copy. Further particulars 
cheerfully given on application. 

WM. ATKINSON, Auctioneer THOMAS LAING, Secretary 

Vancouver, B. C. Eburne, B. C. 



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Siiady 
BrooK 




You Will Fincl\burAnswcrlnTheMUk 

Leading dairymen all over the Northwest are using large quantities of it. They begin with about one quart of Shady Brook Dairy 
Feed per head twice daily — mixing with bran, shorts or other ground feed, for three or four days; then gradually increase the Shady 
Brook and decrease other feed until from four to seven quarts are used at each feeding. 

If your dealer does not handle it, write us. 

GARDEN CITY MILLING CO., Seattle, Wash. 



WALTER SCOTT, MGR. 
317 Board of Trade Bldg., Portland, Ore. 

Seattle Dealers include — Chas. H. Lilly, J. l. Court, Galbraith, Bacon 
Co., Lehman Bros. 



H. P. PRESTON, MGR. 
Seattle, Wash. 

Tacoma Dealers include — Kenworthy & Son, South Tacoma; 
Stevens. Coast Trading Co.. Hill Cereal Co. 



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J. B. 



204 

Bull under 1 year — Coffman & 
Scherer, 1st; J. H. Taylor, 2nd. 

Cow 3 years and over — E. L. Brew- 
er, 1st and 2nd. 

Cow or heifer 2 years and under 3 
—J. H. Taylor, 1st; E. L. Brewer, 
2nd. 

Cow or heifer 1 year and under 2 — 
E. L. Brewer, 1st; J. H. Taylor, 2nd. 

Heifer under 1 year — W. H. Cleve- 
land, 1st; E. L. Brewer, 2nd. 

Exhibitor's Herd, to consist of 1 
bull 3 years and over, 1 cow 3 years 
and over, 1 cow 2 years and under 3, 
1 heifer 1 year and under 2, and 1 
either sex under 1 year — E. L. 
Brewer. 

Breeder's Young Herd, to consist of 

1 bull under 2 years, 2 heifers 1 
year and under 2, and 2 heifer calves 
under 1 year — E. L. Brewer, 1st; W. 
H. Cleveland, 2nd. 

Calf Herd, to consist of 1 bull and 

2 heifers under 1 year — E. L. Brewer, 
1st; W. H. Cleveland, 2nd.. 

Calf Herd, to consist of 1 bull and 
2 heifers under 1 year — E. L. Brewer, 
1st; W. H. Cleveland, 2nd. 

Class III. — Guernseys — Bull 3 years 
and over— E. R. Brady, Satsop, 1st. 

Bull 2 years and under 3 — E. R. 
Brady, 1st. 

Bull under 1 year — E. R. Brady, 1st. 

Cow 3 years and over — E. R. Brady, 
1st and 2nd. 

Cow or heifer 2 years and under 3 
— E. R. Brady, 1st and 2nd. 

Cow or heifer, 1 year and under 2 
— E. R. Brady, 1st and 2nd. 

Heifer under 1 year — E. R. Brady, 
1st and 2nd. 

Exhibitor's Herd— E. R. Brady. 

Breeder's Young Herd — E. R. Brady. 

Calf Herd— E. R. Brady. 

Class IV. — Ayrshires — Bull 3 years 
and over — John O'Connor, Centralia, 
1st and 2nd. 

Cow 3 years and over — John O'Con- 
nor, 1st and 2nd. 

Cow or heifer 1 year and under 2 
— John O'Connor, 1st and 2nd. 

Heifer under 1 year — John O'Con- 
nor, 1st and 2nd. 



THE NORTHWEST 

States where practically all the milk 
is separated by band separators. 

This creamery is located in one of 
the buildings of the big Poughkeep- 
sie, N. Y. Works of the De Lavel 
Separator Co., which has for years 
maintained a most complete and thor- 
oughly equipped Experimental De- 
partment, of which this creamery 
forms a part. 

In the effort of the De Laval Com- 
pany to maintain the standard of 
its machines, nothing is taken for 
granted and all improvements or 
changes in any of the De Laval ma- 
chines are tested under actual use 
conditions in the De Laval creamery. 
There are also a number of machines 
taken out of the finished stock of 
each day's production and tested in 
this creamery, thus serving as an 
additional check on the already very 
severe mechanical inspection which 
every machine undergoes before it is 
shipped from the factory. 

Most of the product of this unique 
creamery is disposed of in the form 
of cream to various New York hotels, 
and the skim-mik is utilized in the 
manufacture of cottage cheese, for 
which a ready market is found. 



HORTICULTURIST 



A UNIQUE CREAMERY 

In Poughkeepsie, New York, over- 
looking the historic Hudson River, 
there is located a unique creamery. 

Its walls are of concrete and its in- 
terior is clean, bright and cheerful, 
and flooded with sunshine. It is 
equiped with the most modern ma- 
chinery, and in addition to cooling 



IMPROVING AVERAGE DAIRY 
HERDS 

Besides good common sense, care 
in sheltering and feeding, all leading 
dairymen know the value and the 
necessity of the purebred sire backed 
with satisfactory records, to improve 
their herds. 

It is the average owner of dairy 
cows who too often stands in his 
own light which prevents him from 
seeing possible profits within his 
power to grasp. 

It is the indifference to the import- 
ance of selecting good sires from 
which the average dairyman need 
to be aroused. D. Brooks Hogan 
shows the need of good sires in a re- 
cent issue of the Pacific Homestead 
using figures for comparison. If a 





vats, pasteurizers, Babcock Testers, 
etc., it also includes the necessary 
apparatus for making chemical an* 
alysis, acid determination, bacterio- 
logical investigation, and is equipped 
with special apparatus designed par- 
ticularly for making delicate tests. 

Although the amount of milk re- 
ceived each day is greater than that 
taken in by many creameries through- 
out the country, it is unique by rea- 
son of the fact that it is probably 
the only creamery in the United 



good purebred sire from a dam 
possessing an official year-production 
record increases the milk flow for 
his daughters over their dams two 
pounds to the milking, this would 
mean during the average lactation 
period of 320 days, 1280 pounds of 
milk which when sold at retail milk 
prices of 8 cents per quart, would be 
$51.20 more return per cow — or of 
the milk tested 5 per cent, it would 
mean an increase of 64 pounds of 
butter fat in a year at 27 cents per 




IDEAL GREEN 
FEED SILOS 

If you want to know why our silo is the best 
on the market and why it is worth more money 
kindly write to any one of the following list: 
U: S. Dept: of Agr., Glenwood, 
Hawaii. 

University of California, Davis, 
Cal. 

J. A. Faulk, Harrisburg, Ore. 
A. S. Wooley, Harrisburg, Ore. 
Oliver Morrison, Harrisburg, Ore. 
Fred A. Grow, Winslow, Wash. 



J. Schuler, Puyallup, Wash. 
J. T. Ray, Auburn, Wash. 
Emma W. Trullinger, Eagle Creek, 
Ore. 

J. F. Isom, Halsey, Ore. 
I. A. Falks, Junction City, Ore. 
C. R. Evans, Halsey, Ore. 
Columbia Sinclair, Silverdale, 
Wash. 

Wm. Schold, Silverdale, Wash. 
A. J. Schold, Silverdale, Wash. 



Peter A. Lindgren, Silverdale, Wn. 
Thomas A: Hagener, Silverdale, 
Wash. 

C. E. Greaves, Silverdale, Wash. 
Edward Anderson, Silverdale, Wn. 
Christ Anderson, Silverdale, Wn. 

D. J. Davis, Port Orchard, Wash. 
S. B. Hill, Salem, Ore. 

L. H. Lickel, Salem, Ore. 
Mrs. S. Bahnsen, Salem, Ore. 
F. E. Langbien, Napavine, Wash. 



Have a Green Feed Silo ready to fill in October, insuring yourself 
against the high price of feed this winter. 

Write for Silo Folder C for full information. 

De Laval Dairy Supply Company 



101 DRUMM STREET 



1016 WESTERN AVENUE 



SAN FRANCISCO SEATTLE 

Ensilage Cutters and Alpha Gasoline Engines 




The illustration represents one of the high grade Holstein cows 
which the owner bought from us while a calf. He has selected one of 
our pure bred sires to grade up his entire herd. This is the method 
many of our patrons have adopted and they are getting excellent 
results in milk and butter production. 

In Registered Stock 

we offer 10 pure bred cows and heifers of Hangerveld 
De Kol breeding, with excellent records back on both sides. Also 5 pure 
bred bulls; among them Maple Lodge, 2 years old; Sir Hartog Korndyke 
and Sir Rag Apple Soldine; sires and dams on both sides all A. R. O., 
with records above 600 lbs. butter. We also offer a fine bunch of high 
grade young cows. 

FRYAR & COMPANY 

Please Mention 

This Paper. 



SUMNER, WASH. 



HOLSTEIN BULL FOR SALE 

Chimacum Aaggie Cornucopia No. 
64100, H. F. H. B., bred by M. S. 
Nye, Preble, New York. Calved 
August 15th, 1909. His grandam 
Aaggie Cornucopia Pauline is a 34- 
lb. cow. Sired by Aaggie Cornu- 
copia Johanna Lad Junior No. 36,- 
974 H. F. H. B. Dam Onda Doro- 
thy Concordia Paul No. 67853 H. F. 
H. B. A splendid animal, his 
youngsters are making excellent 
records. 

A few choice cows for sale. Write 
for prices or call. 

F. I. MEAD 
524 California Bldg. Tacoma 



PUGET SOUND HERD 

Holstein-Friesian Cattle 
Duroc Jersey Swine 

Home of Sir Chimacum Wayne, the 
world's greatest milk and butter bull; 
"Chimacum Wayne Boon" (dam of the 
above) A. R. O. record at 4 years 33.69 
lbs. butter in 7 days, 137.26 lbs. in 30 
days, and full sister "Alice Veeman 
Hengervelt," butter at 4 years 28.04 
lbs. "Doris King of the Pontiacs," the 
best bred daughter of "King of the 
Pontiacs" in the West; she is sister 
to the 44-lb. cow. 

75 A. R. O. cows in herd. All bulls 
for sale are from official tested dams. 

Wm. Bishop, Chimacum, Wash, 



Please mention this paper 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



205 



pound, or $18.28 and enough extra 
skim milk for your boy to raise that 
runt pig on that you allowed him 
out of the generousness of your 
heart to claim until time to make 
pork of it for family use. Suppose 
the sire increases the test 5 per cent. 
With a cow giving 7500 pounds of 
milk in a year, that would mean 37.5 
pounds more of fat. But ignoring 
this latter figure, take the average 
producing years of a cow as 8 years; 
eight times $51.20 and $18.28 would 
give an increased return from the 
daughters of the dams during their 
life periods of $409.60 in the first 
case and $146. 24 in the latter. 

Take an average herd of 20 cows 
in milk. Suppose we get an average 
of 10 heifers each year. The bull is 
kept in service three years. That 
would mean 30 heifers. Ten times 
our above figures for a year would 
be $51^ in the case of sale of whole 
milk and $182.80 in the case of sell- 
ing sour cream as value of the sire's 
improvement on the herd first year 
after his first daughters have de- 
veloped to milking age; $1024 and 
$365.60 respectively the second year; 
$1536 and $548.40 the third year. 
Or, giving the 30 daughters their 
eight years production each, the 
value of the sire on the first genera- 
tion without making any calculation 
of the value of his blood in second 
and later generations, would attain 
the astonishing figure of $12,288 in 
the whole milk proposition and $4,- 
587.20 where cream is sold. 

Do you not think paying $250 for 
a sire ironi a Register of Merit dam 
is surely a more profitable invest- 
ment than a pure-bred scrub at $50? 
It doesn't take a man with a peck 
of brains to realize some of these 
things. 

A dairyman might have a reason 
for not desiring to pay a high price 
for a good cow but who would wish 
to apply the same reasons when pur- 
chasing a bull? The sires influence 
goes so much farther and spreads so 
much faster than the cow's. 

The man who keeps the scrub 
bull has very poor business ability 
and would be a poor provider in 
any other business as well, besides 
dairying. 

A poor bull, in good sized herd 
loses the price of several good bulls 
every year. An estimate of the value 
of an entire milk herd of cows should 
serve to determine the limit which 
the owner could afford to pay, for a 
good buH, but fortunately many 
good bulls can be bought below their 
actual value. 

The man who always looks for 
something cheap usually gets it too 
often fooling himself when thinking 
he has struck a bargain. 



SUCCULENCE IN BEET PULP 

Pacific Coast dairymen are welcom- 
ing the introduction of dried beet 
pulp as a solution of the problem 
of providing an all-the-year succu- 
lent feed for their cows. 

As compared with silage it has 
been estimated bv careful tests that 
one ton of dried beet pulp contains 
as much or more nutriment than five 
tons of good corn silage, with equal 
or greater succulence. 

H. W. L. Gardiner, writing in 
■Western Empire, states that ever 
.since the best beet sugar industry 
was first established, dairymen liv- 
ing near the factories have been 
feeding wet pulp to cows with great 
profit. They realized its value as a 



milk producer and the cows them- 
selves were ravenous for it. But the 
advent of the drying process has 
produced great changes. Instead of 
having a large herd of cattle gathered 
near the factory to eat what they 
could of pulp which fermented a few 
hours after it left the factory, and 
running the rest through sewers to 
get rid of it, the sugar manufacturers 
are now furnishing the dried pulp to 
dairymen wherever they may happen 
to be located, by the ton or the car- 
load in sacks about like bran, one ton 
of the dried pulp representing twenty 
tons of the fresh pulp. As the pulp 
is sacked and ready for shipment 
within one hour from the time the 
beets come into the factory from the 
fields, there is, of course, no time for 
fermentation, and if stored in a dry 
place it will keep almost any length 
of time. 

In Germany, where beet sugar pro- 
duction has reached its highest devel- 
opment and both the government 
and the individual endeavor to dis- 
cover the most valuable use to which 
any natural product may be put, it 
was first seen that beet pulp ought to 
be dried to be of full value, and the 
government offered a large reward 
for the best method of handling it. A 
satisfactory process was Worked out, 
which has since been used in Ger- 
many. Two or three years ago it was 
adopted by several of the California 
sugar factories, and soon beet pulp 
will be fed everywhere on the coast, 
as it already is in the Eastern states, 
where an output of between ninety 
and a hundred throusand tons last 
season failed to meet the demand, 
and pulp had to be imported from 
Europe to supply the shortage. It 
will be fed wherever any concen- 
trates are fed, and it will also be 
the dairymen's principal succulent 
feed, for when the dried pulp is 
soaked for a short time it will take 
up from six to eight times its 
weight in moisture, becoming about 
like the fresh beets when sliced. 

Succulence Absolutely Necessary. 

No dairyman nowadays needs to 
be told that his cows must have suc- 
culence if they are to do their best 
in milk production. If fresh pasture 
is the ideal food for dairy cattle and 
they give more milk and better milk 
during that part of the year when 
they are getting their fill of green 
pasture, then a winter or dry-season 
feed that comes as near as possible 
to giving the same returns is cer- 
tainly necessary. 

Dried beet pulp is particularly ap- 
preciated by farmers and owners of 
small herds. It also has a special and 
unique value in sections where alfal- 
fa is plentiful and cheap, because it 
is just what is needed with alfalfa to 
make a "good ration, and it has been 
very badly needed. In proper propor- 
tions these two feeds provide all the 
nutritive elements required for a 
balanced ration, and the beet pulp 
supplies the succulence in addition. 

Dried beet pulp is pre-eminently a 
food for dairy cattle, although scarce- 
ly less useful for other farm live- 
stock. 



HOLSTEIN SALES BY 

JOHN F. JANSSEN. 

Among numerous sales by John F. 
Janssen, Seattle, during the past few 
weeks, 20 choice high grade cows were 
bought by the Lake Chelan Land Com- 
pany, Chelan, Wash. Another lot of 
20 high grade Holstein cows were 
sold to W. G. Swalwell, Falls City. 
Mrs. J. R. Rowley, Westfall, Oregon, 




Reg V. S. Pat. Off. 



— provides an all-the-year succulent feed, containing more than 
five times as much nutriment as silage, greater digestibility, and 
in addition it is clean, bulky and palatable. 

GET MORE MILK-INSTANTLY 



When you start feeding Larrowe's 
Dried Beef Pulp you don't have to 
wait a week or a month to see re- 
sults. You get an instant increase 
— from 1 to 5 lbs. more milk per 
cow a day. 

Larrowe's Dried Beet Pulp is not a 
secret formula or expensive combi- 
nation feed, but simply the pure 



shredded root of the sugar beet, 
with only the sugar and water ex- 
tracted. It swells to six times its 
original bulk when moistened. Bal- 
ances perfectly with alfalfa. Keep9 
indefinitely. 

Thousands of dairymen are "cash- 
ing in" on this wonderful feed. 
How about you? 



PROVE ITS VALUE WITH ONE SACK 



LARROWE'S 

MOLASSES- DRIED 
BEET PILP 

— is preferred by 
some feeders on ac- 
count of its sweet- 
ness. Just the plain 
Beet Pulp with beet 
molasses dried. Fine 
for fattening-, also for 
horses. Try one sack. 



Go to your feed dealer today and get one 100-lb. 
sack and test it on one cow whose milk record you 
know. Be sure you g-et "Larrowe" Dried Beet Pulp 
— the kind that is light in color, never blackened or 
burned. 

"Profitable Feeding" 
our booklet giving 1 in- 
structions and other 
information will be 
sent free on request. 
Write for it. 

THE LARROWE MILLING CO. 

Sixth Floor — Central Bldg. Los Angeles, Cal. 



The Larrowe's Molasses-Dried Beet Pulp 

and other Stock Feeds are sold by our firm. 
Write for prices on trial-lot shipments. 

THE W. W. ROBINSON COMPANY 

Hay, Grain and Feeds— Wholesale 1717 Railroad Ave. S., Seattle, Wash. 



Afters' Molasses Feed 

Is Ground Barley a good feed for milk cows? 
Is Oil Meal a good feed for milk cows? 
Is Oat Midlings a good feed for milk cows? 
Is Cane Molasses a good feed for milk cows? 
YES is the answer. 

Mix these feeds together and you have a combination that 
is hard to beat. ALBERS MOLASSES FEED is composed of 
good quality Ground Barley, Linseed Oil Meal, Oat Middlings 
and Pure Cane Molasses. The price is so low when the feeding 
value is considered, that you cannot afford to feed without it, 
and when fed in conjunction with Alfalfa Hay makes a com- 
plete ration for a milk cow. Ask your Dealers. 

Albers Bros. Milling Co. 

Largest Cereal Millers in the West 
TACOMA SEATTLE 



206 

selected two registered heifers, be- 
sides some youngsters went to other 
buyers. Mr. Janssen maintains the 
reputation of high quality for every 
animal offered and sold. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



SOME HOLSTEIN SALES 

BY MR. ROYCE. 

During the past month, Mr. E. B. 
Marks, of North Yakima, bought a 
registered heifer from H. S. Royce, 
Tacoma, which is sired by Mutual 



Piebe DeKol and in calf to a young 
bull whose dam is Queen Julie Anne 
Derkje, whose butter record is 3,000 
pounds for 3 years, the only record 
of the kind in the world. 

Calvin Philips bought 2 young cows 
from Mr. Royce — one a daughter of 
Lady Reka Mooie. ■ Dr. R. D. Wilson, 
of South Tacoma, bought several regis- 
tered cows with excellent records. Mr. 
Royce is preparing to exhibit 10 head 
of choice Holsteins at the Roy fair. 



STOCK 



RAISING AND FITTING HOGS. 

Farmers Bulletin 599 TJ. S. Dept. 
of Agriculture, by Byron Hunter, 
state leader of Farm Management, 
gives some valuable hints on raising 
and preparing hogs for the market 
profitably for the farmer. He is con- 
vinced that in many cases much labor 
can be eliminated by making prepara- 
tions to have hogs harvest a crop of 
wheat, barley, peas or corn. 
Advantages in Hogging off Crops. 
Some of the advantages in hogging 
off crops are (1) the cost of harvest- 
ing and marketing the crop is saved, 
(2) the labor of caring for hogs is 
greatly reduced, (3) the vegetable 
matter in the soil is increased, (4) 
the droppings of the animals are dis- 
tributed quite evenly, and (5) the 
hogs are given exercise. It costs 
from 15 to 25 cents per bushel to 
harvest and market wheat in the 
greater part of the wheat belt of the 
Pacific Northwest, the cost varying 
with the yield, the method of har- 
evsting' and thrashing, and the dis- 
tance the wheat is hauled to market. 
In some of the more arid wheat-grow- 
ing districts of both Oregon and 
Washington the yield of wheat is fre- 
quently as low as 6 to 8 bushels per 
acre. The cost of harvesting and 
marketing such crops runs from , 35 
to 40 cents per bushel. The cost of 
harvesting and marketing barley is 
approximately the same as that of 
wheat. When the hogs are so man- 
aged that the crop is thoroughly 
cleaned up, hogging off the crop 
practically saves the cost of harvest- 
ing and marketing. In the case of 
light-yielding crops this saving is con- 
siderable. 

Most of the crops that are suit- 
able for hogging off are utilized dur- 
ing the busiest season of the year, 
i. e., at a time when it is very desir- 
able that the hogs require as little 
attention as possible. If turned into 
mature field of wheat, peas, or corn 
and provided with water, shade, and 
salt, the hogs require very little other 
attention. 

Hogging Crops in Coast Section. 
Wheat — Hogs make rapid and econ- 
omical gains on wheat until the chaff 
becomes thoroughly dry. If they are 
then supplied with green feed, they 
will do much better. If peas are not 
available for hogging off during 
August and September, wheat may be 
used until the autumn rains begin. 
Spring wheat may also be grown to 
take the place of the peas. 

Beardless barley. — If no winter 
wheat is available to hog off, its place 
may be filled with beardless barley. 
In fact this crop may take the place 
of corn and peas as well, being used 
from the time it is in the stiff-dough 
stage, about July 10, until winter 
rains come. Hogs do exceptionally 
well on it after the rains have soft- 



ened the kernals. 

Peas. — To furnish autumn pasture, 
one-half peck of wheat or a peck of 
oats is frequently sown with peas 
that are to be hogged off. In work- 
ing upon the mature crop the hogs 
cause considerable of the oats or 
wheat to shatter out. Much of this 
is covered by the tramping of the 
hogs. When the first fall rains come 
it germinates and furnishes good pas- 
ture. 

Corn. — Corn is hogged down to 
good advantage in much of the ter- 
ritory west of the Cascade Mountains 
for about six weeks — that is, from 
the time the kernals are pretty well 
glazed and dented until late in the 
fall. After the rainy season is well 
begun, the hogs get many of the ears 
down on the wet ground. This 
causes the corn to mold and spoil. 
For this reason it is not best to un- 
dertake to hog off too late in the 
season. 

Artichokes is another good crop for 
this purpose, planted and grown in 
the same manner as potatoes, but in 
rounding off for the market in the 
fall some grain should be fed in con- 
nection. 

Alfalfa and Corn. 

In the irrigated districts where both 
alfalfa and corn is grown, no superior 
nor cheaper feed could be produced. 
Alfalfa may be grown in the orchard 
and on an adjoining plot some corn 
so timed that when rounding off, the 
partition fence opened will permit 
the hog to feed on both the corn and 
the alfalfa. Towards the last of a 
feeding period the grain should pre- 
dominate in the feed ration whether 
or not there is free access to one 
or both. 



LIVE STOCK SHOW 



Pacific International Live Stock Ex- 
position, Portland, Ore. 

The next great live stock show in 
the Northwest is to be held at 
Portland, Oregon, December 7-12. 

The preliminary classification and 
catalog is ready for distribution. Ap- 
ply for copy to N. C. Maris, Sec, or 
to O. M. Plummer, North Portland, 
Oregon. 



HORSES AND CATTLE AT SOUTH- 
WEST FAIR 

Some attractive French Percheron 
and Belgian horses were shown at 
the Southwest Washingtn Fair on 
which awards were: 

Class 1, Percherons — Stallions, 4 
years old and over, L. P. Schumacher, 
Curtis, first, A. Hylak, Forest, second. 

Mares, 4 years and over, L. P. 
Schumacher, Curtis, 1st; E. W. Mills, 
Seattle, 2nd. 

Mares, 2 years and over, E. W. 
Mills, Seattle, 1st and 2nd. 

Mare or gelding, 3 years and under, 



GombauWs 

Caustic Balsam 

The Worlds Greatest and Surest 

^ Veterinary Remedy d 

HAS IMITATORS BUT NO COMPETITORS t 



SAFE, SPEEDY AND POSITIVE. 

Supersedes All Cautery or Fir- 
ing. Invaluable as a CURE for 

FOUNDER, 

WIND PUFFS, 

THRUSH, 

DIPHTHERIA, 

SKIN DISEASES, 

RINGBONE, 

PINK EYE, 

SWEENY, 

BONY TUMORS, 

LAMENESS FROM 

SPAVIN, 

QUARTER CRACKS, 
SCRATCHES, 
POLL EVIL, 
PARASITES. 
REMOVES 
BUNCHES or 
BLEMISHES, 
SPLINTS, 
CAPPED HOCK, 
STRAINED TENDONS. 



SAFE FOR ANYONE TO USE. 



We guarantee that one tablespoonfnl of Caustlo 
Balsam will produce more actual results than a whole 
bottle of any liniment or spavin mixture ever made 
Every bottle sold is warranted to give satisfaction 
Write for testimonials showing what the most promt 
Dent horsemen say of it. Price, SI. 50 per bottle. 
Sold by druggists, or sent by express, charges paid, 
with full directions for its use. 

The Accented Standard 
VETERINANY REMEDY 

Always Reliable, 

Sure In Results, 



Mine geau/nevitftKa the siynattee of 
$ol«Proprierors tU>istribulora for the, _ 

u.s.i Canada. CLEVELAND. O. 



NOTHING BUT GOOD RESULTS. 

Have used GOMBAULT'S CAUSTIC BALSAM for more 
Ithan 20 years. It is the best blister I have ever tried. I have 
lused it in hundreds of case, with best result,. ISis per- 
I fectly safe for the most inexperienced person to use. This 
I is the largest breeding establishment ot trotting horses in 
I the world, and use your blister often.— W. H. RAYMOND, 
■Prop. Belmont Park Stock Farm, Belmont Park, Mont 



USED 10 TEARS SUCCESSFULLY. 

I have used GOMBAULT'S CAUSTIC BALSAM for tea I 
I years ; have been very successful in curing curb, ringbone, | 
| capped hock and knee, bad ankles, rheumatism, and al- 
I most every cause of lameness in horses. Have a stable of | 
J forty head, mostly track and speedway horses, and cer- 
I tainiy can recommend it.— C. C. CRA9IEB, Training I 
Stables. 990 Jennings Street, New Tork City. 



Sole Agents for the United States and Canada, 

The Lawrence-Williams Co. 

TORONTO, OUT. CLEVELAND, OHIO, 




HnlcT^JriQ Pure Bredand 

I IU12>LCII1£> High Grade 



Over 100 from which to select 

Among very choice registered stock we are offering such cows as 
Helena Pontiac, sired by Pontiac Hercules, producing 70 lbs. milk per 
day, good for 25 lbs. butter per week. Clothilde Riganeta De Kol Lady, 
a young cow sired by Madrigal Friend. Her dam Riganeta De Kol 2nd 
has a record of 76 lbs. milk per day, with 4.01 test. Jessie Cornucopia 
Pietje No. 201560, 2 years 3 months old, is out of a dam with a record 
of 18,000 lbs. milk a year, and 21 lbs. butter record per week. Pietje 
Beauty, 3 years old, has a 14%-lb. butter record at 2 years. These are 
bred to a 30-lb. record son out of King Segis, and others to a son of 
King of Pontiacs. 

We have some very choice young sires of Homestead De Kol breed- 
ing, and high record dams. 

OUR HIGH GRADES show excellent breeding, good type, great ca- 
pacity and are in fine condition. 

Numerous selections are being made. Write or make appointment 
for further particulars. 

VAN WOERDEN & FISHER 

Seattle Phone, Sidney 767. THOMAS, WASH. 

On Interurban, half way between Tacoma and Seattle. 
Please mention this paper 



HAMPSHIRE HOGS Stone Duke's Strain 

Fifty head sold at public sale averaged $10S.49 each. Head sire son 
of Jenny Taylor. Choice stock offered of all ages and in trios unrelated. 
Write for our further records and prices. 

H. D. DE KALB 
De Kalb, Ills. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



207 



A. Hylak, Forest, 1st and 2nd. 

Mare or gelding, 1 year and under, 
W. A. Hamilton, Chehalis, 1st. 

Colt, under 1 year, A. Hylak, 1st; 
Chas. McNess, Dryad, 2nd. 

Five colts, get of registered sire, 
any age or sex, A. Hylak, 1st. 

Class 2 — French Draft horses — 
Mares, 4 years and over, L. P. Schu- 
macher, 1st and 2nd. 

Mares, 2 years and under, L. P. 
Schumacher, 1st. 

Class 5 — Belgians — Stallions, 4 
years and over, M. H. Gibson, Che- 
halis, 1st. 

Mare or gelding, 2 years and under, 
M. H. Gibson, 1st and 2nd. 

Mare or gelding, 1 year and under, 
M. H. Gibson, 1st. 

Colt under 1 year, M. H. Gibson, 
1st. 

Class 8 — German Coach, stallions, 
4 years and over, W. J. Vaughn, Che- 
halis, 1st. 

Class 12, Welsh and Shetland 
ponies — Mares, 3 years and under 4, 



N. C. Sorenson, Alpha, 1st and 2nd. 
Beef Cattle. 

A choice exhibit of short horns 
was made by A. Chalmers, Forest 
Grove, Oregon, Red Polls by F. H. 
Porter, Halsey, Ore., both breeds 
winning deserved prizes. 



SHEEP AT SOUTHWEST WASHING- 
TON FAIR 

Among exhibitors and prize win- 
ners of sheep are: on Shropshires, W. 
H. Cleveland, Gresham, Ore., all 
prizes. On Southdowns, A. Hylak and 
J. G. Hubbard. The Oregon Agri- 
cultural College, Corvallis, Ore., had 
a good exhibit of Cotswolds — all 
prizes. The Oregon Live Stock Co. 
Corrallis, Ore., took all prizes on Lin- 
colns and their showing was excel- 
lent. On Dorsets, W. H. Cleveland, 
Gresham, Ore., had all awards. The 
Willamette Valley Stock and Land 
Co. made a good showing of Hamp- 
shires and took all prizes. 

The general exhibit and fine quality 



Puget Sound Herd Holsteins 




Chimacum, Wash., Aug. 31, 1914. 

Official seven-day records made by cows and heifers from the Puget Sound 
herd during the last ten months are as follows: 

Name— Age. Milk. Butter. 

Sena J2d Paul De Kol 5 years 545.9 lbs. 23.97 lbs. 

Lady Aaggie De Kol Artis 4 years 561.3 lbs. 21.89 lbs. 

Grace Oswald Cornucopia 4 years 514.7 lbs. 21.27 lbs. 

Aaggie of Lulu 5 years 400.8 lbs. 20.48 lbs. 

Manor Aaggie Grace Korndyke 6 years 486.7 lbs. 19.97 lbs. 

Everett De Kol Plum 4 years 512.6 lbs. 19.7 lbs. 

Lakeside Soldene Pietertje 8 years 427.4 lbs. 19.06 lbs. 

Bonnie Bess Nelson 3d 8 years 443.4 lbs. 19.1 lbs. 

Gettie De Kol 2d 3 years 468. lbs. 19.08 lbs. 

Chimacum Nettie Wayne 4 years 393.9 lbs. 18.89 lbs. 

The remainder of the lot are in the two-year-old class and have for a leader 
Chimacum Wayne Boon 2d, which at 2 years 4 months produced 22.56 lbs. 
butter and 519.4 lbs. milk in seven days, and 2,123.1 lbs. milk and 89.25 lbs. 
butter in 30 days. This record was made during the hot and dry mouth 
of August. This record, as far as we know, is the largest in the West in her 
class. 

Name— Age. Milk. Butter. 

Princess Pontiac Pauline Segis 2 years 427.2 lbs. 19.42 lbs. 

Violet Veeman Pontiac 2 years 378.5 lbs. 15.91 lbs. 

Ada Veeman Pontiac 2 years 447.6 lbs. 15.47 lbs. 

S. V. H. Molly 2 years 304.6 lbs. 13.43 lbs. 

Colantha Sadie Vale 2 years 286.7 lbs. 13.28 lbs. 

Cornucopia De Kol Beauty 2 years 323.9 lbs. 13.28 lbs. 

Abberkerk Veeman 2 years 299.6 lbs. 13.69 lbs. 

Ononis Lady May 2 years 328.8 lbs. 12.6 lbs. 

Ononis Snowball De Kol 2 years 335.2 lbs. 12.75 lbs. 

Queen Gettie De Kol 2 years 290.8 lbs. 12.54 lbs. 

Netherland Maggie Wayne Boon 2 years 352.7 lbs. 12.54 lbs. 

Bell Fayne 2d 2 years 287.1 lbs. 12.53 lbs. 

May Hengervelt Burke De Kol 2 years 284.6 lbs. 12.25 lbs. 

S. V. H. Clothilde 2 years 304.6 lbs. 11.56 lbs. 

Sunny Croft De Kol 2d 2 years 313.6 lbs. 11.45 lbs. 

Jefferson Lilly Aaggie 2 years 241.2 lbs. 10.74 lbs. 

Lilly Johanna Beets 2d 2 years 251.5 lbs. 10.69 lbs. 

Many of these heifers and a few of the cows were tested in the winter 
time and 30 to 50 days after calving and were in every-day milking condition. 

Grace Oswald has a 30-day record of 2,222.7 lbs. milk and 86.58 lbs. butter. 
Princess Pontiac 1,768.7 lbs. milk and 74.48 lbs. butter in 30 days. 

Wn. BISHOP, Chimacum, Wash. 

When writing please mention this paper. 




Mortgage Lifters 

Have You a Mortgage on Your Farm? 

IF SO OR NOT 
BUY HIGH CLASS GRADE HOLSTEIN DAIRY COWS 
FROM THE 
SPOKANE GRAIN CO. 
THE COWS WILL DO THE REST. 
IF YOU CANNOT BUY COWS, BUY HOLSTEIN 
CALVES. WE HAVE BOTH FOR SALE, AND GOOD 
ONES. COME AND SEE US. IF YOU CANNOT COME, 
WRITE US. 

We have some Fresh Cows ready for immediate delivery 

Spokane Grain Company 

Phone Sidney 444 4915 Eighth Ave. So. 

SEATTLE, WASH. 



H 
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SECOND ANNUAL PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL 

HOLSTEIN 



150 



SALE 



Registered Holstein Cattle 



150 



At Union Stock Yards, North Portland, Oregon 
Two days sale 

DECEMBER 
11-12, 1914 

The stock to be offered is some of the best 
selections, from some of the finest herds in the 
West, including both high=bred males and females. 

Remember the dates and make your arrange- 
mens accordingly to attend the largest and best 
sale ever held west of Chicago. 

GEO. A. GUE, manager 

RIDGEFIELD, WASH. 



20S 

of sheep at this fair was a surprise 
to most of the visitors. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



PRIZE HOGS AT SOUTHWEST 
FAIR 

The following awards were made 
on hogs at the Southwest Washington 
Fair. 

Class I. — Bershires. 

Boar 1 year old and over, J. A. 
Simonson. North Yakima, 1st and 2nd. 

Boar 6 months and under 1 year, 
T. M. Meikle, Castle Rock, 1st; 
Branch Kemper & Miller, Lacy, 
Wash., 2nd. 

Boar under six months, J. A. Simon- 
son, 1st and 2nd. 

Sow one year and older, J. A. Sim- 
onson, 1st and 2nd. 

Sow 6 months and under one year, 
Branch, Kemper & Miller, 1st; J. A. 
Simonson, 2nd. 

Sow under 6 months, J. A. Simon- 
son 1st and 2nd. 

Fat barrow over 6 months, Branch, 
Kemper & Miller, 1st. 

Class II. — Poland China. 

Boar 1 year and over, L. H. Lin- 
barger, North Yakima, 1st and 2nd. 

Boar 6 months and under 1 year, 
L. H. Linbarger, 1st. 

Boar under six months, L. H. Lin- 
barger, 1st; C. W. Sill, Napavine, 2nd. 

Sow 1 year and older, L. H. Lin- 
barger, 1st; C. W. Sill, 2nd. 

Sow 6 months and under 1 year, 
L. H. Linbarger, 1st. 

Sow under six months, L. H. Lin- 
barger, 1st; C. W. Sill, 2nd. 

Fat barrow over 6 months, L. H. 
Linbarger, 1st. 

Class V. — Durock Jerseys. 

Boar and Grand Champion to D. 
W. Bagley, Lacy, Wash. 

Class VII. — Essex. 

All prizes without competition went 
to W. H. Cleveland, Gresham Ore. 
Champions. 

Berkshire boar and sow to J. A. 
Simonson, North Yakima. Poland 
China boar and sow to L. H. Linbar- 
ger, North Yakima. 



ANGORA GOAT RAISING 

The raising of Angora goats in 
the United States is now a demon- 
strated success according to a report 
just published by the United States 
Department of Agriculture under the 
title, "The Angora Goat," Farmers 
Bulletin 573. The industry, says the 
bulletin, is indeed so well established 
here that growers need not be in- 
convenienced by the action of South 
Africa in prohibiting the exportation 
of Angoras, for the quantity of good 
blood in this country is already suf- 
ficient to meet all requirements. In 
the opinion of experts the best Am- 
erican fleeces now equal any grown 
in South Africa or Asia Minor, the 
original home of the Angora. 

Although nearly every State in the 
Union now possesses its flocks, the 
Southwest and the Northwest are es- 
pecially well adapted to the industry, 
in particular the large areas recently 
logged-off in the Northwest. There 
the Angora not only thrives him- 
self but helps to clear away the 
brush which if allowed to grow un- 
checked, easily becomes a dangerous 
fire trap. Thus it is often said that 
the Angora works and pays for its 
board at the same time. 

It is paying more and more, for 
the value of the fleece or mohair is 
increasing steadily. Formerly the use 
of mohair depended so largely upon 



the prevailing fashion that its price 
varied widely from year to year. 
This condition, however, is rapidly 
changing as new uses for mohair 
are continually found, from automo- 
bile tops and table covers to dress 
goods and curled false hair, and to- 
day the grower is assured of a rea- 
sonably steady market. The price 
of course varies with the quality, the 
very best fleeces bringing on an 
average from 42 to 55 cents a pound. 
The weight of a fleece has a very 
wide range but in 1909 the average 
for Oregon was found to be 3.7 pounds 
and for Texas 1.85. 

U. S. Information Bureau. 



METHODS OF COMBATING 
ABORTION 

The granular venereal disease of 
cattle is, so far as known, univer- 
sally distributed. From clinical ob- 
servation it has a vital relation to 
contagious abortion. It is incurable 
in the present state of our knowledge, 
but may be greatly decreased in 
virulence. 

The ordinary if not sole avenue of 
the entrance of the infection of con- 
tagious abortions is the genital can- 
al, and the invasion antedates the 
sealing of the uterus, which ordin- 
arily occurs within 30 days after con- 
ception. 

In the present state of our know- 
ledge little or nothing can be done to 
prevent abortion once the pregnant 
uterus is sealed and the infection of 
contagious abortion exists within the 
hermetically sealed cavity. 

By systematic disinfection of the 
genitalia immediately following ab- 
ortion or premature birth, and also 
in retained afterbirth and kindred in- 
fections of the uterus, the affected 
animals may be largely guarded 
against future sterility and abortion. 
It is even more important that the 
vaginae of heifers, whether virgin or 
previously bred, and cows shall be 
systematically disinfected for a per- 
iod before and after breeding, until 
conception is assured. 

It is equally important that the 
genital organs of breeding bulls be 
kept clean by regular disinfection, 
including washing immediately prior 
to and after service. 



SELECTING THE BREED OF 
SHEEP 



Wide Variety for the Farmer to 
Choose From. Mutton and 
Wool Varieties. 

Farmers who contemplate the rais- 
ing of sheep on their farms are urged 
by the U. S. Department of Agricul- 
ture to give considerable thought 
to the selection of a breed. In all 
there are thirty breeds of improved 
sheep that have been brought to fixed 
types. Of these twelve are already 
well established in the United States 
and others are gaining in popularity. 
Each has its own points of superior- 
ity and the farmer must be guided in 
his choice by the individual condi- 
tions, bearing in mind, however, the 
fact that any breed is superior to no 
breed. 

Although it is hardly to be expect- 
ed that every farmer in a neighbor- 
hood will select the same breed of 
sheep, there are several advantages 
to be derived from a number doing 
so. For example new rams can be 
purchased for the common benefit 
when any individual owner might 
well hesitate at the expense; and if 
the lambs are ready in large num- 



bers for market at the same time, 
they may be shipped cheaply by the 
carload or the buyers may find it 
worth their while to come after them. 

In selecting a breed it should be 
remembered that no system of sheep 
farming is likely to be long success- 
ful which leaves out of account either 
wool or mutton. One or the other, 
however, may well be emphasized 
according to local conditions. Thus 
if pasturage is sparse, feed expensive 
and marketing arrangements poor, 
wool will naturally be the first con- 
sideration. On the ther hand, where 
conditions are more favorable, a 
breed will be selected for its mut- 
ton qualities. Even then, however, 
there is a wide latitude of choice. 

In order to assist the farmer in 
this choice, the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture has just published in 
Farmers' Bulletin 576, "Breeds of 
Sheep for the Farm" descriptions 
and photographs of the principal 
breeds, together with the addresses 
of the secretaries of varius breeding 
associations, from whom additional 
information can be obtained.^ These 
breeds may be divided into three 
main groups, the Middle Wool, the 
Long Wool, and the Fine Wool. All 
the Middle Wool breeds have been 
developed primarily for mutton. The 
Long Wools also are bred chiefly for 
mutton. They are the largest of all 
sheep and thrive best where food can 
be obtained without much travel. 
They do well also in regions of ex- 
cessive rainfall. The Fine Wools, in- 
cluding the American Merinos and 
the Rambouilett, have been bred al- 
most entirely for their wool alone. 

Some of these many breeds, says 
the bulletin, should be selected and 
maintained, for it is rarely good 
policy to cross sheep. 



Hollywood A. R. O. Milk Herd. 

The Hollywood Farm, Hollywood, 
Wash, has a milk herd of 90 Hol- 
stein cows, all in the A. R. O. class. 
Their young sires have a good foun- 
dation for valuable service. 

Limbarger's Poland Chinas. 

L. H. Limbarger, of North Yakima, 
the Poland China specialist had his 
usual high class exhibit at the South- 
west Washington Fair. He has sold 
out almost completely of last years 
breeding but a fine lot of youngsters 
to be ready and which he will adver- 
tise in this journal in January. 
Strictly prime quality is his reputa- 
tion and he can best maintain this 
stardard by his own raising. His 
herd is ideal both in appearance and 
in practice. Every hog must produce 
four good "hams" and finish a weight 
of 180 pounds in 180 days. It is done 
by careful selection proper breeding 
and judicious feeding. The first 
three months after weaning, the 
basis feed is alfalfa and corn, and 
during the next three months more 
corn with a little less alfalfa and 
enough other hog feed mixtures to 
prevent a monotony of the alfalfa 
and corn diet. To gain one pound a 
day at a minimum cost is the busi- 
ness of every Poland China hog in 
the Linbarger herd and the owner is 
careful to see that every hog is at- 
tending strictly to his business. 
Simonson's Bershires. 

J. A. Simonson, North Yakima, had 
a very pleasing exhibit of Berkshires 
at the different fairs. Alfalfa and 
corn, then corn and alfalfa grows the 
perfect shaped Berkshire in Yakima 
County cheaply. Large sales of 
breeders were made the past year. 



Raise Wheat 

Big money will be made raising 
wheat next few years. We have 
some fine, well improved wheat farms 
in the best wheat raising section of 
Eastern Oregon, $22.50 to $25 per 
acre. Easy terms. Write us and 
mention this paper. 

ACME REALTY COMPANY 
401 Equitable Building, Tacoma. 

! — — — — — 

Poland China Boars 

Have some good ones 4 months old, 
also boar pigs of good breeding. Gilts 
all sold. 

F. C. BRUCE 
Grandview, Wash. 



FOR SALE 

Guernsey Bulls 

Strongly bred from highly test- 
ing ancestors. Write for Particulars 

Plateau Farm 
VASHOIT, WASH. 

S. M. SHIPLEY, Proprietor, 
Haller Bldg., Seattle. 




FOR REGISTERED DTJROC JERSEY 

bred sows and male pigs, write McK. 
Edwards, Valley, Wash. 



Oregon Collie Kennels Established 42 

years. 

Choice Puppies 

(either sex) 
Breeding Pairs 
Bitches in 
whelp and stud 
dogs for sale. 

Send 2o stamp 
for Illustrated 
catalog. 

a D. 17 AIR If 

Shadeland 

Farms 
B. F. D. S 
Amity, Oregon 



DRIED BEET FOR HOGS. 

Rasmussen & Plake, Long Beach, 
Washington, give their experience with 
feeding beet pulp to hogs, stating: 

'We are feeding Larrowe's molasses 
pulp to hogs of all ages, including those 
being fattened for the market. It is 
especially good for mother sows, as it 
increases the milk flow very much. 

"About two months ago we put 40 six- 
weeks-old pigs on trial. The ration for 
each was 4 lbs. skim milk, % lb. molas- 
ses-dried beet pulp, y 2 lb. wheat shorts. 
This naturally had to be increased in 
the same proportion. After two months 
feeding most of the 40 pigs now weigh 
from 80 to 90 lbs. 

"The molasses has to be fed dry, as 
neither the young nor the older stock 
like it wet. Molasses-dried beet pulp is 
without doubt the cheapest and healthi- 
est hog feed on the market today." 

C. B. Cunningham, Mills, Calif., uses 
equal parts of ground grain and beet 
pulp, well mixed, salted and soaked, an 
extremely good feed for fattening hogs. 

Equal parts of alfalfa, meal, ground 
grain and beet pulp make a well-bal- 
anced feed for all sizes and ages and the 
swine do well on it. For sows with 
suckling pigs, equal parts of wheat mid- 
dlings, alfalfa meal, beet pulp and 
ground grain, made into thick slop, give 
the best of results, the sows keeping 
well up in flesh and giving an abundance 
of milk. 



JERSEY BULL CALF 

Solid color and splendid individual, 
born July 10, 1914. Blood of Brown 
Bessie and Eminent. 
Price on application. 

JEFFERY HILTON, 
Marysville, Wash. 

Registered Jerseys "J"™ 1 

Some choice cattle out of St. Lam- 
bert and Adam Stevens breeding. Pure 
bred, prize winning Berkshires, Shire 
horses and pure-bred poultry. Write 
for prices. 

A. G. WOODWARD 
Route 1, Box 12 Fairbanks, Wash. 



Chicona Farm 
Guernseys 

A few registered bull calves from 
heavy producing dams and sired by bulls 
of the best blood lines. Address 



A. ii. GlIiE, Prop. 



CHINOOK, Wash. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



209 



POULTRY DEPARTMENT 

For Information on Poultry Raising 1 or Dairying- write Poultry 
Editor, Box 1604, Taooma, Wash. 



BUTTER AND EGG MARKET 
- PROSPECTS. 

Miller Brothers, the leading cream, 
butter and egg firm, of Tacoma, state 
that the production of butter fat by 
the dairymen of Western Oregon is 
so much larger than during past 
years that its appearance here will 
prevent the Puget Sound butter mar- 
ket from going higher. While prices 
are not likely to drop much, the pros- 
pects are for a steady market during 
the next few months. The Jersey 
remains the prominent breed with 
Oregon dairymen, they have increas- 
ed the average producing capacity of 
their herds and are raising a larger 
amount of vetch, clover, kale, corn 
ensilage, and other cheap feeds than 
formerly. 

Dairymen in the coast section of 
Washington supply the city milk 
trade and condensors first, butter fat 
being as a rule, the second considera- 
tion. Producers have no complaint 
with present prices. Their average 
profit margin for the year will depend 
on cost of production which includes 
the question of capacity of each in- 
dividual cow. 

The egg market remains firm with 
upward tendency. Farmers are urged 
to condition their poultry for early 
laying, giving needed shelter, feed 
and to provide good sanitation. Fresh 
eggs are equivalent to good cash. 
The question with the producer is 
how many and how cheaply can he 
supply of them. 



EGGS BY PARCEL POST 

Eggs are now shipped successfully 
by percel post. Various styles of 
cartons being made for that purpose. 

Our readers can ship in eggs daily 
or so often as their egg production 
is required to meet the wants of 
customers. Dealers in butter and 
eggs advertising in our columns, han- 
dle eggs on a close margin and are 
dependable for prompt remittance. 
They appreciate customers who send 
regularly eggs which are fresh and 
clean. The market will be excellent 
for the next four months at least. 



CANDLING EGGS 



Colored Chart of U. S. Agricultural 
Department an Aid. 

To enable farmers and housewives 
to test eggs before a candle and tell 
accurately their condition before they 
are opened, the Department of Agri- 
culture has just published a colored 
egg-candling chart. To give a true 
picture of the eggs, twelve impres- 
sions were necessary to produce this 
lithographed chart. 

This chart shows the eggs in their 
natural size as they appear before a 
candle, and also as they look when 
open in a glass saucer. The pictures 
include an absolutely fresh egg, 
slightly stale eggs, decidedly stale 
eggs, eggs with yolks sticking to the 
shell, eggs where the chicken has 
developed so far that blood has been 
formed, moldy eggs, addled eggs, and 
eggs with a green white. 

Comparitively few housewives are 
aware that a green color in the 
white of eggs is due to the presence 
of billions and billions of a certain 
species of bacteria that make a green 



coloring matter. Eggs with this 
greenish tint, even though the yolks 
seem to be perfect, are not fit for 
food. 

As long as the Department's supply 
lasts, these charts will be furnished 
free upon application to the Editor 
and Chief, Division of Publications. 
Commercial shippers of eggs, how- 
ever, should apply for Department 
Bulletin 51, technical paper on test- 
ing by scientific methods not avail- 
able to the average farmer. This 
bulletin includes the colored illustra- 
tions. This chart alone will be found 
to be not merely of great service to 
the housewife wishing to test eggs 
she is to serve to her own family, but 
also of commercial value to farmers, 
country merchants, or egg shippers 
who wish to buy and handle eggs on 
an accurate quality basis. 



LAYING PULLETS. 

Pullets should be well matured to 
size and with a good proportion of fat 
stored in their bodies, then with the 
usual mixed feed rich in protein, com- 
fortably sheltered and correct sani- 
tary surroundings, there will be no 
difficulty in keeping them in line for 
egg production. But all necessary de- 
tails must be given careful and timely 
attention. 



Facts and Figures 

MINERAL IN PAINT. 

Rich is the State of Washington in 
natural resources. It has products of 
the forest, soil and sea incomparable 
in extent and quality. But little prom- 
inence or development has been given 
to products of the mine excepting 
coal. In the eager search for precious 
metals the other mineral products 
have been overlooked and doubtless 
useful minerals such as Fullers earth, 
diatomaceous earth, silica and various 
metallic oxides have been given little 
attention. Among the products of 
this kind is mineral paint, and it is 
doubtless interesting to know that 
some attention and development has 
been given to this very useful prod- 
uct. The Mashell Paint Company of 
Tacoma for the past fifteen years has 
been developing a deposit of metallic 
paint found in Western Washington, 
and has erected a factory in Tacoma 
for the manufacture of a ready for 
use paint. The natural pigment has 
proven itself to have remarkable cov- 
ering and protective qualities and is 
being used extensively in the manu- 
facture of paint, kalsomines, etc. The 
ore in its natural state is peculiar by 
reason of containing native copper, 
found throughout the deposit in 
grains, shot, nuggets and leaves. By 
reason of this the paint company has 
adopted "Copper Ore" as a name for 
its paint product. The paint is being 
well received, by large and small users 
for extersior use on wood and iron, 
on freight cars, warehouses, sheds, 
bridges, dwellings, roofs, etc. The in- 
dustry promises to grow into a large 
and profitable business as the prod- 
uct becomes better known to the con- 
suming trade. 



Van Woerden & Fisher, of Thomas, 
Wash., have been supplying a consid- 
erable number of dairymen with fresh 
milk cows during the past two months. 
The demand is so persistent that an 
endeavor is being made to round up 
several carloads of choice cows in 
leading Holstein districts east to offer 
prospective buyers in a second public 
sale. Watch this paper for their fur- 
ther anouncements. 



ALBERS' PROGRESSIVE 
MASH MIXTURE 

Right now while your hens are moulting, they require a well- 
balanced, well-mixed mash that will furnish the proper ratio 
of protein carbohydrates and mineral substances necessary to 
make feathers and stimulate egg production. 

ALBERS PROGRESSIVE MASH MIXTURE contains all the 
nutriments moulting and laying hen needs — it is composed of 
Kaffiir Corn Meal, Soya Bean Meal, Oat Meal, Barley Meal, 
Corn Meal, Bone Meal, Wheat Meal, Rolled Oats, Rolled Wheat, 
Linseed Oil Meal, Charcoal, Salt and Blood Meal. 

It is to your advantage to investigate. Ask your dealers. 
Accept no substitute. 

ALBERS BROS. MILLING CO. 



Largest Cereal Millers in the West 



TACOMA 



SEATTLE 



EGGS AND CHEESE 

We are handling quantities of these satisfactorily for producers. 
Write for particulars. 

WASHINGTON CREAMERIES ASSOCIATION 
E. Hazelton, President. 1114 Western Ave., 

A. C. Van Houten, Secretary. Seattle, Wash. 



PEDIGREED 

COCKERELS 

From Trapnested 

S. C. White Leghorns 

and 

Barred Rocks 

Blanchard Poultry Yards 

C. WESTERGAARD, Mgr. 
Dept. H HADLOCK, WASH. 



VETCH 

CLOVER and other 

GRASS SEEDS 



GET your orders in early 
to make sure of mini= 
mum price. Remember 
ours won't stay in the 
ground. They grow. cata=. 
log and price list on appli- 
cation. 



J. J. BUTZER 

188 Front St., Portland, Ore. 



DUCKS 

The Best In 
White Runners 

WE ARE NOW OFFERING FOR SALE 

Drakes, Trios & 
Breeding Pens 

Bred from the Best American Strain 

Write for prices and booklet 

E. E. BLOOMFIELD 

Hillhurst, Wash. Box 22D 



EGGS OR CASH 

Directions for getting hens into good 
laying condition in shortest time pos- 
sible is given in every package of our 
Herculean Strike Breaker. Sold by 
dealers, or write to manufacturer for 
literature, etc. 

E. H. ROMBERGER 
Sta. F. Seattle, Wash. 



The O.-W. R. & N. Company has is- 
sued a war map showing armed 
strength of the world, which is sent 
free to all applicants who will send 
their names and addresses plainly 
written to Wm. McMurray, G. P. A., 
Portland, Ore. 



EGGS and BABY CHICKS 

Leghorns, Wyandottes, Minorcas 
md Barred Rocks. Day Old Chicks' 
Leg-horns, Brown, White and Buff, at 
$15.00 per 100. Choice males offered. 

EGGS from any of above breeds, 
$2 per setting or $8 per 100. 

Write for mating list and grit ma- 
chine circular. 

FRED A. JOHNSON 

518 35th St., Tacoma, Wash. 



Rocks 



BARRED WHITE, 
PARTRIDGE and BUFF 



GOOD FAIR AT SNOHOMISH 

Prospects were never more prom- 
ising for a good fair at Snohomish, 
writes J. A. Winston,, Secretary. A 
new poultry building is being erected, 
more grounds being graded and drain- 
ed. A good exhibit of pure bred live 
stock is in prospect. The date is 
September 22-26. 



Choice cockerels at $5 each, prize win- 
ning stock, good layers. Eggs $2.50 for 
setting. Special prices on lots. 

MRS. D. F. ALWAED 
Orting, Wash. 



Partridge Plymouth Rocks 

We introduced this breed in the Pa- 
cific Northwest from Michigan 6 years 
ago. Beauty of the Rocks, great lay- 
ers .excellent for meat. Write for 
prices on young stock and eggs. 

MBS. Z.. M. HALL 
Fuyallup, Wash. 



210 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



Bigger potato 
profits 



pay for this "Iron Age" Digger for the first season! 
That's what scores of the most successful potato men 
in the Northwest have told us. 

This year prices will be higher, because of short crop 
and great demand by the warring countries of Europe. 
If you haven't harvested your crop of potatoes yet, 
investigate the 



IRONAQE 



Can be used in heaviest growth of vines and grass 
Gets all of the potatoes out of the ground without 
bruising. Saves an immense amount of labor. 

Send a Postal for the FREE Catalog 

These useful Books on Potatoes will be mailed free to 
^yone! Sou? obligation! WRITE FOR THEM TO- 
DAY' 

The best dealers in Washington, Oregon and Idaho sell 
the "Iron Age" line of Potato M^^ 0 **^ 
Sprayers and Garden Tools. ASK YOUR DEALER 
ABOUT THEM! 

Distributed in the Northwest by 



■ ■ it ■'.•"v/fia 
• .•lr#sr s 



PORTLAND. ORE. 

Oldest and Largest 
Independent Wholesalers 
of Farm Machinery in 
the Pacific Northwest. 



iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiuiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiuiimiuuiiuniiaiiiiiii 

You G ain 

A Whole Year By 

Fall Planting 

OUR AUTUMN CATALOG 
I 



'Ready in September) mailed free on request 

Fruit 



^iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiuiiiuuiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiMiiiii 



^ Shade 
Trees 

BERRIES and 
BUSH FRUITS 

ROSES 

BULBS 
--a PLANTS 



BULBS 

Fa 



or earliest winter g 
oweri indoors g 

| Paper White | 

1 NARCISSUS 1 

| Doz. .40, 100-2.50 | 

| ROMAN HYACINTHS X 

| Doz. .85. 100-5.00 | 

I CHINA LILIES 1 

| Each. 15,Doz. 1.50 § 
| POST PAID | 

1 Grow in pots or glasses — g 
g They are sure to bloom g 

miiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiniiiiiiiininiiinnimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 

STANDARD VARIETIES and Worthy 
Novelties for Home and Commercial Plantings 

Jj SK FOR CATALOG MO. St 

PORTLAND SEED 
COMPANY 

PORTLAND. OREGON 

iiiiiiiiiiiliiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiim 




PEERADA BERKSHIRES 

| Headed by Artful Masterpiece 8rd 
splendid son of Masterpiece, the 
world's most famous Berkshire. 
Bred gilts, boars and weanling pigs. 

NEWTON H. PEER 

Mention this paper TACOM A , WASH . 




A herd of the best blood of the best 
strains headed by Champion of the 
Northwest No. 107287, a boar that has 
never been outclassed, at any age. 

Write for prices. 





BERKSHIRES 










Meet us at the Western Washington 
Fair 

Centralia Duke and Silver Lee, 3rd 

breeding. A fine lot of youngsters 
3 to 7 months for sale. Write for 
particulars and state number wanted . 






WOODLAND FARM 

Thurston County Lacey, Wash. 







Purebred Durocs 

Very choice young Duroc pigs of- 
fered at reasonable prices. Early 
application should be made. 
Write today. 

vVe buy and sell 
large quantities of choice hams and 
bacon. Quality is our motto. 

AUGUSTINE & KYER 
115 First St. Seattle, Wash 



THE E. N. PEASLEE CO., 
Clarkston, Wash. 



Electric Light Farm 

A. J.C.C. Jerseys 

FOR SALE 

Son of Gertie's Brown Lad whose 
dam has official record of 653 lbs. 
butter in one year. The dam of 
this 5-months-old calf made over 
10,000 lbs. milk and 595y 2 lbs. but- 
ter with first calf. Solid color, mul- 
berry fawn, priced at $100.00 for 
quick sale. 

Burt Pease Ellensburg, Wash. 



LOSSES SURELY PREVENTED 

by Cutter's Blackleg Pills. Low- 
priced. 



|Bl/i\VlV priced, fresh, reliable; preferred by 
^ Western stockmen, because they 

•m w-a protect where other vaccines fail. 
1/ g ■* Write for i Islet and testimonials. 

I H | - 10-doso pkije. Blackleg Pills $1.00 

I Jl J. 50-dose pkge. Blackleg Pills 4.00 

— — cutter s Blackleg Pill Injector 1.50 
Discounts: 250 doses, 10 p. ct. : 500 doses, 20 p. at 
Use any injector, hut outer's simplest and strongest. 
Every package dated, unused pills exchangeable for 

Tresh after dale on package'. Do not use old vaccino (ours 

or any other) . as it. affords less protection than fresh. 
Insist on Cutter's. If unobtainable, order direct. 

Send check or 11. ().. we pay charges and >hip promptly. 

THE CUTTER LABORATORY, Berkeley, California. 



Raise Beef Cattle quroc piqs 



1240 acres in John Day section of 
Eastern Oregon. All good land. Over 
half of it practically level; 500 acres 
can be put in wheat; balance fine 
bunch grass land. Fenced. Well wa- 
tered by springs; water can be piped 
to buildings and some of the land irri- 
gated. Good house, large new barn 
and outbuildings. Surrounded by thou- 
sands of acres of free range. This 
place will take care of 200 head cattle 
without usins the outside range. On 
main county road, mail route and 
phone line; 4 miles from town. Price 
only $10,000. (Practically $8 per 
acre.) $2500 cash, balance 10 years 
6 per cent. If not personally inter- 
ested, perhaps some of your friends 
would be glad to know of this oppor- 
tunity. 

Acme Realty Co. 

401 Equitable Building, Tacoma. 

GOOD REGISTERED BERKSHIRES — 

Choice pigs, $10 each at weaning time. 
W. D. GOOD, Mt. Vernon, Wash. 



REGISTERED and REA- 
SONABLE. EITHER SEX 

J. HANKS & SON, Ellensburg, Wash. 



Wanted 



A family with some experience in 
poultry raising and fruit growing 
to occupy an improved five acre 
water front property. An ideal and 
beautiful location with excellent mar- 
kets and of easy access. A little ready 
cash required. Will lease or join in 
a cooperative venture for a term of 
years. ! 

Address T. A. O, care Northwest 
Horticulturist and Dairyman, 
Box 1604, Tacoma, Wash. 



O.I.C. Hogs 



Pigs farrowed in May, 
from my Champion 
and Grand Champion 
sows at 1913 Washing- 
Fnnlich Chirp ton State Fair are now 
LliyilSII OH 1 1 C booked to fill orders at 
H A PC PC weaning time. All 

■ IUI 31/3 8tock so id strictly 

first class. English 
Shire stallions 1 to 3 years old. Write for prices. 
A. L. PIERCE, Granger, Wash. 



NICOLLE'S PRINCE, 97564 A. J. C. C. 

Grandson of Combination and bred 
on Island of Jersey. Solid dark fawn 
and a show bull; he is sound, sure 
and easy to handle, and his calves 
have been nearly all heifers. Price 
$150.00. 



DAVID C. DILW0RTH 



Opportunity, Wash. 



REGISTERED DUROCS 

(Immune to Cholera) 

All ages for sale, male or female, from 
prolific families. 

Shamrock Wander heads the herd. 
Shamrock Daisy farrowed 12 pigs. 
Shamrock Rose farrowed 14 pigs. 
Selah Agness farrowed 16 pigs. 
Write for prices. 
A. H. IRISH, Wapato, Wash. 




W RITE FOR CATALO Q' 

CHAS.M. TALMADG 

1 Box 3 



WANTED GOATS — To buy two or 

three milk goats; state amount of 
milk at last kidding and oblige 

Peter Eggers, 
15th & Dock. Tacoma, Wash. 




Twenty-seventh Year 



TACOMA AND SEATTLE, WASH., OCTOBER, 1914 



No. 10 



VETCH AND OAT CROP. 



Next Summer's Feed For Dairy Cows. 
By C. J. Zintheo, Agricultural 
Engineer, Seattle, Wash. 

With the dry summer just passed, 
and its lack of pasture for cows, the 
dairy farmer is just now figuring 
how to prevent the shortage of pas- 
ture and milk another season. 

It is quite evident that most 
farmers did not make the proper pre- 
paration last year because their silos 
were standing k empty and drying out 
in July and August when they should 
have been full of ensilage for sum- 
mer feeding. 

The time to prepare for next sum- 
mer's shortage of pasture is in the 
fall up through October. Every 
farmer has some piece of clover 
meadow, pasture or other land that 
needs to be cultivated to eradicate 
weeds or to put it in the proper 
rotation and in preparation for corn 
or potatoes or other crops next -spring. 

Plow this land as soon as possible 
from six to eight inches deep. If 
possible with the manure spreader, 
put the manure on top of the plowing 
and disc it in. If the ground has 
already become too soft for doing 
this, put the manure on the land be- 
fore plowing. 

When the ground has been thor- 
oughly prepared, use the single disc 



drill and sow a crop of vetch and 
winter oats preferably, but winter 
wheat or winter rye may be used 
instead of oats and vetch. Plant forty 
pounds of vetch to sixty pounds of 
oats to the acre. A week or ten 
days after sowing go over the field 
with a light smothering harrow. If 
this crop is planted during October, 
it will be ready to cut by May 20 the 
next spring. This crop can then be 
cut and put into the silo, and it will 
yield about ten tons to the acre. If 
the field is left alone after cutting it 
will produce another crop about Au- 
gust, or if left to mature an excellent 
mixture of vetch and oats can be 
had, which, when ground and fed to 
cows in the winter, will make a fine 
supplement to silage and hay. 

Corn for Second Crop Ensilage. 

However, in order to produce more 
tonnage per acre, it is advisable to 
plow the field immediately after the 
first crop of vetch and oats has been 
removed in the spring. Thoroughly 
cultivate the soil and with a corn drill 
put in a crop of corn which, when 
properly cultivated, will yield at least 
twenty tons of corn ensilage in the. 
fall. 

Thus with two crops a year from 
the same land it does not require 
many acres to feed a large bunch of 
cows and raise everything on the 
farm instead of buying feed. 

The ensilage put in the silo in the 



spring should be used in supple, 
menting the summer pasture in July 
and August, when the weather is 
hot and flies are plentiful. By keep- 
ing the cows close to the barn at 
this period and giving them plenty of 
feed instead of having them use their 
energy chasing all over the pasture 
in search of feed, the milk supply will 
be kept up till their next freshening 
period, which will not be the case if 
they have been allowed to run down 
during the short pasture season. 

Silo Filled Twice Yearly, Tightly 
Sealed. 

All dairy farmers who use any 
brains in connection with their busi- 
nes are convinced that the silo is 
not only a necessity but the best 
paying investment on the dairy farm. 
Not all dairy farmers who have in- 
vested in silos have learned how to 
make the best use of them. The silo 
should never be allowed to stand 
empty, but the farmer should feed 
and file and arrange the rotation of 
his crops in such a way that he ha« 
something to put into it as soon as 
it is nearly empty. A good many 
farmers who have modern silos are 
not careful enough in filling them to 
prevent spoiling of gome silage. 

The farmer's wife putting up fruit 
in a glas jar would not think of for 
a moment to screw the lid on the jar 
without putting on a rubber gasket, 
and yet the farmer does this very 



thing with his silo when he closes the 
doors without putting pitch or some 
heavy paint on the edges of the doors 
to make it absolutely air tight when 
closed. A good many farmers neglect 
to seal the top of the silo by cutting 
a lead of old straw and distributing 
it on top of the silage about four 
inches thick, wetting it and sowing 
into it a lot of oats, which, when 
sprouting, will form a perfect seal on 
top that will prevent the spoiling of 
any of the silage. 

Again, the farmers are negligent 
when feeding the silage by leaving 
the doors stand open, permitting a 
current of air to pass over it and thus 
hasten fermentation, especially in the 
summer time. 

The farmer who wishes to produce 
the greatest number of tons of silage 
per acre and have plenty of feed for 
his cows next summer should not 
delay a single day to sow some vetch 
and winter oats and plant corn on 
the same land next spring. 



CROP ESTIMATES. 

According to the October crop re- 
port by the United States government, 
the total wheat crop for 1914 is esti- 
mated at 892,000,000 bushels, or nearly 
12 per cent, greater than last year. 
The corn crop is about 1 per cent, 
larger than last year, or 2,676,000,000 
bushels. The oat, rye, barley and pota- 
to crops are all a little larger than last 
year. 






A carload of very choice Holstein cows, purchased by A. Meusreau, Wapato, Wash., from Van Woerden & Fisher, of Thomas, Wash., 

over in the early part of October. 



taken 



212 

NORTHWEST 

HORTICULTURIST 

Agriculturist and Dairyman. 

O. A. TONNESON, 
Editor and Proprietor. 

Subscriptions 50 Cents per Tear when 

Paid in Advance. Otherwise 75 Cents. 

Six Months, 30c. Three Months, 20o 
in Advance. 

Canadian, other foreign, also when deliv- 
ered y carrier in Tacoma, 75c a year. 

Subscribers will indicate the time for 
which they wish the paper continued. 

Payments are due one year in advance. 

Address all Communications to th« 
Tacoma Office 
SOBTIC0I.TUBIST, Box 1604, Tacoma, 
Wash. 

O flics, 511 Chamber of Commerce 
Building, Tacoma, Wash. 

Seattle Office 

420 Globe BIdg-, Constantine Advertising Agency 
Established October, 1887. 
Entered as Second Class Matter at the 
Postoffice at Tacoma, Wash., under Act 
of March 3. 1879. 

EDITORIAL STAFF CONTRIBUTORS 

Geo. Severance, State College Agri- 
culturist. 
Byron Hunter, Agriculturist. 
W. A. Linklater, Supt Exp. Sta. 
H. L. Blanchard, Poultry and Dairy. 
J. Li. Stahl, Horticulturist. 
S. O. Jayne, Irrigation, Dept. Agr. 
S. B. Nelson, Veterinarian. 

Many of our readers will vote against 
the eight-hour law. 



Taxpayers are demanding from can- 
didates for public offices the policy of 
honesty in service without extrava- 
gance. 



Much attention is being devoted to 
build up the dairy industry in the col- 
umns of this journal, for the time is 
now at hand when farmers of the 
Northwest can safely and profitably 
increase their dairy herds. The op- 
portunity to obtain the best of cattle, 
the tried out, successful methods of 
solving feed problems, and the con- 
stantly growing markets, make the 
dairy a safe and attractive vocation. 



The present European war should 
have the effect of making the Ameri- 
can people more self reliant commer- 
cially. Our manufacturing and com- 
merce should make rapid strides. We 
need big corporations, the kind we 
have now stripped of many unneces- 
sary inflations by close governmental 
scrutiny. In fact we are in condition 
for a good healthy and substantial 
growth as soon as adjustments to a 
new basis have been made and are 
understood. With right living none 
need to have any despair for the fu- 
ture. 



The grim reaper is gathering a big 
harvest because of the present war 
of nations, but worse than that is the 
pain, anguish and heavy burdens to 
fall on many of the survivors. When 
the majority of people throughout the 
world will accept and follow the teach- 
ings of the Prince of Peace, then wars 
like that of the present will cease, for 
brotherhood in practice will become 
universal and men will have clear 
enough vision to avoid being led by 
selfish monarchial patriotism. How 
soon this will occur depends upon the 
will and the work of each and every 
individual. 



HOME MARKET FOR APPLES. 

The apple crop of the Pacific Coast 
States is about ten million boxes this 
year. The population west of the 
Mississippi river can consume this en- 
tire crop during the next six months 



THE NORTHWEST 

-if carefully stored and properly dis- 
tributed. Farmers in Nebraska, Wy- 
oming, the Dakotas, Montana and 
Iowa want our apples and are willing 
to pay good prices on delivery. Our 
fruit distributors associations might do 
well to adopt the nurserymen's plan 
to send out agents a month or two 
ahead of delivery time and round up 
the farmers either direct or through 
their local merchants, booking orders 
ahead so that when a carload of ap- 
ples arrives at a station, previous no- 
tification will bring the farmers to the 
appointed place at the same time. It 
will require a little more machinery on 
the part of the distributors to carry 
out this plan, but the merchants as- 
suming little or no risk, with a good 
volume of business transacted in a 
short time, can afford to handle the 
goods on a smaller margin than is 
otherwise necessary. Consumers 
should have the apples at an average 
of $1.50 to $1.75 per box, and the cost 
of delivery figured accordingly. 



Beginning with next issue we shall 
again devote more space to poultry for 
the next seven months, with a view 
of helping both the farmer and the 
poultry specialist whose interests are 
mutual. 



WASHINGTON STATE FAIR. 

The State Fair of Washington, just 
closed, in some respects was better 
with $6,000 appropriation than that of 
last year which used over $24,000 of 
state funds. The question naturally 
arises — are large appropriations nec- 
essary for a successful state fair? 
There is no doubt but what some of 
the funds were unwisely expended last 
season, barring certain improvements, 
but the best fair is one in which the 
people of the locality most interested, 
and of the state can be made to feel 
they have some interest and assume 
some responsibility. 

The live stock breeders of Washing- 
ton have taken the right step by or- 
ganizing and they should demand that 
a very liberal proportion of any ap- 
propriation made by the Legislature 
for fair purposes, so specified in the 
bill, be available for the payment of 
premiums to exhibitors of live stock 
and other farm productions whether 
the exhibits are at North Yakima, Spo- 
kane, Puyallup, Centralia or Belling 
ham. 

The State Fair was well handled lo- 
cally by the president and secretary. 
Those representing the state having 
supreme control were deficient in pub- 
licity methods, a very essential feature 
for a successful fair. Less than 10 per 
cent, of the people in Western Wash- 
ington knew anything about a state 
fair being held. A much larger propor- 
tion of people all over the state were 
well aware that the Western Washing- 
ton Fair was being held at Puyallup. 
The State Fair at North Yakima will 
serve a good purpose in being con- 
tinued, but it needs, besides state sup- 
port, the careful attention of those 
who know how to make a fair worth 
while. Exhibitors of good live stock 
and produce should know they do not 
depend entirely on gate receipts for 
payment of awards. 



High class quality of exhibits and 
clean entertainment features, coupled 
with neatness and good management 
in every department characterized the 
Western Washington Fair this year as 
usual. The attendance was close to 
the 60,000 mark. It was well adver- 
tised and made good in all attempts. 



HORTICULTURIST 

OUR OPPORTUNITIES 

AND RESPONSIBILITIES. 



Preparations for the Demand on 
Next Year's Crops. 

[By Douglas Malcom, of the Interna- 
tional Harvester Company of Amer- 
ica.] 



If ever America puts its hand to 
the plow in its effort to feed the 
world, it assumes that responsibility 
now. Not since the harrowing days 
following our own strife of the six- 
ties have the tillable acres of this 
country faced such a possible drain 
upon their bountifulness. Without 
even dimly prophesying the duration 
of the war now raging, we are al- 
ready assured of the fact that next 
year this country will be the store- 
house of the world. Every farm 
owner, eve'ry tenant and every share- 
worker will have his part to play 
in fulfilling this great responsibility. 
No matter how remote his residence, 
he will hear Europe's call for beef, 
bacon and bread, and on the amount 
he has to sell will depend not only 
his satisfaction of having served his 
fellow men but the additional satis- 
faction of having served himself; for 
big crops, much stock, many hogs 
next year will mean big profits. 

It is thus that the American farmer 
begins his fall work with two strings 
to his bow. With one hand he is 
rescuing the perishing and with the 
other, he is reaching out for tangible 
encouragement toward a bank ac- 
count and a better home. 

Now is the Time to Start. 

Now is his apportunity, and this 
month is the time to lay his founda- 
tion. There are two lines along 
which he should plan his work, but 
only one line along which he should 
work his plan. First, he should util- 
ize every available part of his land, 
and second, he should strive to raise 
the average yield of his farm per 
acre. There will be no danger of 
over-production for the crops sown 
this fall. The man who has a hig 
yield will find a big market. But to 
get this yield means better kind of 
farming. Now would be a good time 
to hreak away from some old-fashion- 
ed ideas about the moon; from some 
other old-fashioned ways of shallow 
plowing; and some old-fashioned care- 
lessness in cultivating; and some old- 
fashioned theories in regard to seed- 
ing. In those parts of the country 
which do Fall plowing and Fall seed- 
ing, the way the seed bed is made and 
the way the sowing is done this Fall 
will determine the crop per acre next 
year more than next year's rainfall, 
hot winds or frosts. In an experi- 
ment not long ago described by F. L. 
Peterson of the University Farm, at 
Davis, California, he says: 

"As the pressure for supplies be- 
comes greater, it becomes more evi- 
dent that the world cannot afford 
large farms skimmed over with care- 
less culture. In an actual experiment 
a gain of 200 per cent, which was 
made in the productiveness of a cer- 
tain area, 100 per cent, was found to 
be due to better plowing and harrow- 
ing, 50 per cent, to better cultivation, 
and the rest to better seed." 

A lesson or two like that in every 
community would soon work its way 
into farm operation in such a way 
that several costly practices sanction- 
ed by time and custom would become 
in a short time as historical as crad- 
ling wheat and threshing it with a 
flail are now. The great economic 



law which makes a man's land profit- 
able is not so much the price he gets 
for his produce as it is the difference 
between this price and the amount 
spent in producing this produce. The 
above experiment was apropos of 
the tractor— a mechanical way of 
plowing, and of disking— a mechani- 
cal way of massaging the land, so to 
speak, and of drilling— a mechanical 
way of sowing the seed. In the cost 
of raising a crop, just the same as in 
the cost of making carpets, shoes or 
wagons, hand power and animal pow- 
er cannot compete with mechanical 
power. The mechanically prepared 
seed bed not only costs less in its 
preparation but it gives forth More 
in its ha-vest. 

War Makes Horses Costly to Keep. 

Oats and oil are in the throes of 
a little war of their own just the 
same as the human back once com- 
batted with the reaper knife. This 
strife is fast becoming more acute 
because the already high price of 
horses is being accentuated every day 
by the number being sold out of the 
country for cavalry mounts to be 
used abroad. The drain upon the 
American horse supply will soon be 
such that wherever possible mechani- 
cal contrivances will be used to do 
their work. Were we to begin at 
once, it will require five years to 
replenish the drain which the war 
has already made upon the horse sup- 
ply of the world. The United States 
Government Department of Agricul 
ture has estimated that it costs $75 
to $80 per year to keep a horse, and 
in a study of horse utility for a period 
covering six years, it was found that 
he averaged only 3.14 hours of work 
per day as his contribution to les- 
sening the high cost of living. In 
contrast with this it was found that 
be ate up the entire yield of one out 
of every five acres which he helped 
to cultivate. It has been shown too 
for every hour he worked it cost 
about sixteen cents: whereas, a full 
horse-power hour can be delivered 
by a high-grade oil engine for only- 
two cents per hour, in both cases, 
interest, fuel, food and depreciation 
being included. Again, in plowing, a 
team of two horses can plow only' 
about two acres per day. In doing 
this, they travel sixteen miles, which 
is a good days pull for horses with a 
load. A small tractor, on the other 
hand— the kind which costs less than 
six horses, weighs less than six and 
with a capacity doing the work of. 
twelve— will plow fully that much in 
an hour or so. It will, furthermore, 
plow deeper and keep it up twenty- 
four each day until the work is com- 
pleted without feeding, resting, or 
growing thin. While it would not be 
wise to dispose of brood mares and 
blooded stock to satisfy the foreign 
buyers, in the end, perhaps, the in- 
creased prices which their puchases 
will undoubtedly bring about will be 
beneficial in forcing thousands of 
farmers to adopt a newer and more 
economical form of power. 

Everyone who cultivates 160 acres 
or more is a candidate for a share 
in the millions of dollars which the 
country-wide adoption of this method 
of plowing will ultimately save. 
Insuring Crops in Advance. 
After plowing, the first duty of a ] 
man is to guarantee the work by 
proper cultivation and disking. With- 
out delving into the chemistry of I 
plant life too deeply, the growth of 
a plant is determined by the proper 
preparation both in the soil and out 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



213 



of it, of air, water and certain salt 
compounds. Rainfall, sunlight and air 
in conjunction with the soil have a 
knack of assembling these elements 
in such a way that the plant grows; 
or failing to assemble them in such 
a way that the plant fails to devel- 
op. Nature has provided for this in- 
termixture of elements for a limited 
time and plant life will go on without 
much outside interference, but, like 
so many other forms of natural 
activity, it is possible for human in- 
telligence to greatly increase the ef- 
fectiveness of nature's work. The 
disk harrow is one of the leading 
nature aiders in fanning. It is said 
that rightly used it does more to in- 
crease crop profits than any other 
farm implement and should be used 
on every farm. It is one of the sim- 
plest implements made; one of the 
. easiest to obtain; simple to run; will 
; stand much hard work; and lasts a 
long time. It is so inexpensive that 
if used on a fair-sized field, it will so 
increase the production that it soon 
pays for itself. In certain parts of 
the United States, a farm without 
a disk or two is as curious a sight as 
a farm without a wagon. 

Proper Seeding, the Broad View. 
After the seed bed is in a condition 
satisfactory for the proper • develop- 
ment of the seed, the next important 
step is to be sure that the seed is 
sown just right. It is only within 
recent years that deflnate, decisive 
tests have been made between sowing 
with a drill and sowing broadcast, 
but so one-sided have been the vari- 
ous tests in regard to these two 
methods that broadcasting is fast 
being numbered among the many old 
methods which farmers are now dis- 
carding. Broadcasting requires more 
seed, and yet it produces a small crop 
of lower grade grain. The reason for 
this is that the seed thus sown is 
not distributed evenly over the 
ground. It does not all start from 
an even depth, nor does it begin 
germinating uniformly. By the use 
of an ordinary drill even without the 
more modern attachments, the seed 
is deposited in fine, slightly compact, 
moist soil, all of it at a uniform 
depth. It is thus carefully covered 
\by the cover chains or press wheels, 
4 it all has an even chance of germinat- 



ing, and all the grain will tend to 
ripen at the same time. It requires, 
furthermore, much less seed to get a 
good stand with a drill than by broad- 
casting. 

Proper disking and proper sowing 
are the best ways to help nature give 
a good crop. There is very little 
more expanse in doing it right than 
in doing it wrong, and the returns are 
much greater. 

The handwriting on the wall is 
plainly visible and we should prepare 
ourselves to meet the crisis before 
the crisis meets us. It means much, 
and yet, all that we can do is to do 
all that we can with the exercise of 
care and thrift. Our work begins 
this fall in our plowing and seeding, 
and our opportunity to help will come 
next year at our harvesting and sell- 
ing. We have more at stake than our 
profits, although our profits will be 
a goodly stake. We have at stake 
our commercial supremacy, our agri- 
cultural leadership and above this, 
towering over everything and stifling 
our selfish hope of gain, or our com- 
mercial instincts, is our ability and 
our willingness to fill the pitiful hands 
which we know will be stretched out 
to us from the devastated, wasted 
fields across the seas. 



The Scandinavian American Bank 

OF TACOMA 

With assets of over TWO MILLION DOLLARS 
invites your business 

DO YOUR BANKING BY MAIL 



COFFMAN, DOBSON & CO., BANKERS 

CHEHALIS, WASHINGTON 

Twenty-eig-ht years without change of management, and every demand 
unequivocally paid with Legal Tender. 

Distinctly a Farmers' Bank with thousand! of farmers for its cus- 
tomers. 

Farm Loans for Agricultural Development- 




Ornament 

your home yard 
at moderate cost 

Suggestions cheerful- 
ly given. Write today 



MITCHELL NURSERY 
COMPANY 

Larchmont Station 
Tacoma, Wash. 



Statement of the Ownership and 
Management of the Northwest Horti- 
culturist & Dairyman, as required by 
the Act of August 24, 1942: 

The name of the editor, manager 
and publisher is C. A. Tonneson, of 
Tacoma, Washington. The, ownership 
is not an incorporation and there are 
no bondholders, mortgagees or other 
security holders holding 1 per cent, 
or more of total amount bonds, mort- 
gages or other securities. 

(Signed) C. A. TONNESON. . 

Subscribed and sworn to before me 
this 6th day of October, 1914. 

daniel McGregor, 

Notary Public, residing at Tacoma, 
Washington. 

DEADERS are requested 
*^ to send information to 
us pertaining to the best 
methods of practical co-oper- 
ation. N. W. Horticulturist Box 1604 



A. G. Tl LLI NGH AST 

A. G. Tillinghast, pioneer seedsman 
and proprietor of the Puget Sound 
Seed Gardens, La Conner, Wash., 
passed from this life an October 1st, 
at noon, while on his way from his 
home to the postoffice. He was 70 
years old, a native of Pennsylvania, 
came to Skagit County, Washington, 
in 1872, locating at Padilla, where he 
established a few years later, his 
present successful seed business, and 
subsequently moved to La Conner. 
He was one of the noted cabbage seed 
growers of the world, his careful 
methods combined with suitable soils 
and climatic conditions made competi- 
tion in his vocation almost impossible. 
He was broad minded and true, ever 
aiming for progress in the great work 
of redemption of man from all that 
is selfish. He was a member of the 
Pacific Coast Association of Nursery- 
men. He is survived by a widow and 
son, Francis, who have formed the 




IOR 

IALLOOWING 

"Diamond Quality" 
TESTED 

CLOVERS— ALFALFA 
VETCHES— GRAINS 
GRASSES and FIELD 

SEEDS 

MIXTURES for DRY LAND- 
WET LAND— BURNS— Permanent 
HAY CROPS and PASTURES — 
COVER CROPS for ORCHARDS 

WRITE FOR SAMPLES 

[and Price8 or Send in Your 
[Order— You will Receive 
Prompt Service and Full Value 

ASK FOR CATALOG No. 5/ 

PORTLAND 
SEED CO. 

Portland, Ore. 
Agents "CLIPPER" Fanning Wills 

Tillinghast Seed Company, and will 
continue to carry on the business as 
now established. 




APPLE SIZER. 

Mr. Fridolf Nelson, North Yakima, 
invented an apple sizer, for grading 
apples .which was awarded first prize 
at the Washington State Fair. Its fea- 
tures are simplicity, accuracy, speed 
and moderate cost. He is planning to 
manufacture a considerable number to 
be ready for use by another year. 




PUYALLUP PIONEER BUYS MAXWELL, 
and Mrs. John Waller, of the Puyallup Valley, in their new Maxwell 25, purchased recently from the Maxwell- 
Service. 

Waller is a pioneer of the Puyallup Valley, having lived on his place near the Indian School for nearly 25 
He has taken much interest in automobiles since their early development, and has worn out one car. 
coming of paved roads through the valley prompted Mr. Waller to get a more handsome car for himself 
family, and after considerable investigation he chose the Maxwell 25. 



REGISTERED HOLSTEINS AT 

CARNATION STOCK FARM. 

On Wednesday, November 11, 1914, 
the first annual fall sale of Holstein- 
Freisian cattle, including milch cows, 
heifers, bulls and bull calves, will be 
held on Carnation Stock Farm. This 
comparatively new farm, established 
only a few years, is breeding only 
registered Holsteins. The farm is lo- 
cated at Carnation, Washington (on 
the C. M. & St. P. R. R.), in the Sno- 
qualmie Valley, 15 miles from Seattle 
by auto via Kirkland. 

There will be about 72 head of reg- 
istered stock sold, of which 2S are 
Holstein cows, all bred, either to 01- 
lie Johanna Sir Fayne No. 59096, or 



2U 

Dutchland Governor Sir Colantha No. 
90477. A number of one to two-year- 
old Holstein heifers, all of which are 
bred to Dutchland Governor Sir Colan- 
tha No. 90477. About 25 young bull 
and heifer calves, sired by Dutchland 
Governor Sir Colantha No. 90477 or 
Premo Gerben Julip No. 89296 or Lad 
Ornisby Kakenstein No. 95288. 

Judging from the pedigree of Ollie 
Johanna Sir Fayne, whose sire is Sir 
Johanna Fayne No. 42147, dam, Ollie 
Watson Prima Donna No. 71767 (both 
with high records) as head of the Car- 
nation herd, the cows which are bred 
and put up for sale can hardly fail to 
make exceptionally good buys for 
those interested in buying good dairy 
stock as well as those who are look- 
ing for show stock. 

Ollie Johanna Sir Fayne No. 59096, 
won second prize at the 1913 National 
Dairy Show in Chicago. During the 
show season of 1913 he won grand 
championship honor at a number of 
leading state and interstate fairs. He 
is less than six years old and as he 
develops and matures should rank as 
one of the best show animals of his 
breed. 

There has been much favorable 
comment recently regarding the Car- 
nation Stock Farm by numerous visit- 
ors. Those interested in dairying 
and registered Holsteins would give 
themselves a treat to visit this farm 
during the time of the sale, even 
though they would not be interested 
in buying. 

The following is a short list of some 
of the well known stock which is 
owned by Carnation Stock Farm: 

Ollie Johanna Sir Fayne, No. 59096. 

Dutchland Governor Sir Colantha 
No. 90477. 

Forward Prince Segis No. 125061. 

Inka Princess Mutual De Kol No. 
65425. 

Queen Ormsby Mutual De Kol 
No. 65425. 

Ruby Pietertje of Forest Hill No. 
98867. 

Minnie Star No. 76545. 

Parthenea Clothilde Artis De Kol 
No. 95769. 

Mink Tirania Fayne Lady No. 
173548. 

The Carnation Stock Farm herd is 
largely made up by purchasing several 
of the best cows out of a number of 
different herds in the East. They 
are shipped to a centr%l point in Wis- 
consin, and then shipped by express to 
the Carnation Stock Farm. 

Complete reference catalogue of all 
stock to be sold at this sale is now 
being printed and will be sent upon re- 
quest to those interested, as adver- 
tised in this paper. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



DE KALB'S HAMPSHIRES 

Mr. H. D. De Kalb of De Kalb.Iowa, 
breeder of Hampshire hogs, has pur- 
chased a farm near Hanford, Wash- 
ington, on which he will locate in 
the spring of 1915. Mr. De Kalb's 
pure bred herd was founded in 1905, 
making first purchase from E. C. 
Stone, Armstrong, Illinois. Since 
then he has followed careful lines 
of breeding and selection, buying 
the best animals known of this breed 
without regard to cost. He held a 
public sale at Council Bluffs, Iowa, in 
March, 1913, selling 50 head at an 
average price of $108.49 each. Includ- 
ed in the sale at that time was the 
highest price sow ever sold of this 
breed — Jennie Aylor which brought 
$460. 

In the spring of 1914 another pub- 
lic sale was held of 67 head, princi- 
pally young gilts which averaged 
$87.50 each. For his present herd 
sire, a son of Jennie Aylor, he has 
been offered $1250. This boar mea- 
sures 75 inches in length from nose 
to root of tail, 72 inches heart girth, 
stand 36 inches high, 9% inches leg 
bone and weighs 775 pounds at 2 
years of age. This herd contains 
25 sows which average 650 lbs. at 
3 years of age. These hogs are easi- 
ly developed to a weight of 250 lbs. 
at 8 months. This herd is said to be 
the best of the Hampshire breed 



in the United States and the people 
of Washington particularly those who 
are interested in the development of 
the swine industry have / reason to be 
elated because of the acquisition of 
so prominent a breeder to this State. 



FRYAR'S OCTOBER CATTLE SHIP- 
MENT 

Mr. B. S. Fryar returned from the 
east early this month with 60 head 
of pure bred and high grade Holsteins 
and 30 Guernseys. 

Of the Guernseys, 10 are registered 
having definite producing records 
back on both sides of high merit. 
The others are all of good dairy 
type well up near the pure bred line, 
some of them fine 2 year heifers, 
some near fresh cows and some 
youngsters. 

The Holsteins are mostly fresh 
and near fresh cows of deep milking 
capacity, quite a number of young 
heifers and some young registered 
bulls. 

Mr. Fryar's old customers are now 
making a growing demand for pure- 
bred sires. 

They realize it pays to breed up, 
getting a little larger milk and butter 
producing capacity out of each fol- 
lowing generation and this can best 
be done by the use of a sire with re- 
cords of value back on both sides to 
indicate his worth as a breeder. 

Another way to get into the pure 
bred line at least cost, is by pur- 
chasing pure bred heifers. While 
it takes some feed to raise them, 
most dairymen who have made their 
start by that method have made it 
pay well. Mr. Fryar has now on 
hand a very large and choice collec- 
tion of dairy cattle having had in 
view the needs of numerous dairy- 
men in the Pacific Northwest at the 
present time. 



SHEEP AND MUTTON 

Farmers in the Northwest, paricu- 
larly in the coast section are giving 
but little attention to sheep raising 
for mutton. Small flocks could be 
kept profitably on many more places 
than is done at the present time. A 
few suggestions along this line here 
following are given by the Informa- 
tion Office, U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture. 



COTTON SEED MEAL 

Cotton seed meal is selling at low 
prices in the south and it seems a 
good time to use it in fattening young 
cattle in connection with other feeds. 



Farmers Like the 
MAXWELL=25 

The Maxwell 25 is proving just as popular with ranchers as 
with city buyers. 

Of the first carload delivered to us, half went to country 
owners. 

It is so handsome v yet so sturdy and economical, that it ap- 
peals to the whole family. 

Less than a cent a mile for gas, as well as the low price 
of the car to begin with, strikes the man. 

The beautiful lines of the car, its comfort, and the electrical 
starting and lighting, appeals powerfully to the woman. 

But the best way to tell you about it is to show you the car 
itself. 

Call at the show room, corner 7th and C Streets, or if you 
cannot call, write or phone us. 



Gramtti 




Cor. 7th & C St. Tacoma, Wash. Main 3328 



When fed in connection with corn and 
clover or alfalfa there is profit in 
using the cottonseed meal at $22 to 
$24 per ton f. o. b. southern points. 



GUERNSEYS AT OHIO STATE FAIR 

According to the Guernsey Breeder's 
Journal there were 61 head of Guern- 
seys exhibited at the Ohio State fair 
this year, all choice animals 

Mr. E. H. Baker, Gates Mill, Ohio, 
the father of Mr. Frank S. Baker, 
Tacoma, proprietors, Tacoma Daily 
Tribune, showed 19 head and won 
first on senior sire, Governor of Kee- 
waydin, and first on senior cow, Imp 



Glenora, of the Gouies, besides many 
other prizes on young stock. 

Other exhibitors were R. D. Gates, 
Novelty, Ohio, with 14 head; The Vil- 
lage Farm of Grass Lake, Mich., with 
14 head; E. C. Peck, of Macedonia, 
Ohio, with 10 head; and W. D. Phelps, 
Columbus, Ohio, with 4 head. 

Ohio had 258 Guernseys in ad- 
vanced registry work last year. 



The Guernsey sire Melba's Prince, 
owned by Elmer Lenfest, was exhibit- 
ed at the Snohomish County Fair. 
He was an object of much attraction 
to those interested in Guernseys. 



SYRUP MADE FROM APPLES. 



Department of Agriculture Applies for Public Service Patent. Will En- 
able Cider Mills to Make a Keeping and Valuable. By- 
product Out of Excess Cider. 



Following extensive experiments be- 
gun last spring, the head of the fruit 
and vegetable utilization laboratory of 
the Department of Agriculture has ap- 
plied for a public service patent cov- 
ering the making of a new form of 
table syrup from apple juice. This 
patent will make the discovery, which 
the specialists believe will be of great 



value to all apple growers as a means 
of utilizing their culls and excess ap- 
ples, common property of any cider 
mill in the United States which 
wishes to manufacture and sell apple 
cider syrup. 

The new syrup, one gallon of which 
is made from seven gallons of ordin- 
ary cider, is clear ruby or amber 




Holland 
Bulbs 

JUST ARRIVED. EV- 
ERYTHING IN NUR- 
SERY STOCK. PRICES 
THE LOWEST. ASK 
FOR OUR NEW CAT- 
ALOG. 

MT. VERNON 
NURSERY 

MOUNT VERNON, 
WASH. 



colored syrup, of about the consist- 
ency of cane syrup and maple syrup. 
Properly sterilized and put in sealed 
tins or bottles, it will keep indefinite, 
ly, and when opened, will keep under 
household conditions as well as other 
syrups. It has a distinct fruity aroma 
and special flavor of its own which is 
described as being practically the 
same as the taste of the syrupy sub- 
stance which exudes from a baked 
apple. 

The syrup can be used like maple 
or other syrups for griddle cakes, cer- 
eals, household cookery, and as flav- 
oring in desserts. The Government 
cooking experts are at present experi- 
menting with it in cookery and expect 
shortly to issue recipes for use of 
the new syrup in old ways and for 
taking advantage of its special flavor 
in novel dishes. 

The Department chemists have al- 
ready produced over ten gallons of 
this syrup in their laboratories, us- 
ing summer and other forms of ap- 
ples. The success of the experiments 
has greatly interested some of the 
apple growers, and during October a 
large cider mill in the Hood River 
Valley, Oregon, will in cooperation 
with the Government chemists, en- 
deavor to produce 1,000 gallons on a 
commercial scale and give the new 
product a thorough market test by 
making it accessible through retailers 
in a limited field. The interest of ap- 
ple growers in the product arises 
from the fact that the new apple 
cider syrup promises to give them a 
commercial outlet for vast quantities 
of windfall and other apples for which 
they hitherto could find no market 
either in perishable raw cider or in 
vinegar. Cider production, it seems, 
comes largely at one season of the 
year during which the market is more 
or less flooded with this perishable 
product. The bulk and perishability 
of the raw cider, moreover, the cider 
makers state, often make it unprofit- 
able for them to ship the raw cider 
of one district long distances to a 
non-apple-growing region. The market 
for cider, therefore, has been largely 
restricted in many cases to localities 
near the area of production. No 
method of sterilizing ordinary cider 
has been found practical for the rea- 
son that boiling cider at once inter- 
feres with its delicate flavor. 

With the cider mill able to make 
a palatable, long-keeping table syrup 
out of its apple juice, growers, it is 
believed, will be able to use all ex- 
cess juice for bottled or canned apple 
syrup. The new syrup, the special- 
ists find, will keep indefiinitely, so 
that the cider makers can market it 
gradually throughout the year. 

The process for making the syrup 
calls for the addition to a cider mill 
of a filter press and open kettles or 
some other concentrating apparatus. 
The process is described as follows: 
The raw cider is treated with pure 
milk of lime until nearly, but not 
quite, all of the natural malic acids 
are nuteralized. The cider is then 
heated to boiling and filtered through 
a filter press, an essential feature of 
the process. The resultant liquid is 
then evaporated either in continuous 
evaporators or open kettles, just as 
ordinary cane or sorghum syrup is 
treated. It then is cooled and allowed 
to stand for a short time, which 
causes the lime and acids to form 
small crystals of calcium malate The 
syrup is then re-filtered through the 
filter press, which removes the crys- 
tals of calcium malate and leaves a 
syrup with practically the same 



THE NORTHWEST 

basic composition as ordinary cane 
syrup. Its flavor, however, and ap- 
pearance are distinctive. 

Calcium malate, the by-product, is 
a substance used in medicine and at 
present selling for $2 per pound. It 
is believed that if calcium malate can 
be produced in this way cheaply and 
in large quantities, it can be made 
commercially useful in new ways, 
possibly in the manufacture of bak- 
ing powder. 

The cost of making this syrup on 
a commercial scale will be determined 
during the test in October. 



HOME CLASSES IN PRACTICAL 
FARMING 
Department of Agriculture in Cooper- 

ation with State Colleges makes 
Available Textbooks, Lectures, 
Lantern Sides, and Labora- 
tory Equipment, 

A plan whereby ten or more farmers 
or farm women can form home 
classes in agriculture or domestic 
science and receive the textbooks, 
lectures, lantern slides, laboratory and 
cooking equipment necessary to con- 
duct them has been devised by the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture in 
cooperation with Agricultural Colleges 
of certain States. 

The object of the plan is to make 
accessible at home, to men and 
women who have not the time or 
means to attend the regular courses 
at the colleges, practical short courses 
in agricultural and home management 
specially adapted to their districts. 
These courses, which will consist of 
15 to 20 lectures, and will consume 
five or more weeks, can be arranged 
to suit the spare time and conveni- 
ence of each group of people. 

The courses to be offered at first 
are poultry raising, fruit growing, 
soils, cheese manufacturing, dairying, 
butter making, and farm bookkeep- 
ing; and for the women especially, 
courses in the preparation, cooking 
and use of vegetables and cereal 
foods The Department will supply 
lecture and lantern slides covering 
these subjects, and the States which 
have agreed to cooperate in the plan 
will lend to each group laboratory 
and cooking apparatus valued at $100 
and a reference library. The text- 
books and lectures will be made so 
complete that each group can safely 
appoint one of its members as study 
leader to direct the work of the 
course. 

When a group has decided to take 
up the work, the State which cooper- 
ates sends an agent with the Depart- 
ment's representative to organize a 
sample class and assist the leader 
whom they elect in laying out the 
work and in showing him the best 
methods of proceedure. The classes 
commonly are held from 8:00 to 12:00 
in the morning and from 1:00 to 
4:00 in the afternoon, two or three 
days each week. The sessions are 
not held every day, so that the mem- 
bers will have time to attend to their 
farm duties in between the sessions, 
as well as before and after the in- 
struction. The classes meet com- 
monly at the most convenient farm- 
house. During the morning hours, 
textbook wo**k is done. In the after- 
noon laboratory work is conducted, 
and the women who have elected to 
take the domestic science courses 
have practical lessens in cooking. 

Not all of the States have yet 
agreed to cooperate in this plan. 
Last winter experiments along these 
lines were carried out successfully in 



HORTICULTURIST 

THE BEST LINIMENT 

OR PAIN KILLER FOR THE HUMAN BODY 

Gombault's a*. 

Caustic Balsam 



215 



IT HAS NO EQUAL 
— A 



Cf»|f — It in penetrat- 
rill ing, soothing and 
healing, and for all Old 
ILa Sores, Bruises,or 
I II V Wounds, Felons 
Exterior Cancers, Boilf 

Human lv"o"t 

CAUSTIC BALSAM has 

R/irlv ao e<iual a 

DOUJ a Liniment. 



We would say to a 
who buy it that it does 
not contain a particle 
of poisonous substance 
and therefore no harm 
can result from its ex- 
ternal use. Persistent, 
thorough use will cure 
many old or chronic 
ailments and it can be 
used on any case that 
requires an outward 
application with 
perfect safety. 



Perfectly Safe 
and 

Reliable Remedy 
for 

Sore Throat 
Chest Cold 
Backache 
Neuralgia 
Sprains 
Strains 
Lumbago 
Diphtheria 
Sore Lungs 
Rheumatism 
and 
all Still Joints 



REMOVES THE SORENESS -STRENGTHENS MUSCLES 

Cornhill. Tex.— "One bottle Caustic Balsam did 

my rheumatism more good than $120.00 paid in 
doctor's bills." OTTO A. BEYER. 

Price S 1 .SO per bottle. Sold by druggists or sent 
by us express prepaid. Write for Booklet R. 

The LAWRENCE-WILLIAMS COMPANY. Cleveland. 0. 



A VALUABLE 
BOOK FR EE 




It tells of experiments 
In feeding live stork both 
ground and unground grain, 
alfalfa and kafflr oorn— 
also shows how 25% can 
be saved— shows values of 
different foods — tells 
about balanced rations — 
describes 




To get it simply write — 
Send me your book LIVC 
STOCK AND CROUNO FLED. 

STOVER MFG. CO. 

217 IDEAL AVENUE - • • FREEPORT, ILL. 
SAMSON WIND MILLS-ALFALFA GRINDERS 
PUMP JACKS— ENSILAGE CUTTERS 



FINE GOAT RANCH 

800 acres of good land. Over half 
of it can be plowed when cleared. 
Balance fine pasture. Watered by 
creeks and springs. Located on the 
Northern Pacific Railway between 
Portland and Tacoma. Price $15 per 
acre. Good terms. The best proposi- 
tion for a goat ranch in Western 
Washington, subsequently to become 
a dairy farm. This apportunity merits 
careful consideration by any prospec- 
tive stock farmer. 

ACME REALTY COMPANY 
401 Equitable Building, Tacoma. 



FARMS WANTED 

Wanted to hear from owner of good 
farm or unimproved land for sale. 
Send description. 

NORTHWEST BUSINESS AGENCY 
Minneapolis, Minn. 



v ^ Vetch 
8^ Clover 
/ Mjrass Seed 

For Fall Planting 

These important crops call for 
careful and studied seed selection. 

Cheap, inferior seed is expensive 
at any price . Lilly's best seeds are 

99% Pure 

— and we can furnish all seed 
tested for purity and germination. 

Don't take chances. Buy the best. 

We make a specialty of grass and 
clover seed and stand ready to 
back up our claims for supplying 
the best seed possible to get. 

Sold through dealers in LiHy's Trade Marked Satkt 

Fall Catalog Ready 

Mailed free on request. 
THE CHAS. H. LILLY CO.. SEATTLE 



Raise Wheat 

Big money will be made raising 
wheat next few years. We have 
some fine, well improved wheat farms 
in the best wheat raising section of 
Eastern Oregon, $22.50 to $25 per 
acre. Easy terms. Write us and 
mention this paper. 

ACME REALTY COMPANY 
401 Equitable Building, Tacoma. 

Strawberry Plants 

FOR SALE 

Marshall, Magoon and Goodell 

Our plants are as good as th° host 
and cheaper than most. 

W. F. GOULD & SON 

F. F. D. 3, Box 108 Tacoma, Wash. 



Small Fruit Plants 

at 

Wholesale Prices 

Blackberries Gooseberries 
Raspberries Currants 

Loganberries Dewberries 
Strawberries Rhubarb 
Asparagus 

Write for prices. 

F. H. Burglehaus 

SUMNER, WASH. 



Saved 
$17S.OO 

Received lumber O.K. 
Shipped the 10th, got 
here 25th. It 1b better 
than I could get here and 
i saved about $175, enough 
to build my barn. 

J. E. REYNOLDS. 
Junius, 
So. Dakota 



These 4 Farmers 

Saved $1144 
on Lumber 



Saved 
$250.00 

The material was all 
better gradethan local 
yards figured. I had 
enough material left for I 
a few small sheds. You J 
eaved me at least t&jO. i 



Got better lumber, too 

They bought direct from Hewitt-Lea-Funck Co. 

Through our officers, we own the forests and mills, and sell users direct, the 
finest of fir, red cedar, spruce, yellow pine, hemlock, etc., at very great savings. 
Write now for H.-L.-F. catalogs 
and prices 

If you are thinking of building— next Spring or 
maybe within a year or so — write for the ^^^r Saved 

H.-L.-F. Prize Plan Book (10c). the H.-L.-F. ^„„„ 
Barn Book (4c). the H.-L.-F. Silo Folder, $326.00 
the H.-L.-F. Millwork Catalog and lum- 
ber price list. 

If you can send carpenter*s bill for 
freight-paid price. At least, send us 
rough sketch of the building you want 
for estimate. 

Hewitt-Lea-Funck Co. 

Capital tl.0O0.000 Not in any trust 

393 Crary Bldg.. Seattle, Wash, 



Saved 
$393.60 

Lumber O. K. We had 

two of our lumber dealers 
Inspecting our lumber, but 
they had no chance to shoot 

hot air into us. We saved 

over iO'/o (8333.60.) 



We fee! greatly Indebted 
to you for the quality of 
lumber, prompt delivery 
and prices. The same qual- 
ity lumber here would have { 
been nearly one-half more. . 



THOMAS SHEEHAN, 
Weaver, 
Minnesota 



J. O. JOHNSON. 
Fallon, 
Montana 



216 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



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Leading dairymen all over the Northwest are using large quantities of it. They begin with about one quart of Shady Brook Dairy 
Feed per head twice daily — mixing with bran, shorts or other ground feed, for three or four days; then gradually increase the Shady 
Brook and decrease other feed until from four to seven quarts are used at each feeding. 

If your dealer does not handle it, write us. 

GARDEN CITY MILLING CO., Seattle, Wash. 

Send for Pamphlets. 



WALTER SCOTT, MGR. 
317 Board of Trade Bldg., Portland, Ore. 

Seattle Dealers include — Chas. H. Lilly, J. L. Court, Galbraith, Bacon 

Co., Lehman Bros. 



H. P. PRESTON, MGR. 

Eitel Bldg., Seattle, Wash. 

Tacoma Dealers include — Kenworthy & Son, South Tacoma; J. B. 
Stevens, Coast Trading- Co., Hill Cereal Co. 



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Pennsylvania, and this has stimulated 
and interest in the method in other 
States. In one of the Pennsylvania 
classes more men applied than could 
be accommodated, and all of the 20 
men and 15 women who began the 
course completed it. Pennsylvania is 
now arranging for more classes while 
Massachuseets, Michigan, Vermont, 
Florida and other states expect to 
take up the work. 



A PORTABLE FRUIT EVAPORATOR 

At the Washington State Fair was 
on exhibit a portable fruit evaporator 
made in two sizes, of galvanized iron, 
simple in construction but very effici- 
ent and economical in operation. It 
was designed and made by Mr. T. 
J. Redmon, North Yakima, but not 
patented for the reason that Mr. Red- 
mon desires its extensive use in the 
orchards generally in order that fruit 
growers may realize a fair margin 
of profit when unable to market 
fruit otherwise, his principal business 
being the manufacture of irrigation 
pipe. 

The small, or one-man size, as that 
illustrated has a direct air draft; hot 
air entering at the bottom and going 
up through the trays and carrying the 
moisture out at the top. Fire box 
is 18 inches in diameter by 60 inches 
long. The Evaporator holds 40 trays, 




orate in from 16 to 24 hours; apples 
from 2 to 6 hours. 

The cost without trays is about 
$75. Trays are worth about $25 per 

set. 

The two-man size has about double 
the capacity of the One-man size. The 
fire box is 18 inches in diameter by 
60 inches long. Evaporator holds 68 
trays, 3 feet square. The peculiarity 
of this is that the draft is across the 
trays instead of up and through 
them. No moisture from one tray 
touches any other tray of fruit. This 
is about double the cost of the 
smaller sizes. 

The trays may be made of galvan- 
ized wire mesh fastened on frames 
to fit the evaporating compartments. 

For a cheap and hurried conduc- 
tion the evaporator can be made of 
boards, preferably flooring, and lined 
with asbestos paper. But for en- 
durance and figuring for several years 
work the galvanized iron made evap- 
orator no doubt will serve the best 
purpose, most economically. 

A grower near Zillah, Washington, 
dried some peaches, which cost him 
about li/ 2 cents to dry and was of- 
fered Sy 2 cents a pound for the 
dried fruit afterwards. This would 
figure as equivalent to about 50 cents 
per box of the fresh fruit. It would 
not take a large orchard to pay for 
one of these evaporators, at this 
rate. 

Where there is a surplus of win- 
ter apples not moving at fair prices, 
the growers might do well to figure 
on having some of these galvanized 
evaporators made. A little experi- 
menting will soon enable the orhard- 
ist to produce a desirable evaporated 
product and when hundreds are in 
use, there will then be created a 
staple market with ready bidders 
for evaporated apples in the Pacific 
Northwest as is now the case with 
dried prunes. 



3 feet square. Holds about 16 boxes 
of green apples at one charge, or about 
no boxes of peaches. Peaches evap- 



APPLE MARKETING 
COMMERCIALLY. 

The Office of Markets, U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture makes the 
following suggestions on the com- 
mercial marketing of apples, this 
season in a recent letter: 

Growers who live in communities 
where cooperative organizations are 



operated should do all possible to 
strengthen these exchanges. It is as- 
serted that the disloyalty of mem- 
bers is the chief element of failure 
in cooperative enterprises, and grow- 
ers are strongly urged to support 
their association as the best way to 
effect satisfactory distribution. 

Those who grade, pack, and brand 
their barrels in acordance with pro- 
visions of the Sulzer law should be 
more successful in making quick and 
satisfactory sales than otherwise. 
When apples are packed in a stand- 
ard barrel as established by section 
1 of the Sulzer law, and are plainly 
and conspicuously marked as con- 
taining one barrel of apples of one 
of the standard grades described in 
section 2, such a statement if true 
would constitute a satisfactory com- 
pliance with the net-weight amend- 
ment to the food and drugs act. Oth- 
erwise the package, if intended for 
interstate commerce, must be marked 
to comply with the net-weight amend- 
ment to show the quantity of the 
contents, either by weight or by dry 
measure or by numerical count. A 
statement of numerical count must be 
qualified by the size of the apples 
expressed as the average diameter 
in inches to be a statement of quan- 
tity. 

[The same rule holds good to boxed 
apples.] 

With respect to Europe, the Office 
of Markets urges exporters to careful- 
ly watch the movement and assure 
themselves of steamer space and a 



demand on the other side before 
making shipments. Latest announce- 
ments of steamship companies are to 
the effect that fairly regular sche- 
dules will be maintained between 
America and the United Kingdom. 

American apple shippers are ad- 
vised to stimulate the demand and in- 
crease their shipments to Latin Am- 
erica and the Orient. It is sugested 
that by cooperating with the Depart- 
ment of Commerce, extension of trade 
in this respect can be accomplished. 
Inquiries relating to these countries 
should be addressed to the Bureau 
of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 
Washington, D. C. Shippers are ur- 
ged to apply to the superintendent 
of documents for the following publi- 
cations issued by that bureau, which 
may be secured at the prices shown: 
Special Agents' Series, No. 62, 30 
cents; No. 72, 10 cents; and No. 81, 
25 cents; Special Consular Reports, 
No. 62, 10 cents; and Tariff Series, 
No. 19a, 5 cents. Remittances should 
be in cash or by money order. Stamps 
are not accepted. Attention is called 
to an anouncement of the Department 
of Commerce that it will aid in every 
practicable way. 

For the benefit of those who may 
not be disposed to exercise especial 
care in handling the crop, on the 
grounds that it will not be worth 
while, the Office of Markets suggests 
it as probably being true of this year 
that not only proper handling, but 
also great diligence will be required 
for effecting satisfactory distribution. 



AGRICULTURE 



The Basis of 
Prosperity 



ORGANIZATION AMONG 
FARMERS. 

T. N. Carver, Director of Rural Or- 
ganization Service, U. S. Department 
of Agriculture, treating the subject of 
organization of rural interests in a 
recent year book, says there is no 
magic about cooperation. If, as the 
result of cooperation, farmers are led 
to improve their business methods, it 
will succeed; otherwise it will fail. 
These improvements in their business 
methods should include the following 



points: 

(1) Accounting and bookkeeping. 
No cooperative organization of any 
kind can hope to succeed, nor would 
it deserve to succeed, unless it keeps 
its books accurately and completely. 
Correct accounting is the key to all 
successful administration, public or 
private, cooperative or individualistic. 

(2) Auditing. No one with any feel- 
ing of responsibility will undertake to 
advise a cooperative society or stand 
in any way responsible for its affairs, 
unless that society will submit its 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



217 



InsureVour Harness 



The worst enemies of 
leather are dust and sweat. 
They get into the pores of the 
leather, dry it up and soon make 
tugs and breeching unsafe. Pro- 
tect your harness with 

EUREKA 

Harness Oil 



It seals up the pores and keeps out the 
destructive elements. It keeps your har- 
ness soft, pliable and strong; preserves 
its original inky-black color. It con- 
tains no acid or other injurious 
ingredients. Dealers everywhere. 



Standard 

Oil 
Company 

(CALIFORNIA) 



The Puyallup Nursery a? r Er 

Specialty 

Large stock of Ornamental Evergreen Shrubs and Trees propagated on 
our own grounds. Make your own selections. Shipping season begins in 
October. 

Everything worth while in Roses, Gladiolli, etc. Send for list. 

Specimen Grounds, 702 PIONEER AVENUE, EAST 
A. LINGHAM PUYALLUP, WASH. 



books annually for a thorough audit- 
ing by a competent and reliable audit- 
ing company. 

(3) Motive. It must be prompted 
by a constructive desire for well-un- 
derstood economies and not by rancor, 
or jealousy, or covetousness, or any 
other destructive sentiment. One ot 
the most frequent causes of failure in 
cooperative enterprises is the fact 
that the whole enterprise was started 
out of something very closely resem- 
bling spite, or the fear that somebody 
might be making something in the 
way of profit. If a storekeeper or 
anyone else is making a profit by 
reason of efficiency with which he 
runs his business or serves his cus- 
tomers, he is entitled to it, and any 
cooperative society which is started 
merely for the purpose of keeping 
him from making that profit is doom- 
ed to fail. If, however, there are 
clearly perceived wastes occurring, due 
to inefficiency, bad management, or 
the taking of excessive profits, and 
a cooperative society is formed for 
the constructive purpose of eliminat- 
ing those wastes through better man- 
agement, the society will have the 
first requisite of success, namely, the 
fact that it deserves to succeed. 
In Marketing. 

The general subject of marketing is 
provided for under the capable man- 
agement of the Office of Markets of 
the Department of Agriculture. Inas- 
much, however, as the subject of or- 
ganization is very closely associated 
with the subject of markets, and the 
Rural Organization Service and the 
Office of Markets are working in the 
closest cooperation, it is not out of 
place to suggest here a few of the 
main conditions of successful market- 
ing. They are: 

(1) The improvement of the pro. 
duct. This ought to be one of the 
first results of cooperation. A group 
of farmers, all interested in growing 
the same product, by meeting fre< 
quently and discussing the problems 
connected with the growing of that 
product, will normally educate one 
another and thus improve their meth- 
ods of production. 

(2) The standardization of the pro- 
duct through organized production. 
Standardization follows naturally and 
easily if the cooperators are wise 
enough to see its importance. Not 
only must the product be a good pro- 
duct, but it must be graded according 
to the tastes or desires of the con- 
sumers or ultimate purchasers. If the 
producers insist on throwing an un- 
standardized, nondescript product 
upon the market, the consumers, each 
one of whom wants a small and 
simple parcel, and wants that to be 
of a certain kind and quality, will 
never buy of the producers. Some 
one, then, must intervene to do the 
grading and standardizing. But if 
the producers will grade their pro- 
ducts and pack them the way the 
consumers want them, they will be 
able either to sell directly to the con- 
sumer or so to reduce the toll charg- 
ed by the middlemen as to enlarge 
their own profits. 

(3) Branding. An excellent product, 
graded and standardized, must then 
be so branded or trade-marked as to 
enable the consumer to identify it 
or to recognize it when he sees it. 
That is really all there is to the 
stamp on a coin. It adds nothing to 
the intrinsic value of the metal, but 
it makes it circulate. Without such a 
stamp, each individual would have to 
weigh and test a piece of metal which 



was offered him, and the circulation 
or salability of the metal would be 
greatly restricted; but a stamp upon 
it, which the average receiver recog- 
nizes at once and in which he has 
confidence, makes him instantly will- 
ing to accept it. This may be an ex- 
treme case, but it does not differ in 
principle from the stamping of any 
other salable piece of material. A 
private stamp is quite as good as a 
Government stamp if people have as 
much confidence in it as they have in 
a Government stamp and if it is as 
reliable and as uniform. Private 
coins have circulated many times in 
the past. However, without taking 
such extreme case as the coinage of 
metal except by way of illustration, it 
will not take much argument to con- 
vince the average person that if a 
box of apples bearing a certain stamp 
or trade-mark gets to be known as re- 
liable and good all the way through, 
the producer or the producing associa- 
tion whose stamp has thus gained con- 
fidence will be able to sell where un- 
stamped products equally good will 
fail altogether. 

(4) Education of the consumer. The 
consumer must be educated as to the 
meaning of a stamp or trade-mark 
on goods which are excellent in them- 
selves and uniform in quality. 

Let these four things be done and 
the problem of marketing will become 
fairly simple. But it must be remem- 
bered that these four things can be 
done only by organization. 



COTTON SEED OIL IN FOODS 

Germany, the Netherlands, and 
other northern countries, like our- 
selves, are not fond of eating pure oil, 
but need more butter than the cattle 
produce, so they resort to artificial 
butter and have developed it to a 
high degre of palatability. The sur- 
prising statement is made that the 
principal countries of northern Eur- 
ope are now making artificial butter 
("margarin" they call it") to the ex- 
tent of 580,000 tons per year, and the 
significant part of the story is that 
in 1913 they used as an ingredient 
over 300,000 barrels of cottonseed oil 
from America, and, according to E. W. 
Thompson, Commercial Agent, U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, are plann- 
ing for an increase in 1914. 

By their recently discovered process 
of solidifying liquid oils, cottonseed 
oil is now beginning to compete with 
hard coconut oil, which sells at even 
higher prices than olive oil, and is be- 
coming very popular as an ingredient 
of artificial butter. 



SEED CORN, SELECTION, STORING 

Better yields are obtained where 
the seed is saved from home-grown 
corn than from corn which seems to 
be equally good, but brought from 
other places. The best success will 
result when farmers save the best 
ears of corn from their own fields for 
seed. If a farmer, contemplating 
growing corn next year, does not have 
seed of his own to save he should get 
permission to select some of his 
neighbor's 

It is necesary to give more care to 
seed corn than most other farm 
crops because it matures late in the 
season and contains more moisture 
than such crops as wheat and oats, 
which mature earlier in the summer. 
It should be hung up in a place that 
is dry, where the air may circulate 
freely to prevent molding and so it 
'may become thoroughly dried before 
cold weather sets in. If corn remains 



ALFALFA 

HAY 

From Grower Direct to User 

This Hay is grown on our 
ranch at Mabton, Wash., and is 
cut and cured so as to afford 
the highest feeding value. 

Order now because the price 
of hay will rise as winter ap- 
proaches. 

KARR INVESTMENT GO. 

16 North 6th St. 
NORTH YAKIMA, WASH. 



Lewis County Farms 

We make a specialty of Lewis 
County lands. The best for farm- 
ing, dairying and stock raising 
in Western Washington. Well im- 
proved farms that raise 100 to 
120 bu. oats, 35 to 50 bu. wheat 
or 5 to 6 tons of hay per acre. 
On daily mail, milk and cream 
routes, phone line, etc. Close to 
good market, railroad and 
schools, $50 to $100 per acre, in- 
cluding stock, tools and machin- 
ery. Write for our list. 

ACME REALTY COMPANY 

401 Equitable Bldg, Tacoma, Wn, 



VETCH 

CLOVER and other 

GRASS SEEDS 

GET your orders in early 
to make sure of mini= 
mum price. Remember 
ours won't stay in the 
ground. They grow. cata= 
log and price list on appli- 
cation. 

J. J. BUTZER 

188 Front St., Portland, Ore. 



Loganberry Plants 

We have a full line of Loganber- 
ries. Mammoth Blackberries. Also 
choice grades of nursery stock and 
will be pleased to have you make 
your wants known to us. "Would 
like to get in touch with some good 
live salesmen. Good opportunities. 
Write for particulars. 

Address 

Albany Nurseries, Inc. 

ALBANY, OBI. 

G. W. Pennebaker, Mgr. 



218 

damp £«t a l° n § time, even though 
it may not appear to be moldy, or if 
it freezes before it is dry, the vitality 
and vigor will be reduced. In this 
condition it will either not grow, or 
it will produce weak stalks when 
planted next year. More than enough 
seed corn should be saved so that 
the less desirable ears may be dis- 
carded when the grain is shelled and 
prepared for planting. 

In drying and storing it should be 
remembered that each kernal is a 
living plant. In order to retain strong 
vitality, which is at its maximum at 
the time of maturity, the ears must 
be dried and carefully preserved. 
Special drying racks are sometimes 
used for this purpose. A simple me- 
thod, however, which is often em- 
ployed is that of fastening a number 
of ears together with a single or 
double string. By this means twelve 
to fifteen ears may be fastened on 
the same string and suspended from 
the rafters of an attic or other suit- 
able place. The important thing is 
that seed corn be saved before it is 
used up for other purposes or before 
it loses its vitality. The possibility 
of making corn a successful crop in 
Washington depends largely upon use 
of acclimated seed, and improving 
the seed now grown in the State. 
B. G. SCHAFBR, 
Farm Crops Dept., Pullman, Wash. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



WASHINGTON WATERS EXCELL- 
ENT FOR MANUFACTURING 

• A report that should be of no little 
value in development of the water re- 
sources of the State of Washington 
has just been published by the United 
States Geological Survey as "The 
Quality of the Surface Waters of 
Washington," by Walton Van Winkle. 
It represents the results of nearly two 
years' examinations and the first sys- 
tematic study of the chemical com- 
position of the waters of the State. 
Little has heretofore been known re* 
garding the character of the waters 
around Puget Sound or those in the 
huge network tributary to Columbia 
River, and consequently waterworks 
and waterconsuming factories have 
located to some extent blindly; but 
by the data now available prospective 
manufacturers are enabled to select 
supplies suited to the peculiar needs 
of their industries. 

Waters Similar to Those of New 
England. 

The studies have shown that the 
mineral waters of Washington are 
low in mineral content and are excel- 
lent for general industrial use and 
for irrigation. What little suspended 
matter they carry is coarse and readi- 
ly removable. The color of some ren- 
ders it advisable to purify them by 
coagulation and rapid sand filtration 
rather than by slow filtration. This 
is contrary to the general belief, 
which has classed all Western waters 
as "alkali," or "hard," or "bad," for 
the studies have shown that most of 
the surface waters of Washington are 
comparable in quality to the extreme- 
ly soft waters of New England, which 
are so extensively used in all lines of 
manufacture. 

The muddiest and most strongly 
concentrated water examined, that of 
Snake River near its mouth, after the 
stream has traversed an arid plain, 
contains only 130 parts per million of 
dissolved and 52 parts of suspended 
matter. The drainage of the Coast, 
Olympic, and Cascade ranges, as indi- 
cated by analyses of water from 
Skagit, Cedar, Green, Chehalis, Wy- 



noochee, Klickitat, Naches, Yakima, 
and W'enatchee rivers, and v Wood 
Creek, carries less than 90 parts per 
million of dissolved solids, and sever- 
al mountain streams frequently carry 
as little as 50 parts. The report con- 
tains the first serial analyses of the 
water of Columbia River, from which 
daily samples were collected for a 
year at Northport and Pasco and for 
two years at Cascade Locks, the low- 
est place on the river unaffected by 
tides. All the waters are of the cal- 
cium-carbonate type. The content of 
suphate is not large and chlorine is 
very low. Iron is generally so low as 
to be almost inappreciable. Silica, 
though not present in very great 
quantity, constitutes a large propor- 
tion of the mineral matter. 

No Soda Lakes. 

The beds of the coulees in the Big 
Bend region contain several small 
and a few large lakes, many of which 
are really playas, or intermittent shal- 
low pools. All contain carbonate 
water but none is known whose water 
is economically important as a source 
of commercial salts. They contain 
a greater proporation of common salt 
than the lake waters of Southeastern 
Oregon and are therefore less valu- 
able for the recovery of soda. 

The work, which was conducted in 
cooperation with the State Board of 
Health, comprised collection and ex- 
amination of daily samples of water 
from principal streams throughout a 
year; in addition to the complete an- 
alyses made in this way daily esti- 
mates of chlorine and alkalinity of 
most of the waters have been report- 
ed as an aid in the proper adjust- 
ment of purifying agents in case of 
filtration. The volume is illustrated 
by a map of the State and it also con- 
tains much information regarding the 
courses of the streams and economic 
development within their drainage 
basins. It has been issued as Water- 
Supply Paper 339, and copies of it 
can be obtained by addressing the 
Director, Uniter States Geological 
Survey, Washington, D. C. 



CEMENT TILE PROPER- 
LY MANUFACTURED. 



Durable When Correctly Made 

Editor, Northwest Horticulturist 
and Dairyman: Please allow me space 
<n your paper to answer a communi- 
cation from my esteemed friend, Mr. 
W. H. Kaufman, of Bellingham. In 
the first place, I will state my busi- 
ness which is that of manufacturing 
of cement tile and cement goods of 
all kinds. 

There are four essential points in 
this business; first, a clean sharp 
sand; second, the best and most pow- 
erful machinery made for the purpose 
with plenty of power to drive the 
same; third, a proper knowledge of 
how to mix the cenment and sand 
as well as just how to wet, to mix, 
and adjust the machines; and fourth, 
but not least, the art of curing the 
goods properly. 

Of the first I will say clean sharp 
sand is a very scarce article here in 
Whatcom County. Without clean 
sharp sand one had better stay out of 
the business for you will soon go out 
with less money and more experi- 
ence, besides hurting the farmer and 
the man who has the clean goods. 

As to the second, cheap weak poor- 
ly contructed machinery poorly hand- 
led will make a failure of the best 
cement and sand made. There is a 



Quaker Trees 



FRUITS 
ORNAMENTALS 
SHRUBS 



A Fine Stock of Apples, Pears, Peaches, Plums, Prunes, Apricots and 
Small Fruits. 

It Is a good year to increase the ornamental planting. Thousands 
■will come to the Pacific Coast seeking homes during the next few years. 
Do you wish to sell any part of your land, or your home place, or do you 
wish to encourage settlers who have some degree of taste and refine- 
ment? Then adorn your home with some ornamental plants, shrubs and 
trees. The cost is trifling compared with the actual value which may be 
derived. Our catalog contains valuable suggestions. 

Write for catalog and price list today. State your requirements. 

QUAKER NURSERIES 



Good Agents Wanted. 



C. F. LANSING, Prop. 



8ALEM, OREGON 



DONALD GROWN NURSERY STOCK 

That is what you want. Now is the time to make arrangements 
for your fall's requirements. Mail us your want list for quotations 
and ask for our illustrated descriptive catalogue. 

DONALD NURSERY CO., Inc. Donald, Or. 

SALESMEN WANTED. 



BEAUTIFY YOUR HOMES 

We are this season enjoying an 
unusually good trade on shade and 
ornamental trees, vines, shrubbery, 
etc. For years the western home- 
builder has devoted all his energy 
to creating a productive plant. To- 
day his thoughts are turned more 
to home-making in the fullest sense 
of the term. This requires a well 
disposed arrangement of properly 
selected trees, vines and shrubbery, 
and this need we are well prepared 
to supply. We have devoted much 
time and effort to securing the 
proper class of ornamental stock 
for all sections of the West and 
Northwest, and the wisdom of this 
policy is exemplified in our largely 
increased business in this line, to- 
gether with a good volume of or- 
ders for deciduous fruits, berries, 
grapes, ets. 

Our salesmen cover practically 
every city and hamlet west of the 
Rocky mountains. If they fail to 
see you, address us, giving indi- 
cations of your wants, and we will 
be pleased to reply in detail, to- 
gether with catalog. 

We have a well equipped land- 
scape department in charge of a 
qualified landscape architect, whose 
advice is to be had for the asking 
in connection with any order we 
book. 

Our stock is, as usual, unsur- 
passed. It is grown on clean, new 
volcanic ash soil, far distant from 
old orchards or other sources of 
contamination. It is clean, well 
rooted, hardy and splendidly ma- 
tured. We solicit your patronage, 
and guarantee you satisfaction. 

All transportation charges pre- 
paid to destination on every pur- 
chase. 

WASHINGTON NURSERY CO., 
Toppenish, Washington 

Salesmen Wanted. 




Have You Read This? 

"At my home on Nob Hill, I have 
two Walnut trees which I purchased 
from your Company. They are now 
thirteen years old; were one year old 
when planted. They have been bear- 
ing eight years. The trees are per- 
fectly hardy, having withstood a 
freeze of 20 degrees below zero. I 
gathered over six bushels of nuts 
from those two trees last fall. My 
grocer pronounced them superior in 
size and flavor to California nuts." 
E. W. Brackett, North Yakima. 

Space here forbids much explana- 
tion, but if you will write us, we 
will gladly explain the difference be- 
tween the famous VROOMAN PURE 
STRAIN FRANQDETTE WALNUT 
and the common sort. Tou can af- 
ford and should have at least a few 
of these most desirable trees in your 
orchard. Write us — now. We also 
have, you understand, the largest 
assortment and stock of all kinds of 
fruits, berries, vines, roses, etc.. In 
the West. ORENCO trees are plant- 
ed from coast to coast because they 
are known to be always — dependable 

FILBERTS — Good plants of such 
leading varieties as Barcelona and 
du Chilly. 

OREGON NURSERY CO. 

Orenco, Oregon 

Competent salesmen wanted. 



VETCH SEED 

We make a specialty of vetch seed 
and you will find our prices the very 
lowest. 

CLOVER SEED 

We are located in the best clover 
producing country in the U. S. and 
buy the very best lots for our own 

use. 

When you are in need of vetch, 
clover or any kind of seeds, write us 
for prices. You will always find our 
prices the lowest. 

D. A. WHITE & SONS 

SEEDSMEN 
Salem, Oregon 



AUCTIONEER 

WM. ATKINSON 

Vancouver Blk., Vancouver, B. C. 

Specialist in dairy breeds; grad- 
uate of Jones' National School of 
Auctioneering. Thoroughly exper- 
ienced and wide acquaintance in the 
Pacific Northwest. Write for par- 
ticulars. 



CLOVER SEED 



Red and 
Alsike 

Place orders early to get lowest 
wholesale price. Sample sent if de- 
sired. 

JOHN RHOTEN 
Salem, Ore. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



powerful strain on the machine that 
properly packs the tile that cheap 
machinery will not stand up to. The 
greatest failure comes from this one 
source. My machines are very strong 
and accurate and have plenty of 
power to drive them. They are of 
the Underhead packing type. My tile 
are packed hard enough that I only 
use three casings in making 350 tile 
per hour. . There is no other make of 
machines that will do this. 

Third, as to the proper knowledge 
of making cement goods. If you have 
not got this knowledge get it before 
you start into business for yourself. 
Don't read advertising of cheap mach- 
inery of the so-called fool-proof 
machinery and expect to make a suc- 
cess of the cement business. 

Fourth, now as to the curing of 
cement tile. The walls of tile are 
very thin and of course dry very 
rapidly and if allowed to dry to quick 
will render useless the best made tile. 
My tile is kept clear of the wind and 
sun for at least three days under the 
natural curing process. For thirty 
days afterwards are kept wet in the 
pile. The latest and most modern 
process is the steam curing and that 
is the process that I have used the 
last year and will use in the future. 
My tile is set on trucks and run im- 
mediately into a room 16x120 feet, 
filled with live steam from my en- 
gine and kept at a temperature of 
120 degrees. The steam condensing 
on these tile cures it as much in 48 
hours as 21 days under the natural 
curing process. I find by statistics 
that this cheap grade of tile will go 
down in rain water just as quick as 
in the worst peat bogs. 

I have sold more than 125,000 feet 
of tile to the farmers of Whatcom 
County. Part of this going into the 
worst peat bogs of the country, and 
after being in for 15 months is in 
perfect shape to-day. I find that the 
failure of tile invariably comes from 
cheap machines which do not proper- 
ly pack the tile and which is not 
properly cured. It does not come 
from the acids in the soil. 

I will be glad to answer any direct 
inquiry and give any information to 
one who wants to start into the 
business right. The quantity of tile 
made by the cheap machines does 
not hurt my business but it is the 
quality. 

E. W. BATES, 

Lynden, Wash. 



EXPERIMENTING WITH 
PEAS. 



Knowledge merely extends our hor- 
izon; and the farther we can see, 
the more things there are of which 
we know ourselves to be ignorant. 

When I became convinced some 
years ago that peas were one of our 
most profitable crops there was just 
one question I wanted answered — 
"What is the best variety?" 

Having learned something about 
peas, I now have many questions 
which I wish answered — 

What is the best variety for each 
different class of soil? That you 
see is a multitude of questions in one. 

How many pounds should one sow 
per acre of each variety on the 
different kinds of soil? There are 
many more questions. 

From experiments I have tried this 
year I incline to the following rules: 

1. On rich, strong, moist soils, 
short vined peas do best, as long 



vined peas sometimes get to be 18 
feet long; rot off at ground and 
yield little. 

2. On sandy, dry, poor soils long 
vined varieties do best, as short 
vined varieties are hard to harvest. 

3. Sow one and a half to two 
bushels of small peas (Bangalia, 
Canadian) up to 3 bushels of larger 
peas (Kaiser). I have gotten best 
results with 200 lbs. Blue Bells, three 
and two-fifths bushels. 

4. I have seen sprouts coming 
from both halves of split peas. Do 
not know whether this is common 
or uncommon, nor whether the vine 
from split pea is as strong as from a 
whole pea. With potatoes, the rich- 
ness of the soil is very important, as 
in a rich soil a sixteenth of an eye, 
with a very small portion of potatoe 
attached will make a strong vine, 
(vhile in a poor soil one should plant a 
large piece. 

Experiments at Puyallup. 
Prof. W. A. Linklater, of the Puy- 
allup Station kindly offered to try 
some experiments with peas this 
season, and I have the following re- 
port: 

I have written Prof. Linklater ask- 
ing for information as to character 
of soils and subsoils of plats. 

It should also be borne in mind that 
peas were planted at a uniform rate 
of 120 lbs. per acre; although there 
were three different sizes of Blue 
Bells, a large, medium and small; 
the largest running about 1,500 per lb; 
the medium about 1,900 and the small 
still more, though I did not count 
sample. 

My Bangalia run about 3,800 per 
pound,- more than twice as many as 
the large Blue Bells. As the Ban- 
galia vine is longer than the Blue 
Bell, though the leaf is more slender, 
it seems that the Blue Bells should 
be sown at the rate of 3 to 3% bu. 
per acre. My best yield has been 
with nearly Zy 2 bushels, though I 
have never tried more. 

At the Experiment Station two sets 
of plats were tried, and I give the 
relative yields: 

Blue Bell No. 2, 12%. 

Kaiser, 11 8/11. 

Blue Bell No. 3, 11. 

Bangalia 9%. 

Amraoti 7. 

Another set of tests, also at Puy- 
allup, resulted as follows: 
Bangalia, 9%. 
Amraoti, 9%. 
Blue Bell No. 1, 9%. 
Kaiser, 6%. 
Canadian, 6%. 

As will be noticed the results vary 
a great deal; owing possibly to the 
soil not being uniform; to one sort of 
pea being beter adapted than an- 
other to the soil selected; the rate 
of sowing, or to some other reason. 

A thresher told me that he once 
threshed three and an eigth tons of 
peas from a measured acre. I konw 
of many yields above two tons per 
acre. With field selection of seed 
from heavy yielding vines land with 
varieties of peas found to be adapted 
to our several soils there seems no 
good reason why we cannot "breed 
up" our peas as much as corn has 
been bred up. Some years ago my 
father raised 112 bushels of shelled 
corn per acre; but the high record is 
around 220 bushels per acre. 

I will be glad to furnish Blue Bell 
peas to anyone willing to try ex- 
periments first, as to comparative 
yields of different soils, and second 
as to adaptation of different varieties 



VETCH TIMOTHY 
RYE ETC. OVER 99 
PER CENT PURE 



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It is advisable to get orders in early as possible, as prices 
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Don't forget we handle CONKEY FLY KILLER, Conkey 
Lice Powder and all of their Poultry Remedies. 

BARTLETT'S Calf Meal, the perfect milk substitute. 

CYPHER'S Incubators and Brooders. 

Send for Catalog and list today. 

Please mention this paper. 

Seattle Seed Company 

SEATTLE, WASH. 




IH2 Carley Roller 
Feed Mill ,n ess 

THE LATEST AND BUT MILL ON 
THE MARKET TODAY 



Send for Catalog 
Manufactured only by 

Colfax Iron Works, Inc. 

Colfax, Wash. 

Successors to CARLEY BROTHERS 



Shrubs = Plants = Vines - Trees 

Having taken over the entire stock of the Richland Nursery, we are 
prepared to fill orders for all kinds of Flowering Shrubs, Vines, Clarke's 
Seedling Strawberry Plants, European Grape Vines and Shade Trees in 
choice grades. Please let us know your needs early and get a copy of 
our catalog and prices. 



BREITHATJPT NURSERY CO. 



C. F. Breithaupt, Prop. 



Kennewick, Wash. 



WALTER BOW EN & CO., Inc. 

WHOLESALE COMMISSION, FRUITS AND PRODUCE 
Phone: Main 59. SEATTLE, WASH. 1111 Western Are. 

Goods handled strictly on commission. Prompt returns our specialty. 
Wire or write us at any time for market quotations. 

References: National Bank of Commerce, Seattle; Merc. Agrencie*; Ship- 
pers on Pacific Coast. 

WE CAN SELL YOUR GOODS 



250,000 Extra Choice Holland Bulbs 

Hyacinths, Tulips, Crocuses, Iris, Daffodils, etc., in all the latest 
and rarest varieties. Out catalog contains valuable information about 
plants of all kinds and how to grow them. When writing for catalog 
and to obtain a generous discount on orders for the next 30 days. Please 
mention this paper. 

AABLING-EBRJGHT SEED CO. 

89 Pike Street, Seattle, Wash. 




KING OF THE 



With or Without Buzz Saw Attachment 
Will saw 20 to 40 cords of wood per day at a cost of 
$1.00. PULLS ITSELF up the steepest HILL and 
over the roughest ground. Costs less than other makes. 
One man writes he sawed 56 ricks in 10 hours 
Another sawed 40 cords in 9 hours. There' 
more you ought to know. Write for FREE cat- 
aloa containing full description with testimonials^ 
from enthusiastic users. WRITE TODAY 




NURSERY CATALOG FREE 

Full of helpful suggestions to make your place beautiful,— It's up- 
to-date, Instructive. Please mention this paper and write to, 

J. B. PILKINGTON, Nurseryman 
Portland, Ore. 



Producers ft Consumers Co-Operatlve Company 

E. HAZELTON, Pres. & MgT. 
1114-1116 Western Ave., Seattle, Wash. TeL Main 3689. 

(1400 Farmers in our Membership) 
We handle all kinds of farm products, making' channels between producer and 
consumer as short and inexpensive as possible. If not a stockholder, write 
for our prospectus, also our wholesale provision list. State what you 
have to offer in fruit, potatoes, veal, pork and poultry. Please mention this 
paper. 



220 

to different soils and third as 
to proper amount of seed per acre 
form different varieties. 

I would suggest around eight peas 
to the square foot of land; say seven, 
eight and nine; or six, eight and ten 
peas per square foot. 

If others who are interested will 
send me 5 lbs. each of Amraoti, and 
Kaiser I will be glad to make tests 
as to both adaptability to various 
soils and also as to best rate for seed- 
ing. 

Soils are so spotted that many tests 
will be necessary to really settle 
these questions in an authoritative 
way. 

W. H. KAUFMAN, 

Bellingham, Wash. 



REMEDIES FOR POTASH 
SHORTAGE 

Various sugestions have been made 
in regard to steps to be taken by 
farmers in reference to the shortage 
of Potash in their fertilizers, caused 
by the greatly reduced shipments of 
Potash from Germany since the first 
of August. Most of the fertilizer 
Companies have endeavored to make 
the potash on hand go as far as poss- 
ible by selling for the present brands 
of complete fertilizers containing only 
2 or 3 per cent of potash and with- 
holding from sale brands containing 
larger amounts. 

The suggestion that some or all of 
the potash be replaced by phosphoric 
acid is absurd, for every school boy 
knows that one plant food cannot take 
the place of another. There are 
some indirect fertilizers, such as 
lime, gypsum and salt that can re- 
lease a limited amount of potash from 
some soils that contain hydrated 
silicates of Alumina and potash. But 
if these soils have already been treated 
with lime or have received repeated 
dressings of the usual forms of fer- 
tilizer containing soluble phosphate 
with its accompanying gypsum, then 
the potash in the hydrated silicates 
has to a large extent already been 
replaced and the use of more lime 
or gypsum or sale could not be ex- 
pected to release much additional 
potash. Ground limestone or oyster 
shells act too slowly to be used as 
potash releasers. 



THE NORTHWEST 

The residue of soda left in the 
soil by nitrate of soda is more ef- 
fective in releasing potash than is 
gypsum and hence goods, in which 
the nitrogen is largely in the form 
of nitrate of soda, may have a special 
value in the present emergency. 

It is often stated that decaying or- 
ganic matter releases potash from 
the soil but there seems to be no 
direct evidence of this. On the con- 
trary, Dr. S. Peacock states in the 
American Fertilizer of Sept. 5, 1914, 
"Several thoroughly competent re- 
searches have shown that decaying 
organic matter has little effect on con- 
verting inert mineral plant food in 
the soil into available form." 

In any soil the amount of Potash 
capable of being released by these in- 
direct means is a very small fraction 
of the total potash in the soil, most 
of which exists in a form about as 
soluble as window glass. There is no 
known profitable method for render- 
ing this inert potash of the soil 
available fast enough to provide foi 
profitable crops. Whatever temporary 
expedients we may employ in the pre- 
sent emergency, we must keep in 
mind that the Potash thus removed 
from the semi-availabl? soil reserves 
must later be replaced if we are to 
maintain the soil's productiveness. 

There is danger in the statement 
that farmers have been using an ex- 
cess of potash. Crops use on the 
average about two and one half 
times as much potash as phosphoric 
acid, while the average fertilizer 
sold contains only half as much pot- 
ash as phosphoric acid; yet no one 
claims that we are using to much 
phosphoric acid. The potash re- 
maining from previous fertilization 
is practically nothing except in the 
limited areas where a ton or more 
of fertilizer has been used per acre on 
truck crops. Very rarely is half as 
much potash applied to the wheat, 
oats, corn or cotton crop as the crop 
removes. 

The potash mines are so numerous 
and the stocks on hand so large that 
supplies can be promptly sent for- 
ward, as soon as European condi- 
tions permit freight shipments to be 
resumed. 

H. A. HUSTON. 



HORTICULTURIST 





Adequate, available moisture 


IRRIGATION 


at all seasons. 



TREES ON IRRIGATED 
LAND. 



By I. D. O'Donnell, Supervisor of Ir- 
rigation, in Reclamation Record. 

While on the train a few days ago 
I made the acquaintance of an eastern 
man who was coming West in search 
of a home. He had in mind settling 
on a Government irrigation project. 
We were just then crossing one of the 
most successful of the Government 
projects. The well tilled farms made 
an ideal picture and the abundant 
crops in healthful growth were a joy 
to the eye of an irrigation farmer. 
The home seeker did not appear well 
pleased with all the prosperity in 
sight, and in reply to my query as to 
how he liked the looks of the project 
he said, "The settlers have not plant- 
ed many trees." 

This homeseeker voiced a thought 
that has for some time been prominent 



in my mind. The settlers have not 
planted many trees. 

Professor F. S. Cooley, of the Mon- 
tana Agricultural Experiment Station, 
recently told of an old man who had 
sold his farm. He had no children 
and in his declining years the labors 
of the farm became burdensome. A 
friend asked him what on the farm 
he found hardest to leave and he re- 
plied, "It costs me a pang to leave 
the house and barns I have builded 
and the fences and other works I 
have made, but I shall miss most the 
trees I have planted." 

Few things make the farm home 
more attractive than do the trees we 
have planted. 

Everyone who as a child attended 
country school well remembers the 
old poem, "Woodman Spare that 
Tree, ' and approves of the sentiment 
therein expressed. 

Just recall to mind the farms that 
have appealed to you as being attrac- 
tive and home-like and you will find 
that each had its beautiful trees. The 



it has* 

*h© "kick 



9* 




RED CROWN 

Gasoline of 
Quality 

Not a mixture fad 
a straight product 
of refining 

Standard Oil Company 

(calif* o-R-t* i 



Christopher Nursery Co. 

Established at present location for 25 years. Nurserymen for four 
generations is the record. 

APPLE TREES — All leading varieties 4 to 7 feet stocky trees: Yellow 
Transparent, Gravenstein, Wealthy, Wagener, King, Olympia, Baldwin, 
Winesap, Winter Banana, etc. 

PEAR TREES — A fine stock of Bartlett, Anjou, Bosc, Angoulene, Cornice 
and others; also Dwarfs. 

CHERRY TREES — A choice lot of Lamberts, Montmorency and other 
kinds. 

PLUM AND PRUNE TREES— Strong Italian, French, Sugar Bradshaw. 

SMALL FRUITS — Gooseberry, Currants, Blackberry, Raspberry, Logan- 
berry and other classes. Strong plants. 

ORNAMENTALS — Roses affording satisfaction, Azalias, Hollies, berry- 
bearing; Rhododendrons, English Laurels, Blue Spruce and other 
coniferous, and small evergreens. 

Write for prices and complete list and please mention this paper. 

JOHN A. STEWART & SON, Christopher, Wash. 



Headquarters for 

OREGON CHAMPION GOOSEBERRY 

and Perfection Currant 
Attractive prices made now for Advance Orders 
Also a very complete lins of general Nursery Stock, including a 
choice assortment of one-year budded and two-year Apple and Pear. 
Correspondence solicited. 

Portland Wholesale Nursery Co. 

301-302 Stock Exchange Building. PORTLAND, OREGON 

The Place to Buy your Supplies 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



221 



ideal farm home you have in mind to 
make for yourself has its trees. Why 
not plant them at the first opportun- 
ity? Trees grow slowly. 

Trees also have a commercial value. 
Set a small tract of your waste land 
to trees of good varieties and you 
will find a ready sale for them among 
your neighbors and the new-comers in 
your section. What you do not sell 
will mature and furnish you with 
needed material for buildings, fences, 
and repair work. 

From a small plat of less than an 
acre on my farm I have sold several 
hundred dollars worth of young trees 
and I have left enough to make a 
fine grove. 

On some of the Government pro- 
jects the settlers have found it neces- 
sary to set out rows of locust trees 
to protect the crops from blowing 
sand and from the hot, dry winds. 
The settlers on these projects have, 
of necessity, beautified their farms, 
protected their crops, and made in- 
vestments that will prove as profit- 
able as any crop they could grow. 

It is understood, of course, that dif- 
ferent projects will, on account of 
varying climatic conditions, require 
different varieties of trees. As a 
general rule it is well to set out 
varieties that combine satisfaction 
as shade trees with utility when made 
into lumber or fencing material. 
Your state agricultural experiment 
station can be relied upon to give 
you the names of the proper trees to 
plant. 

To make your home attractive; to 
provide wind breaks for the house, 
barn and grounds; to provide wood 
for future use, plant trees of good 
varieties. You will be well repaid. 
Proportion of Plant Adaptability, 

As a general principle, it may be 
stated that the best agricultural con- 
ditions exist when from 10 to 25 per 
cent, of the land is in forest. While 
there is no probability that so large 
a proportion of land will ever be de- 
voted to tree growth on the land on 
the reclamation projects, there is real 
need for a certain amount of forest 
growth upon each ranch. By a care- 
ful selection of species, the choice of 
suitable sites and proper management 
of plantations, enough forest can be 
grown to exercise a, marked effect up- 
on farm and ranch development and 
to supply wood for many purposes. 

Trees of any species adapted to 
local conditions of soil and climate 
can be grown under irrigation. Like- 
wise land which has water within 
15 to 20 feet of the surface, without 
intervening rock strata, is suitable 
for tree growth. Where the level of 
the ground water is much lower and 
conditions are more arid, greater care 
is required to insure success. 

Probably the greatest need for 
planting in a treeless region is for 
protection purposes:— to shelter an 
orchard or a resident site; to prevent 
hot winds from scorching the field 
crops, and to conserve soil moisture 
within the protected area, as well as 
for the protection of stock in open 
pastures. Although a windbreak may 
incidentally furnish useful material, 
its arrangement should be chiefly 
with the view of securing the most 
effective protection along the sides of 
fields and buildings. 

In some cases the farmer will find 
it profitable to devote a few acres of 
good land to trees. It is true that 
some time must elapse before the 
plantation will become productive, but 
by the choice of rapid-growing species 



and by close spacing the thinnings 
which will be necessary in a few 
years will provide material suitable 
for fuel, stakes, and the like. 

Aside from planting for protection 
and wood supply, planting may be ad- 
visable along the canals and ditches 
to reduce evaporation and to hold 
the banks, as well as along the roads 
and streets. 



CO-OPERATIVE ACTIV- 
ITIES FOR IRRIGATORS. 

The passage of the Reclamation 
Extension Bill marks the first for- 
ward step in the new movemnt for 
the prosperity and progress of set- 
tlers on Reclamation projects. 

Secretary Lane in his New Years 
Greeting said to you: "We shall en- 
deavor to give you full opportunity 
to make good." This promise is now 
realized. The opportunity is before 
you. It is for you to make good. 

You can not make good merely 
through the acceptance of this ex- 
tension of time for payment. You 
have much else to do, before your 
success is assured. 

The conditions which made the ten- 
year repayment plan so burdensome 
are still upon you. Your future and 
the future of the Reclamation Service 
depend upon the wisdom with which 
you make use of the credit which the 
Congress has extended to you. 

Every resource within your reach 
must be utilized and developed to its 
fullest, if you are to have that great 
measure of success we all expect to 
see realized. 

One of the most effective and neces- 
sary resources of the rural community 
is the organization for cooperative 
effort. Its greatest strength lies in 
the perfection of mutual enterprises. 

You have greater incentive to com- 
bine for mutual advantage than resi- 
dents of any other rural community. 

There is probably no number of 
farmers in the United States so close- 
ly united by common interest as you 
are. 

The apparent intent of the Reclama- 
tion law is to make you the co-owners 
and co-operators of the irrigation 
works which supply you with water. 

Inasmuch as upon the proper opera- 
tion of such works the prosperity 
and success of each individual de- 
pends, as well as the success and 
prosperity of the entire community, 
you are bound together by the strong- 
est possible ties. 

Yet, except through the activities 
of your water users associations, 
there have been comparitively few 
attempts at cooperative effort on re- 
clamation projects. 

It would appear to the writer to be 
well within the legitimate range of 
duty of project managers to endeavor 
to stimulate interest along these lines 
and the purpose of this article is to 
suggest the inauguration of a general 
movement on each of the projects 
for the organization of cooperative 
associations for either one or all of 
the following purposes: 

Insurance of crops from damage by 
hail, flood or fire. 

Borrowing and loaning money for 
productive purposes. 

Developing, grading, packing and 
marketing crops. 

Creameries, cheese factories, mills, 
elevators, warehouses, or other enter- 
prises or ulitizing, manufacturing and 
marketing the farm's products. 

Telephone, electric light and power 
plants. 



THE 



DRAIN TILE QUESTION 
SETTLED 



Note these prices on carload lots of first quality burned 
Clay Drain Tile: 

Weight per ft. Per Thousand ft. 

3- inch 5y z lbs. $15.00 

4- inch 7i/ 2 lbs. 20.00 

6-inch 13 y 2 lbs. 33.00 

F. O. B. cars Seattle. Minimum carload 30,000 lbs. 
If you cannot use an entire carload, unite with your neigh- 
bors and make up the required weight. 

Write for pamphlet, "Hints on Farm Drainage." Free for 
the asking. 



DENNY-RENTON CLAY & COAL CO. 

Department D 
Hoge Bldg., Seattle, Wash. 



MONTE VISTA NURSERIES 

PEAR TREES — We have some very choice pear trees In both 1 
and 2-year stock of the following varieties: Anjou, Bartlett, Cornice, 
W. Nelis, P. Barry. 

APPLE TREES — Very fine Jonathans, Rome Beauty, N. Spy, New- 
town, Baldwin, Ortley, Winter Banana, King, Waxen, Gravenstein and 
Red Astrachan. Write for prices. 

A. HOLIDAY SCAPPOOSE, OREGON 



FRUIT AND POULTRY 

We have facilities to handle quickly and advantageously 
YOUR FRUIT, POULTRY AND ECJGS 
We make prompt returns of proceeds on all consignments. We answer 
promptly all inquiries as to market, prices, or of any other nature. 
Twenty years of satisfactory service to growers our best recommendation 
923-6 Railroad Ave. CHAS. UHDEN SPOKANE, WASH. 



Milton Nursery Co. 

Pear, Cherry, Apple, Prune and Peach 

Full Line Shade and Ornamental Stock 

Quality in Nursery stock is a condition, not a theory; it is something 
we put into our trees, not say about them. Thirty-five years' experience 
enables us to do this. 

A. MILLER & SONS, INC.— MILTON, OREGON 

A Catalog and Special 

Salesmen wanted. Prices on Request. 



Samson Stump Puller 






One Man's Hand Clears Your Land with the SAMSON. It's a Real Hand- 
Power Machine that can be operated and easily moved around by ONE 
MAN. Holds 100 feet of cable on the drum; moves a stump 100 feet with- 
out changing the rigging; has two Speeds. Mr. Varney, of Poulsbo, Wash., 
savs "The SAMPSON pulled 30-inch second growth fir stumps out of hard 
clay soil on high ground." Mr. Calkins says, "The stumps I pulled with the 
SAMSON averaged 3 feet." Let the SAMSON pull your stumps. Hand and 
horse Stump Pullers from $30 up. Write now for our Bo oklet No. 2. It's 
free. SAMSON STUMP FULLEE COMPANY 
1112 Western Avenue Seattle, Washington 



222 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



HOUSEHOLD DEPARTMENT 



ooMDUcrao »t ui. a a. nnmoi 



WHAT DID YOU DO? 

Did you give him a lift? He's a 

brother of man 
And bearing about all the burden he 

can. 

Did you give him a smile? He was 

downcast and blue, 
And the smile would have helped 

him to battle it through. 
Did you give him your hand? He was 

slipping down hill, 
And the world, so he fancied, was 

using him ill. 
Did you give him a word? Did you 

show him the road? 
Or did you just let him go on with 

his load? 

Did you help him along? He's a sin- 
ner like you, 

But the grasp of your hand might 
have carried him through. 

Did you bid him good cheer? Just 
a word and a smile 

Were what he most needed that last 
weary mile. 

Do you know what he bore in that 
burden of cares 

That is every man's load and that 
sympthy shares ? 

Did you try to find out what he need- 
ed from you, 

Or did you just leave him to battle 
it through? 

i 

Do you know what it means to be 

losing the fight 
When a lift just in time might set 

everything right? 
Do you know what it means — just the 

clasp of a hand 
When a man's borne about all that 

a man ought to stand? 
Did you ask what it was — why the 

quivering lip, 
And the glistening tears down the 

pale cheek that slip? 
Were you a brother of his. when the 

the time came to be? 
Did you offer to help him — or didn't 

you see? 

Don't you know it's the part of a 

brother of man 
To find what the grief is and help 

what you can? 
Did you stop when he asked you to 

give him a lift, 
Or were you so busy you left him to 

shift? 

Oh, I know what you meant — what 

you say may be true — 
But the test of your manhood is, 

What did you do? 
Did you reach out a hand? Did you 

find him the road? 
Or did you just let him go by with 

his load? — Exchange. 



FUTURE DAY OF GOVERNMENT 

"The day will come when the only 
battle-field will be the market open 
to commerce and the mind open to 
new ideas. A day will come when a 
cannon will be exhibited in public 
museums, just as an instrument of 
torture is now, and people will be as- 
tounded how such a thing could 
have been. A day will come when 
these two immense groups, the Un- 
ited States of America and the Un- 
ited States of Europe, shall be seen 
placed in presence of each other, ex- 
• nding the hand of fellowship across 
ocean."— Victor Hugo. 



GOLDEN RULE IN PRACTICE 

"She knew how to forget disagree- 
able things; she kept her nerves well 
in hand, and inflicted them on no one. 
She mastered the art of saying pleas- 
ant things. She did not expect too 
much from her friends. She made 
whatever work came to her con- 
genial. She retained her illusions and 
did not believe all the world wicked 
and unkind. She relieved the miser- 
able and sympathized with the sor- 
rowful. She never forgot that kind 
words and gentle smile cost nothing, 
but are priceless treasures to the 
discouraged. She did unto others 
as she would be done by, and now 
that old age has come to her, and 
there is a halo of white hair about 
her head, she is beloved and con- 
sidered. This is the secret of a long 
life and a happy one. 



TO DISPERSE WRINKLES 

When a woman has wrinkles on her 
face every one says "She is old;" 
but such is not always the case, for 
these objectionable lines may arise 
from various causes. Loss of flesh 
will make the skin loose, and with 
this diminution of the fat which fills 
up the cracks and lines, the skin will 
naturally lose its smooth appear- 
ance and fall into wrinkles. The great 
thing, therefore, is to counteract this 
tendency to lines by applying to the 
skin some emollient lotion of a non- 
drying nature, combined with an as- 
tringent wash to tighten the skin. A 
good cream or pure olive oil will do 
this if rubbed into the skin circular 
fashion, if the lines spread from the 
eyes to the hair. If underneath the 
eye gently smooth them out by rubb- 
ing, not upwards, but beginning from 
the inner corner downwards with 
semi-circular movement, working the 
oil or cream in with the first and 
second fingers. Lines from the nose 
to the chin should be rubbed towards 
the cheek, and those across the fore- 
head from side to side of the face, 
not up and down. These rules for 
the dispersion of wrinkles hold good 
no matter from what cause they 
come, and it is also an excellent plan 
to massage the face all over with a 
little fresh cream, while the natural 
oil in the fingers will do much to 
prevent and drive them away if this 
friction is employed regularly five 
minutes every night. Before rubbing, 
bathe the face in warm water not too 
hot, then with soft cold water, into 
which a few drops of toilet vinegar 
been added, give the countenance a 
last laving. — Health. 



JUST A THOUGHT 

Be not satisfied with the ordinary; 
you can have the best there is. 

Learn to be still. Let your life be 
an endless symphony of heavenly 
music. 

There are few thing more desirable 
than harmony. 

"In all your ways acknowledge 
Him, lean not to your own under- 
standing." 

It is well to live serenely and with 
calm faith. 

The most successful church is one 
in which the people preach. 

The mind that meets everything in 
joy, conquers every time. 



Real Home Cottt/ort 



The cheery warmth of a 




keeps the entire house- 
hold cozy and comfort- 
able. Burns nine hours 
without refilling. Easily 
cared for. 

Dealers everywhere. 

Write for booklet, "Warmth in Cold 
Corners. ' ' 

Standard Oil Company 

(CALIFORNIA), 

Seattle 





SCHOOL SHOES 



ARE AS NEAR 

WATER-PROOF 
WEAR-PROOF 

AS SHOES CAN BE MADE 



STYLES ARC 
PRICE IS 
FIT 15 



"RIGHT 



THEY ARE MADE IN SEATTLE 
FROM BEST LEATHER TO SUIT 
THE NEEDS OF HUSKY BOYS- 
JUST SAY 

"BILLY BUSTER" 

TO YOUR SHOE MAN. 

IF HE CAN'T SUPPLY YOU. 
WRITE US AND WE WILL 
ADVISE YOU WHO CAN 




NORTHWEST 
GROCERY CO. 

HEADQUARTERS 

FOR HOTEL AND 

CAMP SUPPLIES. 
A one-cent postal with name and 
address will bring an up-to-date 
cash price list. Buying supplies on 
time is expensive. Conditions are 
improving. Why not make money 
by buying right? 

Northwest Grocery Co. 

13th and Commerce Sts., 

Tacoma,' Wash. 

Oldest and Largest Mail Order 
House in the State. 




A. S. Johnson ft Co. 



We have plenty of gloves. No ad- 
vance in price. 

Sent prepaid anywhere in North- 
west. Send for price list. 

K. PETERSON, 
K Street Tacoma, Wash. 





II4 C Strut 



Taooma.Wath. 



America 



One Pound 
25 Cent* 
Ail Dealers 



i! S 0LUTELY 



CRESCENT MANUFACTURING CO.. SEATTLE 



Sunshine Lamp 
300 Candle Power 

To Try In Your Own Homo 

Turns night into day. Gives better light 
than gas, electricity or 18 ordinary lamps at 
one-tenth the cost. For Homes. Stores, 
Halls, Churches. A child can carry it. 
Makes its light from common gasoline. 
No wick. No chimney. Absolutely SAFE. 

COSTS 1 CENT A NIGHT 

We want one person in each locality to 
whom we can refer new customers. Take 
advantage of our SPECIAL FREE TRIAL 
OFFER. Write today. AGENTS WANTED. 

SUNSHINE SAFETY LAMP CO. 
214 Factory Bid*.. Kansas Citv. Mo. 



FREE 




THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



223 




Olympic Pancake Flour 

Self-rising, nutritious; has a taste that makes every mem- 
ber of the family its friend, and it digests easily for all. 
Four-pound cartons. 

The Paget Sound flouring Mills Co., Tacoma, Wash. 



Hardware for Farmers' Buildings 

When building your barn, house or other structures It is your privilege 
to get the lowest cash figure and the highest specific quality. The natural 
question is WHERE? The answer MOHR HAS IT. 

Air Tight Heaters, Kerosene Heaters, Stove Pipe, Etc. 

Henry Mohr Hardware Co. 1 Glioma, wSh! 



COPPER ORE PAINT 

For your Barns, Silos, Roofs, etc. Red — Brown — Protective — Permanent. 
Trial gallon delivered by parcels post on receipt of $1.00. 
Write for prices on quantities. 

HASHELL PAINT CO., Tacoma, Wash. 



COMPLETE ELECTRIC LIGHTING PLANT 

FOR YOUR HOME AND FARM BUILDINGS 

We install the Dayton system, operated at a very reasonable cost. 




This 

Individual 
Plant 
Gives 
You the 
Same 
Light 
Service 
as In 
the City. 



With a small engine to be used also for other power purposes, the 
cost of charging the batteries is very little and in some cases practic- 
ally nothing. 

The lighting plant, illustrated, consists of a Dynamo, Engine, a 
Switchboard and a Storage Battery. The dynamo charges the bat- 
tery, the battery acts as a reservoir, which supplies current to the 
lights when and where desired. 

This independent light plant in your cellar, barn or pump house 
give you bright, clean, glowing electric light, wherever you can 
possibly use it, in your home, yard, cellar, driveways, barn and other 
buildings, always instantly at your service by merely touching the 
button. 

EASIEST LIGHT ON THE EYES. CONVENIENT. OUT OF DANGER 
OF FIRE. PURE AIR. 

WRITE FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE AND PRICES. 

RACINE BOAT & AUTO CO. 

73 Columbia St. SEATTLE, WASH. 



Every word we say should carry 
with it hope, encouragement, sun- 
shine. 

To have love we must give love. 

There is no impossible thing, except 
as we believe it. 

The life that trusts to the utermost 
will be taken care of. 

"The heart that trusts forever 
sings." 

"I will never leave thee, not for- 
sake thee. 

Our health does not consist of 
money — it is composed of what you 
are. 

"Count that day lost whose low 
descending sun, views from thy hand 
no noble action done." 

Good will is an important fact in 
life; with it you can do, and win 
almost anything. 

I would rather be kissed by an 
enemy than wounded by a friend who 
enjoyed the job. 

—P. E. O. Record. 



BEAUTIFUL DAHLIA EXHIBITS 

At nearly all the fairs in Western 
Washington held this season were 
beautiful exhibits of Dahlias. Es- 
pecially were these flowers at West- 
ern Washington Fair, Puyallup, at- 
tractive and profuse there being 250 
varieties. 

The exhibitor who has the largest 
collection is Mrs. George Sheffield, 
of Burton, Vashon Island, one of the 
largest and most successful growers 
in the state. Mrs. Sheffield's dahlias 
were not entered in competition, but 
made such an excellent showing that 
they were awarded a special blue rib- 
bon by the management. Among the 
varieties shown by Mrs. Sheffield is a 
specimen bloom of the magnificient 
variety originated by her and named 
for one of Tacoma's most popular 
pioneer merchants, Henry A. Rhodes. 
Next year Mrs. Sheffield expects to 
introduce at least 60 promising and 
marketable varieties of the Queen of 
Autumn. 

Others who have dahlia exhibits of 
merit are Howard Evarts Weed, the 
landscape expert of Beaverton, Ore- 
gon; Joseph Mitchell of the Mitchell 
nurseries at Larchmont, and Perry 
Summerfield, superintendent of the 
Pierce county poor farm. Neither of 
these were entered in competition but 
all contained many fine specimens. 

Among the leading growers of 
Washington are Otto P. Wingren, of 
La Conner, who has 350 varie- 
ties catalogued and his garden is 
becoming famous for beauty during 
several months of the fall. 



KITCHEN RECIPES 

Solid Chocolate Cake — Two eggs, 2 
cups sugar, 2 cups flour and y 2 cup 
butter. Beat butter and sugar to a 
cream. Mix i/ 2 cup milk, 1 cup grated 
chocolate, 2 teaspoonfuls vanilla. Bake 
slowly. This cake takes longer to 
bake than ordinarily. 

Escalloped Cabbage With Tomato — 
•Cut cabbage into quarters, cut away 
hard mid rib and wash thoroughly. 
I Place a few pieces at a time so as 
not to reduce the temperature, into 
a large kettle of rapidly boiling salted 
water. Allow to boil rapidly and un- 
I, covered until tender, frequently push- 
j ing cabbage under water. Drain and 
[ season. Place alternate layers of 
cooled cabbage in a baking dish, 
cover with buttered crumbs and bake 
mtil crumbs are brown. 
Banana Blanc Mange — To one quart 



of boiling milk add onehalf cupful 
of sugar, a pinch of salt and three 
tablespoonsfuls of corn starch dis- 
solved in one-half cupful of cold 
water. When it thickens stir in the 
pulp of three large bananas and the 
stiff beaten white of an egg. Set 
away to cool in mold. Serve with 
thin custard sauce. 




FARRAR'S LIFE OF CHRIST. 



A book which should be in every 
home, is sent postpaid including one 
year's subscription to this paper for 
$1.25. Northwest Horticulturist & 
Dairyman, Box 1604, Tacoma, Wash. 




We send this portfolio in colors 
containing up-to-date world map, with 
two years' subscription paid in ad- 
vance for $1. Northwest Horticurtur- 
ist & Dairyman, Box 1604, Tacoma, 
Wash. 



Nursery Stock 

FRUIT TREES 

SMALL FRUITS 

ORNAMENTALS 

The planter always wants the 
very best paying results. There is 
but one way to accomplish this. 
The right start with our guaran- 
teed whole root, non-irrigated stock 
in fruit trees, our splendid two- 
year-old stock in small fruits and 
our unexcelled selection of orna- 
mentals will do it. Beware of poor 
stock. Disappointment is the only 
result therefrom. 

Send for our catalogue. Agents 
wanted. 

SALEM NURSERY COMPANY 

F. J. Rupert, Mgr. 
SALEM OREGON 



Home Canning 
Outfit 

Put up your surplus fruits and veg- 
etables in your own home. Buy 
one of our home canning outfits, 
complete and ready for business. 
Small outlay, very little expense to 
operate; good profits. "We also fur- 
nish cans, solder, labels and all 
other cannery equipment. 

Canners Supply Co. 

52iV 2 First Ave. S., Seattle, Wash. 



PEONIES 

The popular and satisfactory flower- 
ing plant for the Northwest. 

Our strong plants set in September 
or October will bloom next spring. 

For complete information, send for 
a copy of our special peony catalog, 
free. 

BEAVERTON NURSERY 
Beaverton, Oregon. 
H. E. Weed, Prop. 



VETCH SEED 



CLOVERS, 
ORCHARD 
AND RYE 
GRASS 



Early application is advisable to be sure of present minimum prices 
of grass seeds. More fall sowing will be done in the Coast Section than 
ever before. If you need feed cutters or anything else in the implement 
line, remember, "Positive Satisfaction" is our motto. 

Poole's Seed & Implement Co. 

1507-9 Pacific Ave. TACOMA, WASH. 



224 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



DAIRY DEPARTMENT 



Testing Dairy Cows for butter fat records of highest importance. 
Conserve Dairy Energy and figure on the Individual Cow. 



(Address any Inquiries about dairying to H. L. Blanchard, Aiat Supt. Exp. 
Station, Puyallup, Wash.) 



CLEAN MILK" PRODUC- 
TION. 

From the Profit Margin Stand Point. 

Persons engaged in the production 
of milk and consumers interested in 
procuring clean, safe milk, will be 
interested in the factors for produc- 
ing the same, as outlined by the Un- 
ited States Department of Agricul- 
ture in a recent Farmers' Bulletin 
(No. 602), entitled "Production of 
Clean Milk." The esential factors 
are outlined as follows: 

Clean, healthy cow kept in clean, 
light, well ventilated stables. 

Stable so constructed as to be eas- 
ily cleaned. 

A clean, well-drained barnyard. 

Clean utensils, thoroughly steriliz- 
ed. 

Clean, healthy milkers that milk 
with dry hands. 

Clean small-top milking pail. 

Immediate cooling of the milk to 
50 degrees F. or lower. 

Storage of milk at a low tempera- 
ture until delivered. 

A seperate house for handling the 
milk. 

An abundant supply of pure water. 

The new bulletin in its 18 pages 
contains a number of figures and 
describes in detail, the practical 
methods that should be followed in 
the production of clean milk. 
How Milk Becomes Diseased. 

Bacteria, according to the bulletin, 
find their way into the milk from 
various sources. Some may come 
from the udder itself, where they 
grow in the milk cisterns and ducts. 
The greater number, however, come 
from the dust of the air, the dirt from 
the udder and flanks, from the milker, 
and from unclean utensils. Disease- 
producing bacteria may get into the 
milk from cows having such diseases 
as tuberculosis, or from people who 
handle the' milk, who may them- 
selves have contagious diseases or 
who have been taking care of pati- 
ents afflicted with such diseases as 
typhoid fever, diphtheria, and septic 
sore throat. 

Importance of Clean Milk. 

Cleanliness is not an absolute safe- 
guard against disease, but it is the 
greatest factor in preventing con- 
tamination. From the health stand- 
point there is great danger not only 
from the specific disease-producing 
bacteria previously mentioned, but 
from milk that contains large num- 
bers of miscellaneous bacteria which 
may cause serious digestive troubles, 
especially in infants and invalids 
whose diet consists chiefly of milk. 
There is also the minor consideration 
of the loss to the consumer from milk 
souring or otherwise spoiling before 
it can be used. The cleaner the milk, 
the longer it will keep good and 
sweet. 

Clean milk not only benefits the 
consumer, but the milk producer 
who will consider this subject from 
an unbiased standpoint will find many 
ways in which he himself is benefited 
by producing clean milk. There are 
number of items in this connection 



which, when considered alone may 
seem unimportant, yet collectively 
they are of great importance. More- 
over, they are not only of immediate 
value, but have a cumulative value 
reaching far into the future. Tuber- 
culin testing, for example, is not only 
a safeguard to the purity of the milk 
supply for the consumer, but is a 
means of assisting the producer to 
protect his herd against future rav- 
ages of tuberculosis. 

Most producers of market milk 
have experienced the chagrin of 
having a shipment of milk refused 
or returned because it reached the 
market sour, tainted, or otherwise in 
poor condition. Although such milk 
may be used for feeding pigs it usual- 
ly means a complete loss to the pro- 
ducer, as it costs too much to trans- 
port it back to the farm and because, 
depending on the market as an outlet 
for his milk, he has no means for util- 
izing small amounts at uncertain in- 
tervals. Another important consider- 
ation is the unpleasant effect upon the 
purchaser. Delivering sour or tainted 
milk usually results in losing the con- 
fidence of the dealer; or if it is de- 
livered direct to the consumer, it 
means the loss of good customers. 
A reputation for clean milk means 
fewer complaints, a better class of 
patrons, and a steady market for the 
product of the dairy. 

Safeguarding the purity of the milk 
is a protection to health on the farm 
in several ways; first, the health 
of the farmer's family, who use a 
portion of the milk themselves; 
second, the health of the calves, 
which live largely on milk. Healthy 
cows to breed from and pure milk to 
feed upon are two important factors 
in rearing thrifty calves and in the 
development and maintenance of a 
healthy and profitable herd. Aside 
from these immediate and definite 
benefits there is another considera- 
tion, not immediately measurable but 
of vast influence, namely, the moral 
influence, for no one can learn to 
produce good clean milk without 
learning good methods of care and 
management of the herd, and the 
study of these things leads to greater 
care and intelligence in the economic 
features of the business. 



SHORTHORNS IN DUAL 
CLASS. 

A Shorthorn that is not naturally 
thick-fleshed and does not by right of 
inheritance possess the natural abil- 
ity to put that flesh on rapidly and 
economically when relieved of the 
task of turning the feed into milk, can 
not legitimately be called a dual-pur- 
pose animal, says A. V. Abingdon, in 
Live Stock Journal. No matter how 
such an animal may be bred, even 
though its sire possess the blood of 
all the Dukes and its dam of all the 
Duchesses, if its only real value is 
to produce milk in a pail, then it 
must be classed as a dairy animal and 
we don't need to be making or remak- 
ing any old or new breed for any such 
purpose. Our special dairy breeds 



Fresh High Grade Cows 

We are offering for sale High Grade Cows which are very 
satisfactory producers at reasonable prices. Some of them 
are nearly pure of the best in Holstein breeding, some are 
high grades of other dairy breeds but all of excellent dairy 
type. We also have a fine bunch of youngsters from 
which to make selections. For many years we have been 
supplying dairy cows fo condensor patrons. 

Write for prices and particulars and submit wants. 

J. D. ROSS & SON Kent, Wash. 



HOLSTEIN HEIFERS- -Choice High Grade Stock 

We are offering to sell 30 young- Holstein cows, fall freshening; also 
a choice bunch of Holstein heifers out of registered bulls with dams on both 
sides great producers, bred to registered sires, will freshen in early spring. 
If you want something of this kind, tubercular tested, write for particulars 
at once and mention this paper. 

P. F. rOLSOM, \ 
204 4th Ave., Kent, Wash. 



Registered and High Grade Holsteins 

We are constantly preparing to siipply the needs of dairymen in the northwest with 
Registered and High Grade Holsteins, the kind which affords buyers the highest measure of 
satisfaction in production. Tuberculin tested. Specify your wants and write for particulars. 

E. H. THOMPSON, Mt. Vernon, Wash. 



Holsteins For Sale==A. r. o. Breeding 

We offer 12 females of the very best and most promising heifers 
raised here, five coming fresh this late fall and winter; also a young bull 
ready for service. All out of A. R. O. dams. 

J. H. DE HOOGH & SON 

Twin Brook Stock Farm Lynden, Wash. 



A. J. C. C. JERSEYS 

Big Producer* 

A very fine heifer calf for sale that is a beauty. Sired by 
ray great bull "Mermaid's Sultana's Lad 114734." Dam Oza 
of Sunny bank, dam of first prize three-year-old cow at Wash- 
ington State Fair, Young bulls for sale of the highest breeding. 

Member American Jersey Cattle Club. 

J. B. EARLY 
Grandview, Wash. (Yakima County) 



Pure Bred Holstein Records 

Our herd bull is Johanna Colantha Champion, grandson of Colantha 
Johanna, also grandson of Sir Fayne Concorda, full brother to Grace 
Fayne 2nd Homestead. His dam is Johanna Colantha, 26y 2 lbs. butter in 
7 days. Her daughter J. Colantha 2nd made 32.85 lbs. butter in 7 days. 
Two of our 6-year-old cows each made over 27% lbs. butter in 7 days. 
8-year-olds 20 to 23 lbs., and a 2-year-old 17 lbs. 

A few bull calves 5 months old and younger, out of these heavy 
producers for sale. Write at once for prices. 

WILLIAM TODD & SONS 

NORTH YAKIMA, WASH. 



Brady 

Farm 

Guernseys 



We have for sale several fine heifer 
calves from two weeks to six months 
old. Also one bull calf from a fine 
producing cow. 

E. R. BRADY 

Satsop, Wash. 



HOLSTEINS WITH HIGHEST RECORDS 

Our Registered Holstein Cows are well up near the 1,000 pound per 
year butter record. One of our two-year cows gave 19,510 lbs. milk and 
825 lbs. butter in 365 days. 

In her 3rd year she starts with 2,336 lbs. milk and 108 lbs. butter in 30 
days. Our entire herd is above the 500 lb. butter record. 

Do you want some youngsters of this breeding? Then write for 
particulars and prices. 

J. W. Hollinshead, LADNERS, B. C. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



225 



are far better than we can ever hope 
to manufacture out of the Shorthorn 
even if such a course should by any 
antic of fortune's wheel seem desir- 
able 

A few of our enthusiasts, too, claim 
too much. What is the sense in in- 
sisting that a breed can be main- 
tained equaling the Angus as a beef- 
maker and the Ayrshire or Holstein 
as a pail-filler? It is true that his- 
tory records an instance of a Short- 
horn giving 12,000 lbs. of milk in less 
than eleven months and producing a 
steer that became a grand champion 
at important fat stock shows. There 
have been a few bulls, like Beau 
Sabreur for instance, that begot both 
great milk-producing and flesh-pro- 
ducing propensities, but how many of 
them can be counted? To claim that 
such instances are common, or could 
be made common, is all rot — a waste 
of time. Any one who talks that 
way doesn't know his book. 

Just the moment you begin to open 
up the frame to permit of a physical 
ability to make great quantities of 
milk, just at that very moment you 
destroy the possibility of composing 
a true beef conformation. To seek 
either extreme or to hold a middle 
course is the privilege of each and 
every breeder, but it is nonsense try- 
ing to evolve a breed that shall be 
the glass of fashion and the mould 
of form so far as beef is concerned 
and the equal of the specialized 
dairy breeds at the pail. It is amaz- 
ing that so many extremists should 
have sprung up among us. 

It seems to me that the average 
1 roduction of the Kelmscott herd of 
some 200 head of Shorthorn cows in 
England was around 7,000 lbs. of milk 
per annum, yet the cows that made 
that average gave birth to several 
winners of prominent prizes in the 
show ring when judged for beef alone. 
If our enthusiasts can not be satisfied 
with moderation of that description, 
either in beef or milk, they would 
better turn their energies in the di- 
rection of some other breed. 

The dual-purpose Shorthorn is a 
living, moving, profitable reality, but 
there is no law or rule to compel any 
one to prefer that type to the strictly 
beef sort to which he has hitherto 
pinned his faith. The whole subject 
is a larger one than many people 
seem to think it and those are the 
folks who are getting in wrong and 
misleading others. Furthermore this 
problem is one on which no man's 
word or opinion need be taken. All 
the data available can easily be 
reached. Those who wish to trace 
their path in the middle of the road 
can follow the trail blazed by others 
whose every step is plainly recorded 
if not actually visible. Why plunge 
blindly after the dual-purpose sort 
without first investigating thoroughly? 

The question of importance to the 
farmer who is an intending purchaser 
of cows is to determine whether or 
. not 7000 pounds milk, together with 
some beef produced from a certain 
\ amount of feed is worth more than 
ia larger amount of milk produced 
: from the same quantity of feed with 
I a less value of beef. In general it 
; may be said that where fat produc- 
ing feed is abundant at low price, 
dual cows have a chance, but where 
Bfeed rich in protein are most abund- 
\ ant at low cost and the milk and but- 
jrter market is good, there the special 

Rr '" " " " 



SECOND ANNUAL SALE OF PURE 

BRED HOLSTEINS 
Continuation, Yearly Event Planned. 

The writer has always held that 
the sale ring was the right way to 
dispose of surplus cattle. When I got 
more on hand than I could handle 
last year and not being able to make 
my brother breeders see that we could 
afford to have an auction, I adver- 
tised and sold my entire herd, stat- 
ing at the time that with the proceeds 
I would pay my debts and buy more 
cattle with all the money I had left. 
I did all this and there were two 
men in the State of Oregon to whom I 
had sold their start, one of which on 
account of rheumatism and one be- 
cause he had not feed enough to feed 
what he had wished to sell their 
herds and I knowing what they 
were bought these too. 

Again I have a surplus, over 100 
head and my neighbor breeders hav- 
ing a surplus we have decided to 
hold the 2nd annual sale. We are 
planning one for November each year 
regardless of the price they bring. 

In this sale are about 30 head of 
young cows and heifers from the 
herd of E. B. Marks, whom your 
readers all know. They are all 
good ones for which we have no ex- 
cuse to offer. They are bred to the 
grand bull "Mutual Fobes Longfield 
DeKol," the Senior grand champion of 
the Washington State Fair, 1913, 1914. 
He is owned jointly by Mr. Marks 
and myself, has 6 sisters that average 
over 33 lbs, buter for 7 days. 

His get are all show animals as 
shown by the reports of the Wash- 
ington and Oregon State Fairs. There 
are a number of his daughters in the 
consignment of Mr. Marks to the sale. 

Mr. Wm. Todd and Sons have 
consigned a few daughters of their 
bull "Sir Johana Ruth Fayne" and he 
stands today without a peer as a sire 
of producing heifers. In fact after an 
exhaustive study and comparison of 
the records of the daughters of all 
bulls and then compare them with 
the records of the daughters of this 
bull we find that he stands at the 
head. In the offering from this herd 
are some bulls from cows and heifers 
making 21 lbs. as 2 year olds to 27 
lbs. as cows. 

From my own herd are about 40 
head of young cows and bred heifers 
that are certainly good to look at, 
and while few of them have official 
records they certainly will make good 
ones when given the chance. 

They carry as good blood as in Am- 
erica and are some I bought to keep 
but I have too many. They are bred 
to the grand and tried bull "Annie- 
DeKol Lakeside Model" whose poor- 
est daughter at 3 years 1 month old 
made liy 2 lbs. in 7 days. He has 
a lot of 21 to 24 lb. punior 3 year. 
15 to 18 lb. 1 year old and 2 year old 
daughters. His dam made for 4 con- 
secutive weeks over 31 lbs. and his 
full sister made nearly 31 lbs. and 
both cows came back and did just 
a little better at another time, thus 
proving they were real workers. 
I am informed by Mr. Powell, of Syr- 
acuse, the founder of the "MODEL" 
family, and of which this bull is a 
close-in member that the tested fe- 
males of the Model family have the 
largest average records of the fe- 
males of any family. In showing re- 
cords they are unequaled. The dam 
of this bull, this year in her 11th year 
carried off the honors in the State of 
N. Y. 

This bull has never been lower 




Get All the Butter Fat 



To operate at full efficiency and deliver all the cream, 
your separator must be lubricated with ari oil exactly suited 
to its construction. Many oils form "gum", thereby clog- 
ging the delicate mechanism of the separator, and thus 
causing irregular spinning of the bowl, reduction of speed 
and consequent loss of cream. 



Standard Hand 
Separator Oil 



is made especially for cream separators by oil experts of 40 
years experience who have studied the detail construction ol 
the separator — this in order to produce an oil exactly adapted 
to the purpose. Your separator will do better work, last 
longer and need fewer repairs if lubricated with Standard 
Hand Separator Oil. No matter what you pay, you can- 
not buy a better oil for the purpose. Dealers every- 
where. 



Standard Oil Company 



(CALIFORNIA) 



Mortgage Lifters 

Have You a Mortgage on Your Farm? 

IF SO OR NOT 
BUY HIGH CLASS GRADE HOLSTEIN DAIRY COWS 
FROM THE 
SPOKANE GRAIN CO. 
THE COWS WILL DO THE REST. 
IF YOU CANNOT BUY COWS, BUY HOLSTEIN 
CALVES. WE HAVE BOTH FOR SALE, AND GOOD 
ONES. COME AND SEE US. IF YOU CANNOT COME, 
WRITE US. 

We have some Fresh Cows ready for immediate delivery 

Spokane Grain Company 

Phone Sidney 444 4915 Eighth Ave. So. 

SEATTLE, WASH. 




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Waikiki Farm 



IRA P. WHITNEY, Supt. 



Breeders of 

JERSEY and AYRSHIRE CATTLE 

DUROC JERSEY SWINE 
SHROPSHIRE SHEEP 

Route 7, Spokane, Wash. 



HORTICULTURIST 



^5 



MOLASSES-DRIED 
BEEtPUiP 



CLEAN — HEALTHFUL 
KEEPS INDEFINITELY 

LARROWE'S MOLASSES-DRIED BEET 
PULP is simply the plain beet pulp with 
beet molasses dried, but on account of its 
sweetness it is being preferred by many dairy- 
men and feeders — especially those who use it 
for fattening. It has all the feeding value of 
the plain, but with the addition of molasses. 
Horses grow sleek, stock fatten rapidly, hens 
lay more eggs — when fed Larrowe's Molasses- 
Dried Beet Pulp. 

You certainly can well afford to give this popu- 
lar feed a trial. Your feed dealer will supply 
it to you in 100-lb. sacks — and one sack will 
prove to you its worth. 



LARROWESQ R | ED BEE j p UL p 



Just Like Roots 



Makes More Milk 



THE IDEAL FEED FOR DAIRY COWS 

Larrowe's Dried Beet Pulp improves the health' 
and increases the flow of milk. It furnishes 
more succulence than silage, greater digesti- 
bility, an abundance of carbo hydrates — and is 
just what is needed with alfalfa to make a per- 
fectly balanced ration. 



A succulent — palatable 
— nutritious — vegetable 
feed — for 




— they all eat with relish 
and thrive on Larrowe's 
Molasses-Dried Beet Pulp. 



ORDER FROM YOUR DEALER 

Tell him you want "Larrowe's" — the kind that is always uniform, never black- 
ened or burned. If your dealer hasn't it — tell him to write to us. 

Valuable Book — "PROFITABLE FEEDING"— Free 

Send for a copy of our booklet "Profitable Feeding," giving valuable informa- 
tion, also instructions for the use of Dried Beet Pulp. Your name and address 
on a postal will bring you a copy free. 

THE LARROWE MILLING COMPANY 

Sixth Floor, Central Bldg. Los Angeles, Cal. 



The Larrowe's Molasses-Dried Beet Pulp 

and other Stock Feeds are sold by our firm. 
Write for prices on trial-lot shipments. 

THE W. W. ROBINSON COMPANY 

Hay, Grain and Feeds— Wholesale 1717 Railroad Ave. S., Seattle, Wash. 



226 

and his get were undefeated this year 
at the Washington State Fair. 

All we ask is for those wishing to 
to purchase pure bred cattle to come 
and look them over and we will 
cheerfully abide by your verdict for 
while there are not a large per 
cent of officially tested animals we 
know that when they freshen they 
will make large records and that the 
calves they are carrying will be 
worth more than they will cost. Every 
animal over 6 months of age will be 
tuberculin tested and every animal 
guaranteed a breeder. 

H. C. DAVIS, 

Granger, Wash. 



DAIRYING IN WHATCOM 
COUNTY. 



Excellent Exhibits at Lynden Fair. 

That dairying has made phenomin- 
al strides in Whatcom County, Wash, 
ington, the past seven years, is evi- 
denced by the successful opei'ation 
of creameries and the complete ex- 
hibit of dairy cattle at the Lynden 
Fair. 

Only a small county fair, yet the 
grade of butter on exhibit showed 
that the dairymen of this locality are 
making the high scoring butter of 
most uniforn quality, the very best 
to be had on the market. 

Cooperation in the work of this 
industry is here a demonstated suc- 
cess. 

The Lynden creamery transacted 
a business for the year ending Sep- 
tember 1st, 1914, of $284,187. It is 
making so strong a feature of quality 
and quantity that buyers are offering 
top market prices. There is no doubt 
but that Lynden is becoming famous 
for its butter. There are several 
small creameries whose product is in 
the same class as to quality. 

Another evidence is the number of 
pure bred herds in each of the lead- 
ing dairy breeds, Guernseys, Jerseys, 
Ayrshires and Holsteins were all re- 
presented at the Lynden fair, some of 
these classes by four and five exhibi- 
tions and all from Whatcom County. 

As to health and vigor there is am- 
ple proof and demonstration. Mr. N. 
P. Sorenson, of Laurel showed a re- 
gistered Holstein cow with triplets, 
elegible to registry, and each of the 
three as fine a specimen of Holstein 
type and size for age as if it was 
alone for motherly attention. On the 
second day of the fair Mr. Nels 
Jacobson was seen with broad smiles 
and on investigation, the reason 
seemed to be that more Guernseys had 
appeared in his exhibit than was en- 
tered. One of his cows had given 
birth to a calf with fine markings, 
sired by Manful of Prospect 22841, 
which is out of the Imported Gal- 
axey Lavinious, and purchased from 
Ex-Governor Hoard, of Wisconsin. 
Some Pure Bred Herds 

Among exhibitions were: B. C. 
Crabtree Lynden, showing 12 Jerseys. 
He has a herd of 40 purebreds, Em- 
ment Bess breeding. Two beautiful 
Jersey heifers were recently shipped 
to a school in China. 

Mr. Crabtree was awarded Cham- 
pion cow, second on sire, first and 
second on yearling bulls, first and 
second on heifers. 

Geo. Dowling, Custer, Wash., won 
first on sire and first on bull calves. 

Geo. Handy, Lynden, first and se- 
cond on C to 12 months bulls. 

The Windcrest Farm Blaine has a 
fine herd of Jerseys of American 
breeding, excellent producers. 



THE NORTHWEST 

On Guernseys, Jackman Bros., Lyn- 
den, won first on age bull, G. Van de 
Griend, second. 

Nels Jacobson won first and second 
on age cows, G. Van de Griend second 
yearling bull, H. B. Douglas, Ferndale, 
first, P. S. Hillier, Bellingham, second. 

Jacob Sweegman, Lynden, has a 
fine purebred herd of Guernseys. 

The sire Faithful Boy, was pur- 
chased last year from Mr. B. S. Tryar, 
Sumner. 

Among Holstein Exhibitors are: A. 
Benson, Lynden, who has a herd of 
15 with sire, a grandson of Aggie 
Cornucopia Pauine. 
D. F. Smith, proprietor of Lone 
Spruce Farm, Everson, Wash., has 
a herd of 24 purebred Holsteins. His 
cow Quidee Jewel 2nd produces 75 
to 80 pounds milk per day. His sire 
is Karel Chimacum DeKol, out of 
Imp Karel Bos. 

N. P. Sorenson, Laurel, has some 
very choice purebred Holsteins, great 
producers brought from Minnisota, 
one cow giving 8V Z gallons milk per 
day. His exhibit of triplet calves was 
a great attraction. 

E. J. Sinnes, Goshen, showed a 
good sire of DeKol breeding, and has 
profitable milk herd. 

A. Minor, Lynden, showed a sire of 
good dairy type, and has a good 
Holstein herd. 

J. H. DeHoogh & Son had a fine 
showing of Holstein cows all great 
producers. His entire herd is in the 
A. R. O. class which is a most ex- 
cellent record and attractive for pros- 
pective buyers of young stock. 

The A. E. Smith Company, of Sum- 
as, Wash., was represented by 8 head 
including A. R. O. cows which won 
their share of awards. J. J. Stark, 
manager, stated there are 20 A. R. O. 
cows in their herd of 87 deep milkers 
being Pontiac, Hengerveld, and De- 
Kol breeding. 

Ayrshires. 

The Bellingham Bay Improvement 
Co. showed six fine Ayrshires from 
their herd at Hampton. A Kelley, 
manager, states the herd is doing ad- 
mirably. Among the good producers 
is the cow Princess Madge, giving 50 
pounds milk per day, with a test 
above 4 per cent. This .exhibit won a 
full share of the prizes. 

Wm. Lauckhart, Lynden, also show- 
ed a good bunch of Ayrshires. His 
herd sire is Robin Hood 12th, bought 
from Mr. J. H. Clise, and the young 
cows are all making good in milk and 
butter production. A full proportion 
of prizes were awarded this herd. 

The progress made by dairymen of 
Whatcom Count during the past seven 
years as revealed by the showing at 
this fair, is most remarkable. 

The fruit and the mannual training 
exhibits of the schools were of ex- 
cellent quality and style, and the 
fair as a whole a decided success. 



BUTTER HIGH QUALITY 



At Washington State Fair. 

That both dairymen and creameries 
in the northwest are constantly im- 
proving is evidenced by the butter 
exhibit at the Washington State Fair 
as well as exhibits at other local 
fairs. 

J. E. Frevert, who scored the State 
Fair exhibit said that the butter 
shown was of the highest grade he 
had seen this year? 
The awards were as follows: 
Creamery Butter — 1st, Winlock Co- 
operative Creamery Co., Winlock, 
Wash., 95; 2nd, G. B. Bales, Ellens- 



HOLSTEIN BULL FOR SALE 

Chimacum Aaggie Cornucopia No. 
64100, H. F. H. B., bred by M. S. 
Nye, Preble, New York. Calved 
August 15th, 1909. His grandam 
Aaggie Cornucopia Pauline is a 34- 
lb. cow. Sired by Aaggie Cornu- 
copia Johanna Lad Junior No. 36,- 
974 H. F. H. B. Dam Onda Doro- 
thy Concordia Paul No. 67853 H. F. 
H. B. A splendid animal, his 
youngsters are making excellent 
records. 

A few choice cows for sale. Write 
for prices or call. 

F. I. MEAD 
524 California Bldg. Tacoma 



PUGET SOUND HERD 

Holstein-Friesian Cattle 
Duroc Jersey Swine 

Home of Sir Chimacum Wayne, the 
world's greatest milk and butter bull; 
"Chimacum Wayne Boon" (dam of the 
above) A. R. O. record at 4 years 33.69 
lbs. butter in 7 days, 137.26 lbs. in 30 
days, and full sister "Alice Veeman 
Hengervelt," butter at 4 years 28.04 
lbs. "Doris King of the Pontiacs," the 
best bred daughter of "King of the 
Pontiacs" in the West; she is sister 
to the 44-lb. cow. 

75 A. R. O. cows in herd. All bulls 
for sale are from official tested dams. 

Wm. Bishop, Chimacum, Wash. 





FOR SALE 




Guernsey Bulls 


Strongly bred from highly test- 
ing ancestors. Write for Particulars 




Plateau Farm 


8. 


TASHON, WASH. 

M. SHIPLEY, Proprietor, 
Haller Bldg., Seattle. 



Registered Jerseys BE "£? M H ' RE 

5 WINE 

Some choice cattle out of St. Lam- 
bert and Adam Stevens breeding. Pure 
bred, prize winning Berkshires, Shire 
horses and pure-bred poultry. Write 
for prices. 

A. G. WOODWARD 
Route 1, Box 12 Fairbanks, Wash. 

Chicona Farm 
Guernseys 

A few registered bull calves from 
heavy producing dams and sired by bulls 
of the best blood lines. Address 

A. Xi. GILE, Prop. CHINOOK, Wash. 



LINBARGER, RALPH & GUE 

AUCTIONEERS 

Years of experience, thoroughly 
posted. 

Geo. A. Gue, Ridgefield, Wash. 
L. H. Linbarger, North Yakima, Wash. 
W. H. Ralph, Nez Perce, Idaho. 
Write for dates. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



227 



burg, 94; 3rd, I. Benedicktson, Spana- 
way, 94. 

Dairy Butter — 1st, Mrs. Peden, 
North Yakima, 94%; 2nd, J. B. Early, 
Grandview, 91.5; 3rd, Robert A 
Smythe, North Yakima. 

Ganular Butter— 1st, Mrs. Peden, 
North Yakima, 94. 

Ornamental Butter — 1st, Mrs. 
Peden; 2nd, Miss Alice Gentry. 

Unsalted Butter — 1st, Mrs. Peden; 
2nd, J. B. Bales. 

Cheese — 1st Menlo Creamery, Men- 
lo, Wash., 91; 2nd, Glendale Cream- 
ery, Port Townsend, 90.5; 3rd, Rhein- 
hart Torske, Custer, Wash. 

This scoring in the dairy depart- 
ment was the second of the Creamery 
Operators & Butter Makers' Associa- 
tion of Washington. The first was 
held in Seattle and the awards were 
made as follows: 1st, Laurel Cream- 
ery, Bellinghom, 96; 2nd, Winlock 
Co-operative Creamery, Winlock, 94; 



3rd, I Benedicktson, Spanaway, 93. 
Certified Milk, Cream, Inspectors. 

Of the 79 samples of milk brought 
for inspection and scoring, the result 
of the judging was as follows: 

Certified Class— J. D. Farrel, Seat- 
tle, 1st, score 97.25. 

Market Milk Class — L. Hansen, Se- 
attle, 1st, 96.75; Eastside Dairy, Kirk- 
land, 2nd, 96; R. J. Elliot, Seattle, 
3rd, 95.65. 

Market Cream — A. W. Mellon, Seat- 
tle, 1st, 93.50; Ellensburg Dairy, 2nd, 
93; C. G. Hinkle, Spokane, 3rd, 92.25. 

Milk Inspectors' Class — This includ- 
ed all the inspectors of the Pacific 
Northwest, and the judging was done 
on the best scoring made on all milk 
entered. Dr. D. W. Mack, of Port- 
land, received first prize, a gold med- 
al. His score was 88.86. G. S. Hen- 
derson, of Everett, was second and 
Gerald Sheeley of North Yakima, 
third. 



RESULT OF MILCH COW TEST AT THE WASHINGTON STATE FAIR 

AT NORTH YAKIMA. 

This test was run for forty-eight hours. Milking at 11:30 and 5:30 con- 
sisted of eight milkings. 

Two Years Old and Under Three. 











Total 


Award, Name of Cow and Owner. lbs. Milk. 


lbs. Pat. 


Value. 


(1) 


Cascade Marie, Wm. Todd & Son 


140.9 


4.720 


$1,768 


(2) 




136. 


4.406 


1.66 


(3) 


Mottle Bonnie Echo, H. C. Davis 


117.5 


3.865 


1.452 


(4) 


Nottle Abberkerk Rose, E. B. Marks 


107.1 


2.891 


1.134 




Three Years Old and Under Four. 






(1) 


Miss Edna Segis, E. B. Marks 


123.2 


4.016 


1.512 


(2) 




117.3 


3.317 


1.285 




Four Years Old and Over. 








(1) 


Maldeta Canary Mercides, E. B. Marks 


133.8 


6.11 


2.167 


(2) 


Fari Haven Homestead Birkle, Joseph Tyson . . 


163.1 


4.191 


1.664 


(3) 


Jacobas Choicest Mercides Second, M. W. Nelson 


146.6 


3.840 


1.518 




Common Grade, Any Age. 








(1) 




83.6 


4.322 


1.505 



AMONG LIVE STOCK 
EXHIBITORS. 



Holsteins at Washington Fair. 

The Holstein exhibit at the Wash- 
ington State Fair was one for which 
all stock breeders of the Northwest 
may justly feel proud. Mr. Joseph 
Tyson, who has been attending the 
Minnesota and Winconsin state fairs 
for the past ten years stated that in 
quality the show at the Washington 
State Fair, surpassed anything ever 
seen in the two former mentioned 
states. 

While expert local breeders differed 
from the opinion of the judge in some 
cases, they all took his decision for 
awards good naturally as each ex- 
hibitor was pleased with his high 
standard as to type and in measure of 
actual production. 

The following are the awards re- 
ported of this breed. 

Bulls — Three years or over, 1st, 
E. B. Marks, North Yakima, Wash.; 
2nd, H. C. Davis, Granger, Wash.; 

, 3rd, Grandview Farm, Inc., Grand- 
view, Wash.; 2 years and under, 
3, 1st. Joseph Tyson, Moxee City; 
2nd, William Bishop, Chimacum, 
Wash.; 3rd, William Todd & Sons, 
North Yakima; sr. yr., 1st, William 
Bishop; junior yearling, 1st, H. C. 

1 Davis, 2nd, William Bishop; senior 
calf, 1st, E. B. Marks; 2nd, Charles 
Mead, jr., Zillah, Wash.; 3rd, Grand- 
view Farm, Inc.; 4th, Joseph Tyson; 

' 5th, E. B. Marks; junior yearling, 1st, 
H. C. Davis; 2nd, J. A. Simonson, 
North Yakima; 3rd, E. B. Marks; 4th, 
Chas. Mead, Jr., 5th, H. C. Davis. 



Cow — Four years or over, 1st, 2nd 
and 3rd. E. B. Marks; 3 years or 
over. 1st and 2nd, E. B. Marks; 3rd. 
W. Todd & Sons, city; 2 years and 
under 3, 1st, H. C. Davis; 2nd, Jos. 
Tyson; 3rd, H. B. Marks; senior year- 
lings, 1st and 2nd, H. B. Marks; 3rd, 
Wm. Todd & Sons; junior yearlings, 
1st and 2nd, H. C. Davis; 3rd, Wm. 
Bishop; senior calf, 1st and 2nd, W. 

B. Marks; 3rd, Wm. Bishop; 4th, H. 

C. Davis; 5th, Wm. Bishop; junior 
calf, 1st, H. C. Davis; 2nd, Wm. 
Todd & Sons; 3rd, Jos. Tyson; 4th, 
H. C. Davis; 5th, Wm. Todd & Sons. 

Champions — Senior champion bull, 
E. B. Marks; Junior champion bull, 
E. B. Marks; junior champion heifer, 
H. C. Davis. 

Grand Champions — Bulls and Cow, 
E. B. Marks. 

Herds— Aged: 1st, E. B. Marks; 
2nd, H. C. Davis; 3rd, Wm. Bishop; 
young herd, 1st, H. C. Davis; 2nd, E. 
B. Marks; 3rd, Wm. Bishop. 

Galf Herd— 1st, E. B. Marks; 2nd, 
H. C. Davis; 3rd, E. B. Marks. 

Groups — 4 animals, either sex. 1st, 
E. B. Marks; 2nd, H. C. Davis; 3rd, 
Wm. Bishop; 2 animals, either sex, 
products of one cow, 1st, Wm. Bish- 
op; 2nd, W. C. Davis; 3rd, Wm. Todd 
& Sons. 

Jerseys. 

Bulls— 1st, E. L. Brewer, Satsop ; 2d, 
Bert Pease, Ellensburg; 2 and under 
3, 1st, T. S. Griffith, Spokane, Wn.; 
2nd, J. B. Early, Grandview, Wn.; 3rd, 
W. H. Cleveland, Gresham, Wn.; 
senior yearling, 1st, E. L. Brewer; 
2nd, Bert Pease; junior yearling, 1st, 
T. S. Griffiths; 2nd, Bert Pease; 3rd, 



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We design and equip cow stables, dairy houses, certified milk 
plants, creameries, cheese factories and ice cream plants. 
AUTOMATIC OILING DE LAVAL CREAM SEPARATORS 
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1016 WESTERN AVENUE 

SEATTLE 



101 DRUM M STREET 

SAN FRANCISCO 

" Everything for Dairy and Creamery" 




Hi-kl c+ckl Fresh Cows & 
1 IUI£>ieill£> Heifer Calves 

Over 100 from which to select 

Now is the time to buy fresh and coming fresh cows, while the butter 
fat and milk markets are at their best. With ample shelter and feed 
and good producing cows winter dairying affords a fair and steady mar- 
gin of profit in the Northwest. Those who have cows enough but wish 
to enlarge their herds in the near future will do well to get our prices on 
some choice high grade heifer calves at once. 

We also have some fine two-year-old, pure-bred bulls with high rec- 
ords back on both sides to offer at reasonable prices. Having a large 
herd of practical dairy cattle on hand we can supply almost any want 
in the dairy cattle line, as corroborated by our many satisfied patrons. 

Numerous selections are being made. Write or make appointment 
for further particulars. 

VAN WOERDEN & FISHER 

Seattle Phone, Sidney 767. THOMAS, WASH. 

On Interurban, half way between Tacoma and Seattle. 
Please mention this paper 



Registered Guernseys 

For Sale 

Now is your opportunity to get a pure-bred young Guernsey bull whose 
dam and sire's dam are over the 500-pound per year butter records. 
Don't miss this chance if you want Guernseys. 

Write for prices and further particulars. Terms to responsible 
parties. 

115 First Street 
Seattle, Wash. 



Augustine & Kyer 



228 

Guy H. Chapman, Pomona, Wn.; sen- 
ior calf, 1st, E. L. Brewer; 2nd, Bert 
Pease; junior calf, 1st, J. B. Early, 
2nd, Wash. State College; 3rd, T. 
S. Griffith; 4th, Bert Pease. 

Cows — i years and over, 1st and 
2nd, E. L. Brewer; 3rd, T. S. Griffith; 
3 years or over, 1st and 2nd, T. S. 
Griffith; 3rd, Bert Pease; 2 years and 
under 3, 1st, Bert Pease; 2nd, Guy H. 
Chapman; 3rd, J. B. Early; senior 
yearling, 1st and 2nd, Bert Pease; 
3rd, W. H. Cleveland; junior yearling, 
1st, E. L. Brewer; 2nd, Wash. State 
College; 3rd, T. S. Griffith; senior 
calf, 1st and 2nd, Bert Pease; 3rd, 
T. S. Griffith; 4th, E. L. Brewer; 5th, 
E. O. Erickson; junior calf, 1st, Wash. 
State College; 2nd, J. B. Early; 3rd, 
W. H. Cleveland; 4th, T. B. Griffith; 
5th, E. L. Brewer. 

Champions — Senior champion bull, 
1st, T. S. Griffith; 2nd, E. L. Brewer; 
junior champion bull, 1st, T. S. Grif- 
fith; 2nd, E. L. Brewer; senior cham- 
pion cow, 1st and 2nd, E. L. Brewer; 
junior champion heifer, E. L». Brewer. 

Grand champions — Grand champion 
bull, E. L. Brewer; grand champion 
female, T. S. Griffith. 

Herds— Aged herd, 1st, E. L. 
Brewer 2nd, T. S. Griffith; 3rd, Bert 
Pease; young herd, 1st T. S. Grifffith; 
2nd, Bert Pease; 3rd, E. L. Brewer; 
calf, 1st, Bert Pease, 2nd, E. L. Brew- 
er; 3rd, J. B. Early. 

Groups — 4 animals either sex, get 
of 1 sire, 1st, Guy H. Chapman; 2nd; 
Bert Pease; 3rd, T. S. Griffith; 2 
animals either sex, produce of 1 
cow, 1st, W. H. Cleveland; 2nd, Bert 
Pease; 3rd, Guy H. Chapman. 
Ayeshires 

Bull— W. J. Domes, McCoy, Ore.; 
2 years and under 3, 1st; senior year- 
ling, 1st; junior yearling, 1st; senior 
calf, 1st and 2nd; junior calf, 1st and 
2nd. 

Cows — 4 years and over, 1st W. J. 
Domes; 3 years or over, same; 2 
years and under 3, 1st and 2nd, same; 
senior yearling, 1st and 2nd, same; 
junior, 1st, same; junior yearling, 1st, 
same; 2nd, Wash. State College; 3rd, 
W. J. Domes, McCoy, Ore.; senior 
calf, 2nd, same; junior calf, 1st and 
2nd, same. 

Herds— W. J. Domes, aged herd, 
1st; young herd, 1st and 2nd; calf 
herd, 1st and 2nd. 

Groups — W. J. Domes, 4 animals, 
either sex, get of 1 sire, 1st and 2nd; 
2 animals, either sex, produce of 1 
cow, 1st and 2nd. 

Guernseys 

Bulls — 3 years or over, 1st, A. L. 
Giles, Chinook, Wn.; 2nd, E. L. 
Brady, Satsop, Wn.; 2 years and 
under 3, 1st, D. H. Looney, Jefferson, 
Ore.; 2nd, E. L. Brady; junior year- 
ling, 1st and 2nd, A. L. Giles; W. C. 
Beasey, Beaver; senior calf, 1st, A. 
L. Giles; 2nd, D. H. Looney; junior 
calf, 1st, E. L. Brady; 2nd, A. L. 
Giles; 3rd, D. H. Looney; 4th, A. L. 
Giles; 5th, D. H. Looney. 

Cows — 4 years and over, 1st, D. H. 
Looney; 2nd, A. L. Giles; 3rd, E. L. 
Brady; 3 years an dover, 1st, A. L. 
Giles; 2nd, D. H. Looney; 3rd, E. L. 
Brady; 2 years under 3, 1st, E. L. 
Brady; 2nd, A. L. Giles; 3rd, D. H. 
Looney; senior yearling, 1st, D. H. 
Looney; 2nd, E. L. Bradey; 3rd, A. 
L. Giles; junior yearling, 1st, D. H. 
Looney; 2nd, E. L. Brady; 3rd, D. 
H. Looney; senior calf, 1st A. L. 
Giles; 2nd, D. H. Looney; 3rd, E. L. 
Brady; 4th, A. L. Giles; 5th, D. H. 
Looney; junior calf, 1st, A. L. Giles; 
2nd, E. L. Bradey; 3rd and 4th, D. 
A. L. Giles; junior champion bull, E. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



H. Looney; 5th, A. L. Giles. 

Champions — Senior champion bull, 
L. Brady; senior champion cow, E. 
L. Brady; junior champion heifer, D. 
H. Looney. 

Grand Champions — Grand champion 
bull, A. L. Giles; grand champion 
female, E. L. Bradey. 

Herds — Aged herd, 1st, D. H. Loon- 
ey; 2nd, E. L. Bradey; 3rd, A. L. 
Giles; young herd, 1st, E. L. Brady; 
2nd, A. L. Giles; 3rd, D. H. Looney; 
calf herd, 1st, A. L. Giles; 2nd, E. L. 
Bradey, 3rd, D. H. Looney. 



SIDE NOTES WITH BREEDERS AND 
DAIRYMEN. 

Mr. J. H. Taylor, Montesano, is 
helping Jersey breeders in Washing- 
ton immensely to boost this valu- 
able breed. He showed at three 
fairs in Western Washington, win- 
ning several first prizes and cham- 
pionship on cow at each place. 

Mr. E. L. Brewer, Satsop, Wash., 
enlarged his circle of acquaintances 
this year by showing at Spokane. His 
cow Olympia's Fern attracts atten- 
tion wherever she appears. Her 
butter record is at the very top of 
the breed in this country and type 
ideal, having most of the fine points 
of island breeding while in frame 
she is larger, conforming more to the 
American standard. This animal re- 
presents a good model for Jersey 
breeders in the northwest to observe 
in the raising of Jerseys for when 
bred too small they lose in popularity. 

The Burnhanwood Farm, Snoho- 
mish, Wash., was a star exhibitor of 
Holsteins at the Snohomish fair, 
showing 14 head, among them the 
noted cow, Chimacum Wayne Boone's 
Mother, with a record of 137.26 lbs. 
milk in 30 days. Their heifer Zella 
Netherlands DeKol, best on the 
ground, has ancestral record of 80 
lbs. milk 3.9 test at 3 years 4 months. 

A young prize bull shown is a 
grandson of King Walker and Rag 
Apple Korndyke and Pontiac Pet 
breeding with excellent records. The 
bull Diamond Burke DeKol Karol Bos, 
4 year old, was winner of sweep- 
stakes of all classes and all herds. 
The exhibit from this farm made 
an excellent showing of quality 
throughout and is becoming one of 
the noted purebred Holstein herds 
of the northwest. 

Messrs. H. K. Stockwell and A. H. 
Buck, Monroe, has a herd of 70 reg- 
istered Holsteins, many of them in 
the A. R. O. class. They recently 
bought from A. W. Morris & Son, 
of Woodland, California, the young 
bull Prince Arlia DeKol Burke, which 
has noted records far back on both 
sides. This young sire has excellent 
type and some good records are an- 
ticipated from his proginy. 

Six years ago Mr. Herman Steffen, 
Monroe, Wash., concluded he might 
just as well devote some of his en- 
ergy to the raising of cows with re- 
cords, as those with uncertainties. 
So he bought 3 pure breds, 1 bull and 
2 heifers. After the third year he 
found by experience that the re- 
corded animals of good health and 
productive capacity brought from 
two to three times us much profit as 
like stock unregistered. His neigh- 
bors insisted on making selections 
from his herd so in selling he had to 
replenish from other good breeders 
besides his own raising. Last year 
a car load of pure breds was pur- 
chased in Minnesota. He showed 18 
head at Snohomish, has a total of 60 
registered cattle and won a liberal 



THE 

Yakima Valley Breeder's 

SECOND ANNUAL 

Consignment Sale 




One of the heifers, a show cow, which made nearly 18 pounds butter 
a week, consigned in this sale. 



Thursday, Nov. 19,1914 





AT THE 



State Fair Grounds 
North Yakima, Wash. 

Eighty-five head of registered Holsteins, mostly 
heifers that are bred to the best sires in the North- 
west. 

About 30 head of heifers bred to Annie DeKol 
Lakeside Model, whose poorest daughter at 3 years old 
made 17y 2 lbs. butter in 7 days. 

His get was undefeated when competing at the State 
Fair this year, and seldom have been defeated at any 
time. 

Some daughters of and a lot of heifers and cows 
bred to Mutual Fobes Longfield DeKol, the Senior and 
Grand Champion bull at the State Fair, 1913 and 1914. 
His get was defeated but one time. 

He has 6 sisters that average over 33 lbs. butter 
for 7 days. 

Some daughters of Sir Johanna Ruth Fayne, who 
stands without a peer when considering the ages and 
the production of his daughters. 

We only ask that you come and see these cattle and 
then study their breeding and the breeding and indi- 
viduality of the bulls to which they are bred. We are 
convinced they are the best lot of young cattle ever of- 
fered at auction in the West. 

Consignors E. B. Marks, H. C. Davis, Wm. Todd & 
Sons. 

Auctioneers Geo. A. Gue, J. W. Hughes, L. H. Lin- 
barger and G. E. Gochnour. 

This Ad. will not appear again, so write at once for 
catalog, which will be ready November 1st. 

Managers H. C. Davis, Granger, Wash., and E. B. 
Marks, North Yakima. 



share of the prizes offered. Twelve 
of his cows are in the A. R. O. class 
and a good sire of Hengerveld breed- 
ing is now at the head of his herd. 

Shadringer Bros., proprietors of 
Cherrywood farm, Snohomish, show- 
ed some good Holsteins at the Sno- 
homish fair, including the 2 year old 
bull, Hollywood Canary, with ances- 
tral records of 30.53 lbs. butter in 7 
days. They have a good foundation 
for the raising of high record cattle. 

Among Jersey cattle exhibitors at 
Snohomish, Mr. J. F. Sexton and E. 
L. Lloyd, Snohomish, both had good 
milk herds, well up toward the 500 
pound per year butter records. Their 
cattle represented practical demon- 
stration at the pail rather than show 
condition and the honors were well 
divided. 

Mr. Charles Richardson, Tacoma, 
was an exhibitor of Jersey cattle at 
Western Washington Fair, Puyallup, 
for the first time and his show of 
high quality milk type attracted 
much attention. The Jersey exhibit 
at this fair including Mr. Richard- 
son's entry was fully equal to that 
shown at any other place in the 
Pacific Northwest this year. 

Wm. Bishop's cow, Chimacum 
Wayne Boone attracted much atten- 
tion at the Washington State Fair. 

Mr. Bishop took over the young 
cow, Cascade Maria, paying J. L. 
Todd & Son, North Yakima, for her 
a sum said to be over $1500. He 
has a bull for which Stevens & Son, 
of New York, offered $5000. With 
this trio Mr. Bishop feels he is well 
fortified against contestants for high 
records during the next few years. 
Mr. Bishop understands and enjoys 
pure breeding of Holsteins thorough- 
ly. 

The grand champion Guernsey cow, 
Veda May and the Junior Champion 
Guernsey bull calf, Brutus Bralee of 
Judge J. E. Brady, Satsop, were very 
attractive exhibits at the Washington 
State and at the Western Washing- 
ton Fair this season. 
Thompson's Holsteins: Prize Winners. 

E. H. Thompson, of Mt. Vernon, 
exhibited 11 head of pure bred Hol- 
steins at the Skkagit County Fair, 
Burlington, last month. Among the 
number was a Pontiac bull, purchased 
in New York, whose dam, as 4 year 
old, has a record of 30% lbs. butter 
in seven days. 

Mr. Thompson won Champion 
sweepstakes and a $65 cup (special) 
by the J. B. Agen Creamery Company, 
Mt. Vernon. His other prizes were 
4 firsts, 3 seconds, and 4 thirds. The 
first prize Pontiac bull is a son of 
Old Pontiac. 



CANADIAN HOLSTEIN SALE POST- 
PONED 

Owing to unavoidable causes the 
Public Sale of Holsteins by the H. 
F. Association of Canada announced 
for October 29 in our September is- 
sue has been postponed indefinitely 
according to instruction from secre- 
tary Thomas Laing, Eburne, B. C. 



DAIRY STOCK AT SALEM 

According to the expressed opinion 
of John L. Smith, in Spokesman Re- 

- view, the live stock show at the Ore- 
gon State Fair surpassed that of any 

' previous year. 

Quality was shown in every class 

. of the dairy breeds and nine to ten 

1 exhibitors for a breed was common. 

; There was some dissatisfied with 
the awards in some of the classes, 
mostly in the Jersey classes, owing 



THE NORTHWEST 

to the different types of island and 
American bred cattle, and the sooner 
the small island type is dropped in 
this country the better it will be for 
the breed. They are too small for 
the general farmer and dairyman. 
There were some beautiful animals 
in the herd of C. P. Hembree of Mon- 
mouth, Ore. He had a string that 
looked as if they could win anywhere, 
and they won nearly all the firsts. 
T. S. Griffith of Spokane played in 
poor luck, and in some classes he 
should have stood higher. However, 
his great bull took grand champion- 
ship. In Guernseys three good herds 
fought it out. Mr. Looney of Jeffer- 
son, Ore., got some of the best of it. 
The big fight was in the aged bull 
class between A. I. and J. E. Hughes 
and A. I. Gile, the former winning, 
and was made grand champion, al- 
though most people would have turnr 
ed these two bulls the other way. 

The Holsteins made a big show 
and a lot of good ones came before 
the judge. The grand champion at 
Yakima and Spokane came together 
in the old bull class and the Hazel- 
wood bulls from Spokane took first 
and second over E. B. Marks of 
Yakima, also in the aged cow class. 
The grand champions from both 
fairs met here, the Hazelwood cow 
getting first and E. B. Marks second. 
Hazelwood got all herd prizes, Marks 
making a good second. The great 2- 
year-old bull of D. McKeown of Gres- 
ham, Ore., weighing over 2300 pounds, 
was first over Mr. Bishop's new bull, 
also a fine specimen. 

Mr. Bishop won grand champion 
female. 

The hog and sheep shows were 
both wonderfully good, but not quite 
up to Spokane, although the whole 
fair is a little ahead of Spokane. 

A good feature of the Oregon fair 
is their meeting of the different 
breeders. They tell the fair and the 
state what they want, and usually 
get it, and it is about time the breed- 
ers of Washington were doing tne 
same. Last night the Oregon breed- 
ers gave a banquet and over 100 were 
present. A very pleasant evening 
was spent. O. M. Plummer of Port- 
land acted as ringmaster. A great 
deal of credit is due Mr. Hogg as 
general superintedent of the live 
stock for his untiring interest in the 
breeders' wishes, and everything he 
could do was done. 



HORTICULTURIST 



229 



Ayeshirse at Salem. 

The principal exhibitors of Aye- 
shires at the Oregon State fair were 
. J. Domes, McCoy, Ore., and Frye & 
Carley, Salem. 

Mr. Domes won most of the prizes. 
Jersey, Oregon State Fair. 

The following represented the rank 
and the exhibitors of Jerseys at 
Salem. 

Champions — Bull, over 2 years — 1st, 
Morocco's Pioneer, Thomas S. Grif- 
fith, bull under 2 year — 1st, Roxy's 
Rochett Noble, C. P. Hembree. Cow, 
over 2 years — 1st, Bosnia's Princess. 
C. P. Hembree. Heifer, under 2 
years — First Noble Peers Jewel, C. P. 
Hembree. 

Grand champions — Bull, any age — 
First, Thomas S. Griffith (Morocco's 
Pioneer). Cow or heifer, any age — 
First, Noble Peers Jewel, C. P. Hem- 
bree. 

Graded herd — First, C. P. Hembree; 
second, Thomas S. Griffith; third, 
Frank Loughary. 

Bull, 3 years or over — First, 
William Schulmerich, Hillsboro, Ore.; 








Ninety head of pure-bred and high-grade Holsteins and Guernseys 
came through in good shape in our October shipment, after selling a 
carload on the way out to parties in Northern Idaho. In the lot just 
received are 10 pure-bred Guernseys, mostly two-year-old heifers, be- 
sides 20 choice high-grade cows and youngsters, now ready for buyers. 
The Holsteins are, as usual in our shipments, fresh and near fresh cows 
of large milk capacity. In youngsters buyers have an opportunity to get 
some pure-breds with high ancestral records at inside prices. We also 
have young pure-bred stock of our own raising very choice. Always glad 
to give full particulars. Write or call. 



FRYAR & COMPANY 

Tnirpaper n . tlon SUMNER, WASH. 



SECOND ANNUAL PACIFIC INTERNATIONAL 

HOLSTEIN 



150 



SALE 



Registered Holstein Cattle 



150 



At Union Stock Yards, North Portland, Oregon 
Two days sale 

DECEMBER 
11-12, 1914 

All stock free from blemish and Tuberculine Tested. Cows and 
heifers of fine breeding and individuality, together with high class bulls, 
many of serviceable age, whose breeding is the very best to be had; 
having records on both sides, in the 30-lb. list. 

DON'T GO EAST FOR YOUR BULLS 
as we will offer more high-class sires, collectively, than was ever offered 
before in a public sale. REMEMBER, this is one of the largest and best 
sales ever held in the United States, and the consignors are men of fine 
reputation and breders of the best stock to be found. 

Make your arrangements to be with us on the above-mentioned dates, 
and you will not be disappointed with the splendid animals that we will 
offer to you at that time. 

Write for catalog and further information to 

GEO. A. QUE, flanager 

RIDGEFIELD, WASH. 



'THE HOG WITH= 
OUT A HOLLOW" 



HAMPSHIRE SWINE 

Has them all beat for rustling and making the most meat at the least 
cost. It is the bacon hog for the Coast section. Large litters. Get 
your foundation stock from 



W. P. TYLER, 



Route 1, Granger, Wash. 



230 

second, Frank Loughary, Monmouth, 
Ore.; third, William Schulmerich; 
fourth, C. P. Hembree, Monmouth, 
Ore.; fifth, Johnson, Taylor & Linde- 
man, Corvallis, Ore. Bull, 2 years 
and under 3 — First, Thorns S. Grif- 
fith, Spokane, Wash.; second, G. G. 
Hewet, Monmouth, Ore.; third, F. E. 
Lynn; fourth, W. N. Cleveland, Gres- 
ham, Ore.; fifth, J. R. Cole, Molalla, 
Ore. Bull, 1 year and under 2— - 
First, R. W. Hogg, Salem, Ore.; se- 
cond, C. P. Hembree; third, C. P. 
Hembree; fourth, J. H. Van Metor, 
Oregon City, Ore.; fifth, G. G. Hewett. 
Bull, senior calf — First, C. P. Hem- 
bree; second, F. E. Lynn; third, 
Frank Loughary; fourth, William 
Schulmerich; fifth, C. P. Hembree. 
Bull, junior calf — First, C. P. Hem- 
bree; second, Frank Loughary; third, 
F. E. Lynn; fourth, F. E. Lynn; fifth, 
C. P. Hembree. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



OREGON HOLSTEIN CATTLE CLUB 

The new officers of the Oregon Hol- 
stein Cattle Club are: President, P. A. 
Frakes; vice president, Mr. Luscher; 
sec, Thos. Carmichael, Gaston, Ore. 
These were elected at the annual 
meeting held during the Oregon 
state fair last week. Much routine 
business was done and it was decid- 
ed to hold their next meeting in 
Portland during the Pacific Interna- 
tional Livestock show. A committee, 
consisting of Messrs. Frakes, Newell, 
and McKeown, was appointed to ex- 
amine the cattle offered for sale at 
the auction held during the Pacific 
International under the direction of 
this club. A resolution, recommend- 
ing that the Holstein Association of 
America keep a milking herd on ex- 
hibition during the entire time the 
Panama-Pacific exposition is in pro- 
gress, was adopted. 



WASHINGTON JERSEY CATTLE 
CLUB 

During the state fair at North 
Yakima, the Jersey breeders of Wash- 
ington perfected an organization with 
E. L. Brewer, Satsop, president. D. 
S. Troy, Chimacum, Secretary. An 
attempt will be made to enlist all 
who are raising pure bred Jerseys in 
Washington and those who have not 
received notice will please communi- 
cate with the secretary. 



WASHINGTON PURE BRED LIVE 
STOCK ASSOCIATION. 

For the betterment of the live stock 
condition in Washington looking to 
their protection in the legislature and 



other matters the Washington Pure 
Bred Live Stock Association was or- 
ganized at Spokane, September 19, 
with 20 charter members. 

An aggressive campaign will be 
made looking to the securing of a 
large membership. In other states of 
the middle west these associations 
have been productive of much good 
and, with the large number of pure 
bred stock breeders now in the State 
of Washington, much good will result 
from the association. 

Judge E. R. Brady of Satsop, Wash., 
was elected president; David S. Troy 
of Chimacum, Wash., vice-president; 
E. E. Faville of Spokane, Wash., se- 
cretary-treasurer. The executive com- 
mittee is composed of the following 
pure bred live stock breeders: Geo. 
L. Smith, Spokane, Wash., Chas. M. 
Talmadge, Newport, Wash., F. M. 
Rothrock, Spokane, Wash.; Jas. N. 
McCroskey, Fishtrap, Wash.; G. W. 
R. Peaslee, Spokane, Wash.; G. W. 
Brewer, Satsop, Wash., and Geo. M. 
Wilson, Wilbur, Wash. 

The next regular meeting of the as- 
sociation will be held during the 
Northwest Live Stock Show at Lew- 
iston, Idaho, November 30th to De- 
cember 5th. 



SILAGE AND ALFALFA AS PART 
RATION 

Dried Beet Pulp Supplements Both 
Feeds. 

"I have seen more indigestion in 
dairy cows since I've been here than 
I ever saw in the east," says H. N. 
Woodward of Tahoma County, Cal., 
writing in the Pacific Rural Press. 
"Hardly a week passes but some one 
phones that his cow is sick, hair 
turning the wrong way, bloating a 
little." 

"The cows have impaction of the 
bowels, due to over-eating of alfalfa 
hay. Nearly everybody here feeds 
nothing else. I tell them to give 
the cow a dose of salts, but several 
cow have died around here. 

"Alfalfa isn't a balanced ration. 
It supplies protein; but carbohy- 
drates must be supplied by other 
feed." 

This lack of carbohydrates can be 
supplied by feeding dried beet pulp, 
which makes a perfectly balanced ra- 
tion in combination with alfalfa 

"Some of the silage in California 
is poor stuff, especially in the resaw 
silos which are not built tight enough 
to exclude all air from the sides." 

"There are two other faults which 




Registered Holstein cow Eldred Clothilde 2nd, with her triplets, a 
fine trio all fit for the show ring. She gave 66 lbs. milk a day on 
pasture last season, testing 3.8 per cent. fat. Is out of Aggie Fayne 
Homestead breeding. Owned by N. P. Sorensen, Laurel, R. F. D., Belling- 
ham, Wash. This is certainly a record for Whatcom county. 



Albers' Calf Heal 



Why feed high price butter fat to the calf when you can 
raise a better calf by feeding our calf meal at a cost to you of 
less than one-third the value of butter fat? Save money by 
sending your name today for a copy of our free pamphlet on 
calf feeding. It contains information of great value to dairy- 
men, who should also know the full composition of our molasses 
feed and its price laid down at nearest dealer. 

ALBERS MOLASSES FEED 

Write at once for free Calf Meal and Molasses feed informa- 
tion and figure on making a larger profit margin for yourself. 

Albers Bros. Milling Co. 

SEATTLE, WASH. 

Largest Cereal Millers in the West 

Please mention this paper. 



Registered 

and High Grade 



H 



OLSTEIN 
CATTLE 



The demand for fresh cows is becoming brisk as usual this time of 
the year, naturally so as this is the country for winter dairying. We 
are in position to supply some very choicve, high-grade, deep milkers 
and some pure-bred youngsters of both sexes. Those who wish good 
foundation stock or immediate heavy milkers should write or call. 



H. S. ROYCE 



Savage-Scofield Bldg., A St. 

TACOMA, WASH. 



Please mention this paper 



Meadow Brook Farm 



Breeders! of 

Pure Bred 
Ayrshire 
Cattle 

A. P. Stockwell, Aberdeen, Wash. 



We have for sale some very choice pure bred bulls, 
ranging In age from three months to three years old, 
from the choicest strain of Ayrshire Cattle. We hav. 
the only herd In the State of Washington that la tested 
under supervision of the U. S. Government. With ev- 
ery animal we furnish a certificate from the govern- 
ment that he is free from tuberculosis or any other In- 
fectious disease. Address all correspodence to 



Turner & Pease Co., Inc. 

8 1 3-8 15-817 Western Ave. Seattle 

Leading Manufacturers of Butter in the State 

We pay cash for butter fat and eggs at 
correct market prices. 



AYRSHIRES 

Herd of 300 registered animals to select from. Has made three 
World's records for production. Write for catalog and prices. 
J. W. Clise, Owner WILLOWMOOR FARMS, 

Redmond, Washington 



Electric Ligh t Farm 

A.J. C.C. Jerseys 

FOR SALE 

Son of Gertie's Brown Lad whose 
dam has official record of 653 lbs. 
butter in one year. The dam of 
this 5-months-old calf made over 
10,000 lbs. milk and 595% lbs. but- 
ter with first calf. Solid color, mul- 
berry fawn, priced at $100.00 for 
quick sale. 

Burt Pease Ellensburg, Wash. 



Please mention this paper 



DI A CV L0SSE S SURELY PREVENTED 

III II Lilt by Cutter's Blackleg Pills. Low- 
vJ^rlVll priced, fresh, reliable: preferred by 
Western stockmen, because they 
w ■ ■ protect where other vaccines fail. 

■ . m Write for booklet and testimonials. 

If* I a 10-dose pkge. Blackleg Pills $1.00 
M-A V»A 50-dose pkge. Blackleg Pills 4.00 
Cutter's Blackleg Pill Injector 1.50 
Discounts: 230 doses. 10 p. ct.: 500 doses. 20 p. ct 
Use any injector, but Cutter's simplest and strongest. 
Every package dated, unused pills exchangeable for 
fresh after date on package. Do not use old vaccina (oun 
or any other), as it affords less protection than fresh. 

Insist on Cutter's. If unobtainable, order direct. 
Send check or M O.. we pay charges and -tup promptly. 
THE CUTTER LABORATORY, Berkeley, California. 



JERSEY BULL CALF 

Solid color and splendid individual, 
born July 10, 1914. Blood of Brown 
Bessie and Eminent. 
Price on application. 

JEFFERY HILTON, 
Marysville, Wash. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



231 



people are specially prone to fall 
down on. Silage should be cut finer 
— into half-inch lengths." 

"Sometimes they set the knives 
right, but pretty soon the knives get 
dull and just tear the pieces apart in 
busy shreds. The tough corn husks 
especially, often go through whole. 
Cutting in bigger pieces might be all 
right if it were heavily tramped, but 
people don't tramp the silage enough 
as it goes in. Anyhow when part is 
fine and part coarse, the husks and 
coarse pieces go to the far side while 
the feathery stuff settles straigh 
down." 

"Another trouble is with silo corn 
too dry. This does not occur in the 
Pacific Northwest, only in hot and 



dry sections. Nothing takes the 
place of the natural juices, but if it 
is to dry, add lots of water — there is 
very little danger of getting too much 
if the silo does not leak and waste 
good juice." 

Some dealers are also handling 
what is known as molasses — dried 
beet pulp, being simply the plain 
beet pulp with the addition of beet 
molasses dried. This makes a very 
sweet ration and on account of its 
sweetness is particularly palatable to 
stock. We understand that it costs 
the same price as the dried beet pulp 
and is put up in the same way. It 
has the same feeding value as the 
plain with the addition of molasses 
and is a splendid feed for fattening. 



HOLSTEINS 

Registered bulls and cows for sale. 
Good producers. Write for records 
and prices. 

A. BENSON 
Lynden, Wash. 



Windcrest Jersey Farm 

Some choice young registered Jer- 
seys for sale, both sexes. Large pro- 
ducers of milk. Test 5.5 to 6.5%. Herd 
headed by Eminent. Write for prices. 

O. F. LEWIS 
R. F. D. 1 Blaine, Wash. 



SILVER BiRCH FAHM 

jif BERttSHIRES 

W2Sb£$%** WRITE FOR CATALO OUE 

JISJ CI IAS. M. TALMADGE 

P*^ 5. 1 Box 3 



YEARLING JERSEY BULL CALF 

Sired by a son of Eminent and out 
of an imported cow with authenti- 
cated test of almost 600 lbs. butter 
in eleven months. This is a show 
calf and of good size. Price $125. 

DAVID C. DILWORTH 
Buckeye, Wash. 



REGISTERED AYRSHIRE BULL FOR 
SALE. 

Age 3 years. Write for particulars and 
price. 

P. O. HALL Sedro-Woolley, Wash. 



FOR SALE — Jersey bull calf, grandson 
of Noble of Oakland which has many 
tested daughters, and sold for $15,000. 
Dam Allie Reeves, out of Register of 
Merit breeding. Write for price and fur- 
ther particulars. JOHN H. CHAPMAN, 
Tacoma, Wash., R. F. D. No. 2, Box 69. 



GUERNSEYS — Some very choice bulls 
out of Faithful Boy, sired by Old 
Faithful. Price reasonable. Full par- 
ticulars on request. Jacob Zweegman, 
Lynden, Wash., R. F. D. 1. 



FRESIAN-HOLSTEIN CATTLE— Great 
producers of milk and butter fat and 
very prolific. Some of my records will 
astonish you. A few youngsters to sell 
at reasonable prices. Write for particu- 
lars and mention this paer. N. P. SOR- 
ENSON, Bellingham, Wash., R. F. D. 2. 



MERIDIAN DAIRY FARM 

Several choice registered Jersey bull 
calves for sale. My herd bull is Kol- 
iander's Eminent, whose dam is Veda 
Koiiander, produced 15,243 pounds 
milk and 896 pounds butter in 12 
months. Write for prices. 

B. C. CRABTREE, Prop. 
R. F. D. 1 Lynden, Wash. 

HOPE FARM GUERNSEYS 

Some very choice youngsters for 
sale at reasonable prices; pure bred, 
prize winning stock. Write for par- 
ticulars. 

H. B. DOUGLAS, Prop. 
Ferndale, Wash. 



REGISTERED JERSEYS 

Champion cow at Western Washing- 
ton Fairs, and herd sire has a good 
number of Register of Merit sisters. 
A few youngsters for sale. Write for 
particulars and prices. 

J. H. TAYLOR 
Montesano, Wash. 



FOR REGISTERED DUROC JERSEY 

bred sows and male pigs, write McK. 
Edwards, Valley, Wash. 




Registered Holstein cow Minnie Star No. 76545, seven years old, has a seven-day milk record of 572.7 lbs., 
and 20.485 lbs. butter. One of the 72 registered Holsteins of Carnation Stock Farm to be offered at public sale 
November 11th. 



BUYING DAIRY CATTLE. 



Opportunities in the Northwest 
Unsurpassed. 

Northwest Horticulturist and Dairy- 
man — 

Only a few days ago I received a 
letter from a gentleman living in this 
State, asking if it would not be to his 
interest to go east for a car-load of 
cattle, that he was anxious to get N a 
good lot of cows, at a low cost and if 
there were reasons why he could not 
gain by this eastern shipment, he 
would appreciate such knowledge. My 
reply was, not to go east for his 
cattle, as stock here at home could 
be had for less money, than he could 
buy the same class for, in the east, 
plus expenses of trip and shipment. 
Also it would require, practically, one 
years time for the stock to recuper- 
ate, from the change of climate and 
hardships of trip. Often cows have 
lost their calves, en route or from the 
effects of the long journey, and last 
but not least, many of the eastern 
sales, dealers and breeders, have 
proven themselves un-fair to the liber- 
al patronage of the western buyer. 
They have often taken advantage of 
his lack of knowledge concerning 
pedigrees, and in many instances, 
have sold for high values, animals of 
inferior breeding; also certificates of 
tuberculin test have been falsely 
furnished, yet in such a way that it 



was impossible to come back with 
proof against the reliability of such 
test. Such dealings have not only 
been ' handed to the unsuspecting 
Westerner, in one or two instances, 
that we know of but it has been car- 
ried on in wholesale proportions, and 
their diseased cattle are still being 
shipped to us. Only last May, a ship- 
ment of cattle, were re-tested by a 
Federal Inspector, of Portland, and 
if I remember correctly, this Inspector 
told me, that he got 27 re-acters out 
of the 38 head which composed the 
shipment. Is such treatment as this 
deserving of your patronage? Surely 
not. # 

During the 15 or 20 years of breed- 
ing of Holsteins in the Northwest, we 
have established some very fine herds. 
In fact some of our herds have reach- 
ed that high degree of excellence, 
attained only by years of successful 
breeding, and from our breeders in 
the N. W. stock of the highest type, 
can be purchased. For those desiring 
to purchase stock, splendid oppor- 
tunities will present themselves in the 
three fall sales that are soon to take 
place, and promoted by some of our 
very best breeders. 

On November 11, the Carnation 
Stock Farm, located on the C. M. & 
St. P. R. R. at Carnation, Wash., or 
reached by Ferry & Auto, from Seat- 
tle, via Kirkland, will sell 72 head of 
high bred Registered Holsteins. 



n egistered 
•Va.j.c.c. Jerseys 

Young bulls from heavy producers 
FOR SALE 
Grandsires have many tested 
daughters. Also some choice pure- 
bred 

POLAND CHINA PIGS 

Write for prices. 

£. L. Lloyd 

Box 466 Monroe, Wash. 



Oregon Collie Kennels Established 42 



JERSEY BULL FOR SALE 

Eminent Inland Empire, out of 
Eminent and Golden Fern's Lad, 
which has over 60 daughters in A. R. 
O. class. A splendid animal, having 
made good in my herd. Price reason- 
able. Full particulars on request. 

NELS JORDAL 
R. F. D. 2 Lynden, Wash. 



HOLSTEIN BULL — Sir Yakima Korn- 
dyke, sired by Korndyke Hengerveld 
DeKol, for sale. Full particulars and 
price on application. L. F. KRASSIN, 
R. F. D. 2, Snohomish, Wash. 



Crystal Springs Farm 

A. J. C. C. Jerseys — Young bulls for 
sale. Heavy producers and prize win- 
ners. Also Poland China hogs. 

GUY C. CHAPMAN, 
Pomona Wash. 



GOOD REGISTERED BERKSHTRES — 

Choice pigs, $10 each at weaning tlms. 
W. D. GOOD, Mt. Vernon, Wuh. 




years. 
Choice Puppies 

(either sex) 
Breeding Pairs 
Bitches In 
whelp and stud 
dogs for sale. 

Send 2c stamp 
for Illustrated 
catalog. 

a D, N AIR If 

Sbadeland 

Farms 
X. F. D. S 
Amity, Oregon 



nkiRnp. i trnccA/ 

PEAS; E Ij -P. E D I Q P) E€"QJ|3pp 
LJU ! \ U U U LI\UL_ I 



A herd of the best blood of the best 
strains headed by Champion of the 
Northwest No. 107287, a boar that has 
never been outclassed at any age. 

Write for prices. 

THE E. N. PEASLEE CO., 
Clarkston, Wash. 



Purebred Durocs 

Very choice young Duroc pigs of- 
fered at reasonable prices. Early 
application should be made. 
Write today. 

vVe buy and sell 
large quantities of choice hams and 
bacon. Quality is our motto. 

AUGUSTINE & KYER 
115 First St. Seattle, Wash 



232 

I have inspected these animals and 
find thern to be a very fine lot. The 
sale will start at 12:30 p. m. A visit 
to this magnificent plant is really 
worth the trip alone. 

On November 19th, at North Yaki- 
ma, Wash., Messrs H. C. Davis, E. 
B. Marks, and Win, Todd & Son, will 
sell 85 head, of very finely bred ani- 
mals. The reputation of these gentle- 
men and the high standing of their 
herds, make further comment on my 
part unnecessary; and I am sure that 
no one will be disapopinted in -the 
high character of the stock offered, 
by these breeders. 

At North Portland, Union Stock 
Yards, on December 11th and 12th, 
the following consignors, will offer in 
a two day sale, 150 head of as fine a 
lot of Registered Holsteins, as has 
ever been brought together in a pub- 
lic sale: Albert Johnson; W. K. 
Newell; Stickney & Barnard; Munroe 
Co.; E. B. Marks; A. C. Mills; H. S. 
Royce, Hollywood Farms; J. C. 
Roberts; and Geo. A. Gue. 

I have termed this the Guarantee 
Sale of the West, in-as-much, as all 
stock must be free from blemish, 
Contagious Abortion, Tuberculosis, 
and not over eight years of age. 

I take great pleasure in extending 
to all your readers a cordial invita- 
tion to attend the above mentioned 
sales, and I am sure they will be 
well repaid. 

GEO. A. GUE. 



FAT STOCK AT FAIRS 

In the beef cattle, at the Washing- 
ton and Oregon State Fairs, two very 
fine herds of Shorthorns were shown, 
one from the herd of James H. Mc- 
Croskey of Sprague, Wash., and one 
from A. Chalmers of Forest Grove, 
Ore. Mr. McCroskey got grand cham- 
pion bull, grand champion cow, both 
junior championships, first in aged 
herd, young herd and calf herd and 
first get of sire. 

Although, at Salem, Mr. McCros- 
key got most of the prizes, yet Mr. 
Chalmers had a very fine lot of cat- 
tle, mostly his own breeding, and 
with another year's fitting there may 
be a different rating of these two 
herds. Their Scottish Baron needs 
a little more fitting, as do some of 
their females, but as the cows in the 
herd are suckling their own calves, 
they could not be expected to be in 
top show condition. 

The McCroskey herd was seen at 
Spokane. They are in top condition 
and are by far the best lot of Short- 



O.I.C.Hogs 

English Shire 
Horses 



Pigs farrowed in May, 
from my Champion 
and Grand Champion 
sows at 1913 Washing- 
ton State Fair are now 
booked to fill orders at 
weaning time. All 
stock sold strictly 
first class. English 
Shire stallions 1 to 3 years old. Write for prices. 
A. L. FIERCE, Granger, Wash. 



REGISTERED DUROCS 

(Immune to Cholera) 

All ages for sale, male or female, from 
prolific families. 

Shamrock Wander heads the herd. 
Shamrock Daisy farrowed 12 pigs. 
Shamrock Rose farrowed 14 pigs. 
Selah Agness farrowed 16 pigs. 
Write for prices. 
A. H. IRISH. Wapato, Wash. 



THE NORTHWEST 

horns seen in the Coast states this 
year, according to the opinion of 
Mr. J. L. Smith. 

F. H. Porter of Halsey, Ore., had 
the only Red Polled cattle and made 
a very good showing, but had it all 
to himself. 

G. S. Hechtner of Chariton, Iowa, 
had the only Galloways and a better 
showing has never been made in the 
west of that Scotch breed. 

llerefords were a rather small 
shew and not quite up to quality of 
former year, although some very good 
cattle was shown by George Chandler 
of Baker City, Ore., and Henry Thies- 
sen of Sweetwater, Idaho, Mr. Chand- 
ler taking most of the prizes and both 
grand championships. These herds 
were both at Spokane. The Chand- 
ler herd was much better fitted and 
was therefore shown in better bloom. 
The best part of the beef cattle show 
was the fat steers shown by the Uni- 
versity of Idaho, and great credit 
should be given the boys who fitted 
them. Ross Abel, who has done the 
fitting, is a graduate of the college, 
and his splendid work should be 
great encouragement to boys who de- 
sire to get an education along the 
line of live stock husbandry at a 
college where a good chance is given 
him in a first-class herd. The steers 
are a very fine lot and are a great 
credit to the college. 



HORTICULTURIST 



HOG EXHIBIT AT WASHINGTON 
STATE FAIR. 

The highest honors of the hog show 
were divided between L. H. Linbarger 
of North Yakima, who took grand 
champion of all the breeds on his 
Poland China boar, and I. L. Jones, of 
Prosser, who took grand champion 
sow of all the breeds on a Tamworth. 
The Berkshire class was especialy 
strong and the contest close. 

Duroc Jerseys. 

Exhibitors of this class were W. R. 
White, Mabton, and John B. Peterson, 
of Montbourne, both winning their 
share of prizes. The association spe- 
cial of $48 went to White. Best young 
stock and sow bred by exhibitor to 
Peterson. Mr. Peterson holds the rec- 
ord of the state if not of the country 
for largest daily gain for 6 months, 
being mora than iy 2 pounds per day. 



PEERADA BERKSHIRES 

| Headed by Artful Masterpiece 3rd 
splendid son of Masterpiece, the 
world's most famous Berkshire. 
Bred gilts, boars and weanling pigs. 

NEWTON H. PEER 



Mention this paper 



TACOMA, WASH. 



Poland China Boars 

Have some good ones 4 months old, 
also boar pigs of good breeding. Gilts 
all sold. 

F. C. BRUCE 
Grandview, Wash. 



BERKSHIRE PIGS 

Prize winning, prolific, rapid 
growing, pure bred stock at very 
reasonable price on prompt sale. 
Full particulars on request. 

ALBERT C. HERRE 
Route 1 Everson, Wash. 



HAMPSHIRE HOGS Stone Duke's Strain 

Fifty head sold at public sale averaged $108.49 each. Head sire son 
of Jenny Taylor. Choice stock offered of all ages and in trios unrelated. 
Write for our further records and prices. 



H. D. De KALB, 



Oe Kalb, Iowa 



First Annual Fall Sale 

WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 11th, 1914 

71 -Holstein-Freisian= 71 

REGISTERED CATTLE 

All splendid individuals, a number with good A. R. O. records. 
Listed as follows: 

28 Pure Bred Registered Holstein Cows 

with good records. These cows are bred either to Ollie Jo- 
hanna Sir Fayne No. 59096, whose sire — Sir Johanna Fayne — 
is sire to 22 A. R. O. Daughters; or Dutchland Governor Sir 
Colantha No. 90477, whose sire — Colantha Johanna Lad — is 
sire of 55 A. R. O. Daughters and 21 proven sons with 97 A. 
R. O. Daughters. 

16 Pure Bred Registered Holstein Heifers 

from 1 to 2 years. These heifers are bred to Dutchland Gov- 
ernor Sir Colanthe No. 90477, whose sire — Colantha Johanna 
Lad — is sire of 55 A. R. O. Daughters and 21 proven sons with 
97 A. R. O. Daughters. 

10 Pure Bred Registered Holstein Heifers 

6 to 10 months old; well marked; sired by Dutchland Gover- 
nor Sir Colantha No. 90477; Premo "Gerben Julip No. 89295; 
Lad Ormsby Kakenstein No. 95288. 

14 Pure Bred Registered Holstein Bull Calves 

6 to 9 months old; well marked; good breeding. Sired by 
Dutchland Governor Sir Colantha No. 90477; Premo Gerben 
Julip No. 89295; Lad Ormsby Kakenstein No. 952888. 

3 Pure Bred Registered Holstein Bulls 

about 2 years old. Good individuals; well bred; sired by Lad 
Legend of Kakenstein 2d No. 64568. 

The above list of pure bred registered stock is a Holstein 
show in itself. All over 6 months old are tuberculin tested. 

Send for descriptive catalogue, giving details and records of 
four generations on individuals offered at this sale. Catalogue 
sent free to interested buyers. Address Carnation Stock Farm, 
936 Henry Building, Seattle, Wash. 

Farm located at Carnation, Washington, in Snoqualmie Val- 
ley (on C. M. & St. P. R. R.) 15 miles from Seattle by auto via 
Kirkland. 



Carnation 

^Stock Farm 




Lunch served on the grounds free. Information about special 
transportation sent upon request. Sale will start promptly at 
12:30 Wednesday, November 11th, 1914. Terms of sale: One- 
third cash, balance three and six months, with approved security 
bearing 8 per cent. 

AUCTIONEERS— Gue & Linbarger. 



MILKIINCj machines 

There are 168 Hinman Milkers in successful operation in Washing- 
ton, all sold during the past six months. Every buyer has 30 days' trial, 
but these all prefer to keep the machines. Do you want full information 
about them as to capacity, moderate price, their simplicity, durability, 
efficiency and to ascertain where one may be seen in operation by its 
satisfied owner, then write today, and mention this paper, 'to 
E. E. BURNS, Mt. Vernon, Wash. 




BERKSHIRES 

Two boars, fit for service. Will 
benefit any farm herd. Now book- 
ing orders for weaned pigs, $10 to 
$15 each. Write us if you want 
foundation stock. 

WOODLAND FARM 

Thurston County Lacey, Wash. 

P. S. Artichokes — We can book a 
few more orders for seed. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



233 



NORTHWEST SWINE BREEDERS 
ORGANIZE 

Swine breeders of the Northwest met 
at the Interstate Fair Saturday and 
organized the Swine Breeders' asso- 
ciation. 

The following officers were elected: 
President, L. H. Linbarger, North 
Yakima, Wash.; vice president, Har- 
ry Somers of Bozeman, Mont.; vice 
president, C. W. Felt, Nez Perce, 
Idaho; vice president, J. H. T. Smith, 
Pullman, Wash.; E. E. Faville, super- 
intendent of cattle department of the 
interstate fair, was elected as secre- 
tary-treasurer of the association. 

A committee on constitution and 
by-laws was appointed with C. M. Mc- 
Allister as chairman, which will be- 
gin work immediately. A yearly due 
of $1 was set and about 40 enthusi- 
astic men came forward with their 
dollar. Arrangements will be made 
to hold the next meting during the 
fair at North Yakima. 



CHOICE HOLSTEINS SOLD BY 
VAN WOERDEN & FISHER. 

During the early part of this month 
Mr. A. Meusreau, of Wapato, Wash., 
purchased a carload of very choice 
Holstein cows from Van Woerden & 
Fisher, of Thomas, Wash. The selec- 
tion was exceedingly good throughout, 
each and every animal choice, in full 
health, fine vigor and heavy producer, 
all young and well bred. 

Mr. Meusreau has recently pur- 
chased a tract of land near Wapato, in 
Yakima county, and is preparing to 
build up a large dairy herd by raising 
young stock from this foundation herd 
mostly. He also bought from Van 
Woerden & Fisher the pure-bred sire 
Sir Johanna Korndyke 4th, whose sire 
is Sir Johanna Korndyke and his dam 
Ruth Pietertje De Kol Tirania, the 
show cow which won first prize at 
King County Fair last year. This 
young bull has excellent dairy features 
and will hardly fail to make good on 
high quality offspring. It is Mr. Meus- 
reau's intention to gradually work into 
the breeding of pure breds. He is mani- 
festing a deep interest in the dairy in- 
dustry, and is likely to become a con- 
genial companion to the pure-bred Hol- 
stein owners who make up the happy 
family of leaders in the dairy show 
ring of Washington. 

Van Woerden & Fisher are also clos- 
ing up a sale of a bunch of fresh 
milk cows to the Pure Milk and Dairy 
Company of Seattle, besides filling or- 
ders from numerous buyers of individ- 
ual animals. They have some choice 
fresh cows and a nice bunch of heifer 
calves in their herd at this time and 
are preparing to bring further ship- 
ments from the Eastern states next 
month. 



HORSE EXHIBIT AT YAKIMA. 



English Shires. 

The exhibit of horses at the Wash- 
ington State Fair was not large, but 
the quality was well nigh perfection 
from the standpoint of practical usage, 
beauty and soundness all combined. 

The English Shires were exhibited 
by A. L. Pierce, Granger, Wash. His 
mare Willamette Pride easily won first 
place in class and grand champion. 
Her colt was also first in class and 
grand champion besides being award- 
ed first as produce of mare. His 3- 
year-old stalion was also first in class. 
This exhibit of horses represented 
ideal drafters as to size, proportion of 
flesh to limbs, sinew, bone and muscle, 
beautiful in shape and action, quali- 



ties in every way ideal in horses 
which must pull heavy loads. Mr. 
Pierce is keeping away from that form 
of horse which is overloaded in flesh, 
taking the position that horses are for 
power and speed service rather than 
for "steak," or merely to sell through 
"horse companies." 

Exhibitions of Percherons were Stan- 
ley Coffin, North Yakima; Reservation 
Horse Company, Toppenish; Rouleau 
Bros., Moxee, and J. A. Adams & Son, 
North Yakima, the awards being well 
divided. 

Clydesdales were shown by O. I. 
Trice, Grandview. Prizes without com- 
petition. 



J. J. Miller, Sumner, Wn., exhibited 
the Registered Holstein bull, Kaan 
Selah Newman, a son of the famous 
Margie Newman, at the Western 
Washington Fair. His weight at 3 
years is 2250 pounds, was awarded 
2nd prize. 



DE LAVEL EXHIBIT AT FAIRS 

The De Lavel Dairy Supply Com- 
pany had an exhibit at the fairs this 
year which was highly educational. 
Particularly at the Western Washing- 
ton Fair was their complete equip- 
ment attractive to visitors interested 
in Dairying. There were cream sep- 
arators, ensilage cutters, and alpha 
engines to operate them. There was 
a green feed silo and corn was made 
into ensilage. There were manure 
carriers, and stanchion fixtures, all 
looked good to the dairymen who are 
already in possession of some good 
cows. 



WOUND WASH FOR ANIMALS 

To disinfect and protect a wound 
on an animal from flies the Informa- 
tion Bureau, U. S. Department of 
Agriculture submits the following 
remedy and formula: 

Oil of turpentine 1 dram 

Phenol l dram 

Cottonseed oil to make ....4 ounces 

Mix and apply freely to wounds. 

It is stated that this remedy is 
highly effective and is widely used. 
It is said to induce healthy granula- 
tion of wounds. 



CHORING MADE EASY 

The Nickerson MacFarlane Machin- 
ery Company had an electric light 
plant exhibit at the Western Wash- 
ington Fair, also a power wood saw 
outfit operated by a bull-dog engine. 
The cost of these power plants are 
now so reasonable that it is little 
wonder many farmers are figuring on 
an installation. 

The daily chore of sawing wood, 
pumping water, generating light and 
running the cream separator be- 
comes a more agreeable duty with 
satisfactory machinery properly ar- 
ranged and installed. 



POULTRY 

EGG HANDLING AND SELLING 
METHODS. 

Eggs are rather scarce and high in 
price at this season of the year, and 
farmers realize they should more care- 
fully observe and practice methods 
which will redound to their interests. 

Here are rules advised by the Mis- 
souri College of Agriculture for the 
care of eggs on the farm : 

1. Market only eggs of standard size 
— 24 ounces or more to the dozen. 

2. Sort out exceedingly large or very 



EOOS AND CHEESE 

We are handling quantities of these satisfactorily for producers. 
Write for particulars. 

WASHINGTON CREAMERIES ASSOCIATION 
E. Hazelton, President. 1114 Western Ave., 

O. C. Van Houten, Manager. Seattle, Wash. 



THE TRAP NESTED WHITE LEGHORNS 

NOW IN THEIR TENTH YEAR OF CONTINUOUS TRAP NESTING 

EVERY POULTRY RAISER NEEDS THIS STOCK 

HATCHING EGGS. BREEDING STOCK, DAY OLD CHICKS AT MODERATE PRICES 
SPLENDID COCKERELS. BUY ONE BRED FOR EGGS. GRADE UP YOUR FLOCK. 
Order Now. Stock, Eggs, Chicks. Catalogue Mailed Free. 
THE TSNCRED FARMS. KENT, WASHINGTON. 



HENS+SPROUTED oats=eggs 




CLOSE-TO-NATCRE COMPANY 

FRONT ST.* COLFAX, IOWA 



Hens like cows mu6thave 
green feed both winter and 
summer for best results. 
GREEN SILAGE'o»MILK 
SPROUTED OATS "-"'EGGS 

No feed for eggs has ever 
been produced that equals 
the Sprouted Oats. 

To get great quantities of 
sweet, crisp sprouts, buy a 

DOUBLE QUICK 

GRAIN SPROUTER 

The PerpetualPoultry Silo 

Sprouts in 24 hours. 
Grows 2 inches daily. Makes 2 
to 4 bu. feed from one of grain. 
Pays for itself quickly. Thousands 
in use. Has changed many an 
expensive flock into profit pay- 
ers, Made in 6 sizes from 
few hens to lOOO. 



It is the experience of leading 
farmers in Western Washington 
the past year that sprouted oats is 
very effective for egg production. 
Used as a leading part of the poul- 
try ration the cost of eggs is kept 
at the minimum figure. A crop is 
thus easily turned into cash. 
The Oat Sprouts are sold by 

Poole's Seed & 
Implement Co. 

1507-9 Pacific Ave. 
TACOMA, WASH. 



DUCKS 

The Best In 
White Runners 

WE ARE NOW OFFERING FOR SALE 

Drakes, Trios & 
Breeding Pens 

Bred from the Best American Strain 
Write for prices and booklet 

E. E. BLOOMFIELD 

Hillhurst, Wash. Box22D 



small eggs. 

3. Avoid dirty eggs by keeping clean 
quarters. Dirt can be removed with a 
damp cloth, but eggs should not be 
washed. 

4. Remove males from flock as soon 
as the breeding season is over. The 
presence of the male birds in the poul- 
try flock destroys $500,000 worth of 
eggs each month during the summer. 
Prevent this loss by the production of 
infertile eggs. Fertile eggs do not, 
keep well, it costs money to feed sur- 
plus males, and the hens are more pro- 
ductive when no males are present. 

5. Reject eggs from stolen nests; 
that's where many of the rotten eggs 
come from. 

6. Store eggs in cool, well ventilated 
places. Heat assists in chick develop- 
ment, and also increases the shrink- 
age. 

T., Keep eggs away from odors, such 
as those from kerosene, cabbage, rot- 
ten food, fresh paint, etc. Food also 
influences flavor; only clean food 
should be fed. 



PEDIGREED 

COCKERELS 

From Trapnested 

S. C. White Leghorns 

and 

Barred Rocks 

Blanchard Poultry Yards 

C. WESTERGAARD, Mgr. 
Dept. H HADLOCK, WASH 



Partridge Plymouth Rocks 

We introduced this breed in the Pa- 
cific Northwest from Michigan 6 years 
ago. Beauty of the Rocks, great lay- 
ers .excellent for meat. Write for 
prices on young stock and eggs. 

MBS. L. M. HALL 
Fuyallup, Wash. 

EGGS OR CASH 

Directions for getting hens into good 
laying condition in shortest time pos- 
sible is given in every package of our 
Herculean Strike Breaker. Sold by 
dealers, or write to manufacturer for 
literature, etc. 

E. H. ROMBERGER 
sta - F - Seattle, Wash. 



Rocks 



BARRED WHITE, 
PARTRIDGE and BUFF 



Choice cockerels at $5 each, prize win- 
ning stock, good layers. Eggs $2.50 for 
setting. Special prices on lots. 

MBS. D. P. ALWASD 
Orting, Wash. 



EGGS and BUCKS 

Leghorns, Wyandottes, Minorcas 
and Barred Rocks. Day Old Chicks' 
., e ,f£? rns ' Br own, White and Buff, at 
* 15; 00 per 100. Choice males offered. 

EGGS from any of above breeds. 
?2 per setting or $8 per 100. 

Write for mating list and grit ma- 
chine circular. 

FRED A. JOHNSON 

518 35th St., Tacoma, Wash. 



8. Marnet eggs once or twice week- 
ly. An egg deteriorates in quality 
with age. 

9. Insist that your dealer purchase 
eggs on a "loss off' basis, not just as 
they come in. At present the dealer 
buys all eggs, good, bad and indiffer- 
ent, at the same price, and does not 
recognize the difference in quality. 
The result is that an average low 
price is paid for eggs. Some eggs are 
worthless while others are worth 
much more than the average price. 
Insist that your dealer candle eggs 
during the summer. If he sorts out bad 
eggs he can then afford to pay more 
for the good. 



LAND 
CLEARING 
METHODS 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST 



" Bm«5 Stump Puller 

ONE OP THE WONDER?oftheAG£ 




Besides trying the char-pitting 
method there have been other plans, 
such as destroying by chemicals, dy- 
namiting every stump, etc., but today 
the practical, common-sense method 
of eliminating the stumps is by the 
use of a good stump puller, combined 
with a judicious employment of pow- 
der to break up the big fellows and 
permit of pulling. 

The last year or so have seen a 
wider and more intelligent use of 
stump pullers than ever before in the 
history of the country. In this period 
more land has been cleared, it has 
been cleared more satisfactorily and 
economically, and with less noise and 
excitement over the so-called "logged- 
off land" problem, than in any previous 
time. There is not a great problem 
so far as logged-off land is concerned. 
It is merely a question of a little la- 
bor, that pays better than most any 
other work the owner can undertake. 

Granted that the stump puller is the 
most efficient eradicator of the stump, 
the next question is the stump puller 
itself— there are so many on the mar- 
ket. One of the oldest forms of 
stump puller is the horse machine, 
operating with a sweep. This particu- 
lar form of machine has pulled multi- 
tudes of stumps, and has its advan- 
tages as well as its disadvantages. In 
the olden days the sweep would get 
away every now and then and break 
a leg either of horse or man. But lat- 
terly most of the objections have been 
overcome. 

The tendency toward simplifying all 
sorts of farm implements has had its 
effect in stump pullers as well as in 
many other lines, and the newest and 
most satisfactory puller is a little 
hand machine that weighs only 171 
pounds and, properly rigged, boasts 
more pulling power than any horse 
machine yet devised. This is the "K" 
hand power stump puller, introduced 
into the United States by Walter J. 
Fitzpatrick, 1926 Second avenue, Se- 
attle. While it has been before the 
public only a brief period, it now is 
in use in virtually every state in the 
Union, in Alaska, and in Cuba and 
other islands of the West Indies. 

This "K" machine operates with a 
pawl and ratchet, and with two blocks 
is capable of pulling 48 tons on a 
straight line. It has such power, in 
fact, as to break an inch steel cable, 
if the stump refuses to come. Yet it 
is so simple in operation that even a 
woman can operate it, and can outpull 
six large horses pulling in a straight 
line. The machine operates like row- 
ing a boat. It has wheels that make 
it easy to move from place to place, 
and it can be turned to many valu- 
able uses around a farm, as it is good 
for all sorts of pulling and hauling. 

If the land to be cleared carries 
standing timber, the "K" is especially 
valuable, for the trees may be pulled 
clear of the ground. Stumps up to 
22 inches in diameter in fir and four 
fed in cedar can be pulled direct by 
the "K"; when they are larger it is 
iften best to break the stump and 
oosen it with a few sticks of powder. 



The big flat roots of the cedar come 
out clean and whole, while the deeper 
roots of the firs likewise come out 
entire and leave the ground in splen- 
did shape for planting. 

The "K" first was used in British 
Columbia, and then was introduced 
into Washington, Oregon and other 
parts of the northwest. It pulled the 
big stumps here so readily that there 
came a demand for it in the middle 
states and to the southward. The "K" 
has a fine record among the eucalyp- 
tus trees of California. A large field 
has been developed for it in the re- 
gion of the great lakes, and there is a 
demand for the "K" machines in the 
Southern states, where there is much 
land clearing to do. The machine 
pulls out the oak, pine and other 
stumps of Georgia, Florida, Alabama 
and the rest of the Southern states 
with a facility that astonishes the 
operators. 

More recently the United States de- 
partment of agriculture in two of its 



branches — the division of education 
and the agricultural experiment sta- 
tions — -purchased the "K" and found it 
so satisfactory and practical that 
Prof. C. C. Georgeson, director of the 
experimental work, has written Mr. 
Fitzpatrick a letter warmly commend- 
ing the work of the powerful little 
machine. 

The counties of Kitsap, Island, 
Pierce, Skagit and Skamania, in the 
State of Washington, are using the 
"K" hand power puller for the heavy 
road clearing work in place of the 
donkey engine and horse power stump 
puller. The commissioners of these 
counties found that three men to oper- 
ate the horse power machine and the 
two horses necessary were too expen- 
sive. Thy also found that to get the 
horse power machines into position 
and to get a cleared space ready to 
work them took too much time. They 
found that the "K" hand power ma- 
chine would work on land where you 
could not work a horse machine, and 



that it had more power and could clear 
land for half the cost, as one man 
could do all the work, even moving 
the machine a mie or two himself. 



Raise Beef Cattle 

1240 acres in John Day section of 
Eastern Oregon. All good land. Over 
half of it practically level; 500 acres 
can be put in wheat; balance fine 
bunch gr^ss land. Fenced. Well wa- 
tered by spri gs; water can be piped 
to buildings and some of the land irri- 
gated. Good house, large new barn 
and outbuildings. Surrounded by thou- 
sands of acres of free range. This 
place will take care of 200 head cattle 
without usin ' the outside range. On 
main county road, mail route and 
phone line; 4 miles from town. Price 
only $10,000. (Practically $8 per 
acre.) $2500 cash, balance 10 years 
6 per cent. If not personally inter- 
ested, perhaps some of your friends 
would be glad to know of this oppor- 
tunity. 

Acme Realty Co. 

401 Equitable Building, Tacoma. 



Twenty-seventh Year 



TACOMA AND SEATTLE. WASH., NOVEMBER, 1914 



No. 11 



Two Yearly Silo Crops 



A Practical Demonstration in Western 
Washington, by C. J. Zintheo. 

A great many farmers have during 
the last two years, bought silos and a 
great many more are contemplating 
doing so next year. The question of 
what feed to use to fill the silo is 
now receiving attention. Any green 
succulent feed makes good silage, but 
corn is not only the best silage, but 
it also yields the greatest number of 
tons per acre. 

The following story of corn silage is 
not a speculation of what might be 
done, but is a true narrative of what 
was done to raise a good crop of corn 
for the silo and it is given with the 
idea of helping those who are not 
familiar with raising corn for the 
silo that they might profit by the ex- 
ample. 

Pickering Bros, at Issaquah, which 
is 14 miles out for Seattle, have a 
large dairy farm, and last winter, 
having no silage they bought $2,500 
worth of feed. 

This year they were persuaded to 
put in sixteen acres of corn for the 
silos. They obtained, during early 
spring a sample of corn from a local 
seed house which they tested for ger- 
mination by spreading some kernals 
between some damp cloth that was 
left in a warm place in the kitchen. 
At the end of a week they examined 
the kernals and found that only 50 
per cent, of them had sprouted and 



the balance were dead. If they had 
planted their field with this variety 
of corn they would have obtained only 
half a crop. 

They then sent to a Portland seed 
house for three samples of corn which 
they tested in a similar way and this 
corn germinated ninety-five per cent. 

The ground on which the corn was 
planted was sod ground on which 
a heavy coat of manure was put with 
the manure spreader. It was then 
plowed and gone over six times both 
ways with a disc harrow after which 
it was cultivated with a peg tooth 
smoothing harrow. 

The King Phillip corn which has 
red kernels cost 4% cents per pound. 
It was planted May 16, 1914, with a 
John Deere Edge Drop planter. These 
plates in the hopper having cells 
around the outer edge into which one 
kernel of corn only is placed on edge 
in each cell and as the plate revolves 
one kernel is dropped in each place 
4 inches apart, 1 inch deep, the rows 
were 3 feet 6 inches apart. 

The corn came up above ground 
six day after planting. Ten days 
after planting the ground was har- 
rowed with a peg tooth harrow and 
the teeth slanted backward. This 
killed a lot of young weeds that had 
sprouted, but did not effect the corn 
which by this time was well rooted. 

Two weeks after planting the field 
was cultivated with a two horse 



Deere riding cultivator and this was 
repated once a week until the corn 
was 2 feet tall, making six cultiva- 
tions. Five weeks after planting the 
corn was hoed with hand hoes, in the 
drill rows between the stalks cutting 
out any weeds which the cultivator 
was not able to get. 

At the last cultivation the hiller 
attachment was put on the cultivator 
and the corn was hilled as it was laid 
by less than two months from the 
time it was planted. 

The corn was cut with a Corn Bin- 
der, September 14, making just 4 
months from the time it was planted. 
The corn was an average of ten feet 
in height and produced an average of 
20 ton of silage per acre. The ears 
were well formed and in the milky 
stage, but were not mature enough 
for picking. About five acres of this 
corn was planted. Five acres of 
white corn cob ensilage corn was 
planted. This received in general the 
same treatment as the King Phillip, 
except that the kernels were planted 
about 8 inches apart in the row. This 
corn produced heavier stalks and 
larger leaves than the King Phillip, 
and produced about 22 tons of ensil- 
age per acre. The ears were more 
mature than the King Phillip and 
larger in size. Six acres of the Pride of 
the North corn was planted. This 
is a yellow dent corn and it received 
the same general treatment as to 
time of planting, preparation and cul- 
tivation of the ground as the other 
varieties, but the kernels were plant- 



ed about 10 inches apart in the row. 
This corn produced stalks 15 feet 
tall (rather to much stalk), and 
yielded 25 tons of ensilage per acre; 
the ears were large and well pro- 
portioned, but not mature enough for 
seed. Considering that during the 
growing periods of 4 months there 
were 77 days of continuous drought, 
this growth of ensilage corn is re- 
markable and shows what can be 
done in Western Washington in 
raising feed for the silo. 

The corn was cut and blown into 
the two 18x45 foot silos with an Ohio 
Ensilage cutter, run with a Caterpillar 
35 H. P. engine. As soon as the corn 
was out of the field, it was plowed 
immediately with the Caterpillar trac- 
tor and a Deere engine plow and a 
crop of winter oats and spring vetch 
was put in, that will be ready for 
the silo next May and will serve as 
summer feed next July and August 
when pasture is short. 

Suffice it to say that Pickering Bros, 
are not spending $2,500 for feed this 

year but have green succulent feed 
for the cows all winter which pro- 
duces about 20 per cent, more milk 
than dry feeding. 



Our people in this country gener- 
ally are thankful for the privilege of 
service, even of strife to make the 
world better and that we are not in 
the war zone to suffer physical tor- 
ture. 




Scene on the dairy farm of Pickering Bros., Issaquah, Wash., where corn ensilage, a pneumatic water system, electric lights and milk- 
ing machines are reducing the total expense account by more than $100 per month than without them, besides making the work easy and 
creating a product with a high condition of purity. 



236 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST AND DAIRYMAN 



NORTHWEST 



HORTICULTURIST 

Agriculturist and Dairyman. 

C. A. TONNESON, 
Editor and Proprietor. 
Address all Communications to the 
Tacoma Office 
STORTIC0I.TURIST, Box 1604, TftComs* 
Wash. 

Office 511 Chamber of Commerce 
Building', Tacoma, Wash. 

Seattle Office 

316 Globe Bldg., 
Constan tine Advertis ing Agency 

Subscriptions 60 Cents per Year when 

Pakl in Advance. Otherwise 7 Cents. 

Six Months, 30c. Three Months, 20o 
in Advance. 

Canadian, other foreign, also when deliv- 
ered y carrier in Tacoma, 76c a year. 

Subscribers will indicate the time for 

8 which they wish the paper continued. 

Payments are due one year in adyance. 
Established October, 1887. 
Entered as Second C1m» Matter at the 

Postoffice at Tacoma, Wash., under Act 

of March 3, 1879. 

EDITORIAL STAFF CONTRIBUTORS 

Geo. Severance, State College Agri- 
culturist. . _ 
Byron Hunter, Agriculturist. 
W A. Linklater, Supt. Exp. Sta. 
H ' L Blancbard, Poultry and Dairy. 
J ' L. Stahl, Horticulturist. 
S O. Jayne, Irrigation, Dept. Agr. 
S B. Nelson, Veterinarian. 



sore. Every reasonable effort should 
be made to control the disease in this 
country, and we hope the scare will 
not last long. 



FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE. 

Like a thunder crash out of a clear 
sky the foot and mouth disease scare 
has spread over the land. The fact 
is this malady has been in this coun- 
try for a number of years past, con- 
fined mostly to isolated places. On 
account of extensive shipping it has 
begun to spread again for the fifth 
time. It was noticed in Chicago from 
where it was traced to some point in 
Michigan. At the National Dairy 
Show, a herd was infected and fearing 
it might spread among valuable regis- 
tered cattle it was agreed by the 
dairymen and the authorities that the 
wisest and safest plan was to isolate 
the hards and quarantine the cattle 
for sufficient time to insure immun- 
ity. The same steps were taken at 
the stock yards, and several states in 
which it had been found also declared 
quarantine districts. The Pacific 
Coast states have specified quarantine 
stations for cattle which are shipped 
in from other states for the time being 
and stockmen generally concede this 
to be the safe rule, with the excep- 
tion that if shipments are made from 
places where the disease does not 
exist, in disinfected cars, in such cases 
detention would seem unnecessary. 
With strenuous efforts to localize this 
malady there is no reason why it 
should not be under control in a short 
time. In Europe it occurs more fre- 
quently. It causes sores of the mouth 
and feet and occasionally on other 
parts of the body, and because of the 
tenderness of the mouth, animals eat 
very sparingly, and consequently lose 
heavily in flesh. Deaths which result 
are usually due to starvation. The 
cause of the disease is an organism 
which is so small that it has not been 
seen under the highest power micro- 
scope. The disease is transmitted 
from animal to animal with astonish- 
ing rapidity. Hogs are almost as sus- 
ceptible as cattle, while sheep, dogs, 
cats and chickens, horses and even 
man may occasionally be affected, but 
with the human the trouble is gen- 
erally so slight that it is not consid- 
ered serious. Some of the stock men 
in Europe say the disease lasts but a 
short time and they feed soft mashes 
while the mouths of the animals are 



TUBERCULOSIS AND MILK 
QUESTION. 

For several years past Mr. W. J. 
Langdon, of Sumner, Wash., together 
with other leading dairymen, have 
tried strenuously to solve the problem 
of supplying milk to the city trade, 
which is safely free from bacillus and 
other impurities. It is generally con- 
ceded that compulsory testing for tu- 
berculosis should be done under a state 
law and that the cost should be borne 
proportionately by the state, county 
or district, together with the dairy- 
men, because if placed upon the shoul- 
ders of dairymen alone many of them 
will be compelled to go out of the milk 
supply business and, as has been the 
case in some of the cities east, the 
town people will have an insufficient 
supply. These efforts have been of 
little or no avail, and Mr. Langdon 
phrased the indifference on the part 
of the public as from a general view- 
point "that babies are cheaper than 
cows." He waited for an opportunity 
and when a city ordinance came up 
for passage in Tacoma, hurled this 
"fire-cracker" at the meeting compos- 
ed of councilmen and a mixed audi- 
ence of men and women. The result 
was like magic in serving the intend- 
ed purpose to set the people thinking. 
The day following the daily papers 
devoted considerable space to discus- 
sions of the subject, even attempting 
to give opinions editorially. The tu- 
berculin test for the control of tuber- 
culosis at best is far from perfect, and 
as a matter of fact may be dangerous, 
for cows in the last stages of tuber- 
culosis do not react and milk from 
them, supposed to be pure, might be 
seriously affected with the bacilli. 

A pure bred herd near Portland, 
Oregon, worth a small fortune, was 
subjected to the tubercular test, re- 
acted, was condemned and slaughter- 
ed. Post mortem examination reveal- 
ed no tubercular infection. In other 
cases the test has proved a little bet- 
ter than 75 per cent reliable, which 
though far from perfect is at least a 
sort of guide for immunity and a 
purity standard. The dairymen as a 
body do not object to inspection of 
their herds and the test to determine 
the health, but insist that the burden 



of cost should be at least in part a 
public and not entirely a private 
charge, or the dairymen, consumers 
and the general public will all realize 
as exemplified east, that the problem 
has not been solved. 

Mr. Langdon, F. I. Mead, B. F. 
Shields and others who have given 
the pure milk question very careful 
consideration, are agreed that a solu- 
tion of the problem is largely a mat- 
ter of education. Dairymen are being- 
taught practical sanitary methods and 
they will apply an improved system 
faster as they realize a little more 
profit from doing so. The cost of 
reaching the consumer is entirely too 
great. Municipal control of milk dis- 
tribution in cities, as suggested by 
Mr. Shields in our July issue, seems 
essential unless the Sherman anti- 
trust law is modified. 



adjust the method of distribution on 
the basis of a fair margin of profit 
to the merchants and to the grow- 
ers. 



SPOKANE APPLE SHOW. 

Fruit growers of the Pacific North- 
west meet again November 16 to 24, 
at Spokane, in connection with the 
Seventh Annual Apple Show. Ques- 
tions covering production, style of 
pack and storage are on the pro- 
gram. Some of the more important 
topics, such as uniform laws tending 
to definite standards of products and 
of inspection are also billed for dis- 
cussion and should receive careful 
consideration. We are all reaizing 
more and more each year the need of 
fixed standards both of products and 
of action expressed in the laws of the 
different states. We have come to a 
time when it becomes necessary to 
eliminate all the waste possible and 
to this end should have uniform, prac- 
tical laws. 

Just a little shortening up between 
producer and consumer also seems ad- 
visable, and the methods to be prac- 
tically carried out must be well plan- 
ned with a view of dealing fairly with 
every interest concerned in the pro- 
duction and business of handling the 
fruits. The ten million boxes of ap- 
ples produced in the Pacific Coast 
states this season might have been 
sold in territory west of the Missis- 
sippi river at prices fair to producer, 
carrier, merchant and consumer with 
an improved distributing system de- 
signed to reach the country districts 
where there is purchasing capacity. 
The problem is to ascertain what such 
consumers can and will' pay; then to 



SIRUP FROM APPLE CIDER. 

Recently the Office of Information, 
U. S. Department of Agriculture, re- 
leased a paper on "Discover Way to 
Make Fine Table Sirup From Apples." 
The patent applied for is in the in- 
terest of the public and is believed to 
be of value in utilizing undesirable or 
unmarketable apples. 

The paper containing the informa- 
tion shows that the sirup is made 
from apple cider and that one gallon 
of sirup is obtained from every seven 
gallons of cider. In some respects 
the sirup is similar to cider sirup 
that was known to us twenty years 
ago. In other respects this sirup is 
similar to cider butter. 

Inasmuch as the new process was 
designed chiefly for the cider mill or 
other manufacturer who desires to 
manufacture and sell cider sirup, the 
question immediately arose as to 
whether or not such a process would 
be feasible. From the home manu- 
facturer's point of view the introduc- 
tion of milk of lime (slaked lime sus- 
pended in water) did not appear prac- 
ticable because it would be difficult to 
teach the average person the right 
amount of milk of lime to use. As 
outlined there is another objection in 
that the addition of water contained 
in the milk of lime dilutes the cider 
and consequently increases the time 
for the concentration of the cider to 
the proper consistency. 

Taking these objectional features 
into consideration, Professor Geo. 
Olsen of the State Experiment Sta- 
tion at Pullman, Wash., has modified 
the original process in such a manner 
as he believes to make it of practic- 
able use to not only the cider mill but 
also to the housewife. Whatever 
changes have been made in the pro- 
cess it is hoped that it will not mod- 
ify the patent in any way whatsoever. 
With this understanding, any one who 
desires to make sirup according to 
the modified method does so without 
infringing upon anyone's personal 
rights. 

The modified process as worked out 
at the Washington State Experiment 
Station Chemical Laboratories differs 
from the U. S. Department method 
in that precipitated chalk (lime car- 




A Prize Winning Exhibit at Western Washington Fair, Puyallup. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST AND DAIRYMAN 



237 



bonate) is used in place of milk of 
lime and an untreated boiled apple 
cider is used to render the chalk 
treated cider slightly acid. 

The ample addition of milk of lime 
or precipitated chalk changes the co- 
loring matter in apple cider to an inky 
color. Lime also tends to impart a 
chalky flavor. Its chief use, however, 
is to neutralize the malic acid in the 
cider and form what is known as cal- 
cium malate. 

The difference in the use of milk 
of lime compared with precipitated 
chalk is in its limits of reaction. The 
milk of lime must be cautiously added 
so as to avoid an alkaline reaction, 
otherwise more cider will have to be 
added until the color of the liquid re- 
turns to an amber one. This moving 
from the alkaline to the slightly acid 
is not easily accomplished and in the 
hands of the average person may 
make a product varying more or less 
in flavor. On the other hand, precipi- 
tated chalk will react with the acid 
in the cider to form a neutral product 
(neither acid nor alkaline) and which 
is easily made slightly acid according 
to the following instructions: 

For every 100 pounds of cider add 
Ys pound (ample in most cases) of 
precipitated chalk or enough more to 
make the treated cider take on a blu- 
ish to blackish color. Boil the cider 
for five to ten minutes and filter while 
hot. Collect the filtered material into 
open kettles or pans, add five pounds 
of boiled and filtered apple cider that 
has not been treated with lime car- 
bonate. Boil again until the cider 
has reduced to one-seventh its origi- 
nal volume, then filter under pressure. 
The sirup formed is "distinctive" in 
flavor and appearance. 



CENTRAL COLD STORAGE 
PLANTS 

Besides cold storage plants at the 
orchard, particularly where the fruit 
farm is of good size, the next de-sir- 
able plan is to have a good cold stor- 
age plant at the local shipping sta- 
tion as now found at Wenatchee, 
North Yakima, Walla Walla, Hood 
River and some other points. Here 
apples and other fruit are being held 
back until glutted markets have been 
relieved and particularly during the 
month of November when the bulk 
of the apple crop is pushed forward 
into all available markets. This year 
of uncertainties fruit men are being 
sorely tried. 

A further plan for reserve and 
storage, as suggested by W. H. Paul- 
hamus, is the building of large cold 
storage plants at the export cities 
of Puget Sound, Portland and Spokane, 
where fruit could be shipped in lug 
boxes, and the fruit at once worked 
over, separating that which is not in 
good packing shape to be used for 
the cannery or evaporator. 

With either the local warehouse, or 
combined with those at the large 
cities, warehouse receipts may be is- 
used on which growers could realize 
a certain sum of money to finance 
operating expenses. 

Under the plan where large can- 
neries are located at the terminal 
shipping point it is possible to con- 
tinue operating them at least six 
months of the year and fruits or 
vegetables shipped for canning pur- 
poses only, is hauled at a reduced 
rate. 

Concerted action should be taken 
by municipalities, fruit growers as- 
sociations and by transportation com- 



panies to finance these large canning 
plants. 

Organizations is positively neces- 
sary to handle the by products on 
a large scale and representatives of 
our commercial clubs, fruit growers 
associations and the carriers will do 
well to work out a feasable plan or to 
employ a thoroughly practical pro- 
moter who can engineer the under- 
taking. 



FRUIT FOR IDENTIFICATION. 

New and valuable varieties of fruit, 
well adapted to Washington condi- 
tions, have been found in commercial 
orchards in various parts of the state, 
according to Professor O. M. Morris 
of the State Experiment Station at 
Pullman, Washington. 

Apple and pear trees of unknown 
name exist in many orchards, and 
some of the strange fruits are excel- 
lent in quality. The best of these 
should be kept and propagated from. 
Orchardists having such trees are in- 
vited to send specimens of such fruits 
to the Horticultural Department of the 
State College of Washington and Ex- 
periment Station for identification. 
It is a waste of time to identify 
worthless fruits and these should not 
be sent. ' 

Specimens sent for identification 
should be chosen to represent the av- 
erage fruit of the tree in size, form, 
color and general appearance. The 
fruit should be sent carefully packed 
just as it comes from the tree. Do 
not polish it, nor pull out the stem or 
calyx. Pack with it a small twig in 
full leaf. Mark the package carefully, 
giving the name and address of the 
sender. Write a letter giving a brief 
description of the tree and date when 
the fruit is ripe, and also the approx- 
imate age of the tree. 

A few seedling apples have been 
sent in and some of tnese will, no 
doubt, prove to be of great value to 
fruit growers of the future. So far 
as could be determined no seedling 
pear has been sent in, although two or 
three splendid ones have been found 
in the state. The apple orchards will 
be much better than they are now 
when they are composed largely of 
varieties that have originated in this 
climate and soil. 



WASHINGTON'S BEST 
SCHOOLBOY 

PTATO GROWER. 

The interesting contest for awards, 
among the school children of Wash- 
ington for industrial work, held in 
T'acoma last month, attracted many 
interested visitors to the Armory, 
where the products, and in some de- 
partments actual work, were exhibit- 
ed. Mr. C. E. Flint, of Blaine, had 
charge of the fruit and vegetable de- 
partment, and the products from all 
over the state were highly creditable, 
particularly the potato, beet and other 
root crops. 

The prize potato grower proved to 
be Master Rock La Gasse, age 13, of 
Whatcom county. He had quality of 
product, described his practical meth- 
od concisely and clearly, showing a 
profit margin highly satisfactory. His 
brief follows: 

Kind of Soil — The required size plot 
of ground is a heavy clay loam which 
was planted to celery in 1913, then 
highly fertilized. 

Method — May 1, 1914, plowed; May 
5th, dug 7 trenches 6 inches deep; 
time, one hour, value 25c. 

Seed — Variety Champion, 10 pounds 
cut to 3 and 4 eyes, value 25c. 



The Scandinavian American Bank 

OF TACOMA 

With assets of over TWO MILLION DOLLARS 
invites your business 

DO YOUR BANKING BY MAIL 



COFFMAN, DOBSON & CO., BANKERS 

CHEHAJLIS, WASHINGTON 

Twenty-eight years without change of management, and evary demand 
unequivocally paid with Leg-al Tender. 

Distinctly a Farmers' Bank with thousands of farmers for Its cus- 
tomers. 

Farm Loans for Agricultural Development- 




WHEAT LAND 

WHICH CAN BE BOUGHT ON EASY TERMS 

American wheat farmers are responding nobly to the demand for 
breadstuffs from the European countries, already felt and sure to con- 
tinue for several years. Wheat has gone over the dollar mark at local 
shipping points in the Northwest, and no telling how much higher it 
will go by another year, but no farmer believes it will be lower. It 
is a question of getting the land and raising the crop. 

HERE IS AN OPPORTUNITY TO BUY 

Over three sections, Nos. 17, 29 and 31, Township 15 North, Range 29 
East, in Adams County, Washington, noted for its large wheat acreage, 
about three miles from Othello. Over half lies beautifully in a valley or 
draw, and is composed of rich volcanic ash soil; the balance is on a 
little higher elevation, with soil more of a sandy mixture. On the whole 
it is an excellent piece of wheat land; most of it could be plowed and 
seeded for a crop next year. 

This will be sold at a very reasonable price and on long, easy terms, 
either in separate sections or as a whole. It is owned by a company and 
the title is perfect. For price, terms and further particulars, write or call, 
and mention this paper. 

FORBES P. HASKELL, Jr. 

Room 6, Gross Bldg., Tacoma, Wash. 



Fertilizer — Cow manure; 4 wheel- 
barrow loads were applied in Febru- 
ary, 1914. 

Time of Planting — May 6, planted 16 
pieces seed per row; total 112. 

Cultivating — June 6, light hoeing, i/ 2 
hour; June 15, hoeing, % hour; July 2, 
light hilling up 4 inches, 1 hour. 

Harvesting — Latter part of Septem- 
ber, 2 hours. 

Result — Marketable potatoes, 510 
pounds, value $10.20; unmarketable, 
$0.03; total value, $10.23; total cost, 
$1.75; total net profit, $8.48. 

This first prize is one of the many 
examples, showing that the youth of 
Washington are learning how to apply 
their minds and hands co-operatively, 
thus laying a foundation for life's en- 
deavor based on practical and intelli- 
gent methods. As incentive there is 
some measure of immediate reward 
for efforts put forth by the indus- 



triously trained child as he proceeds, 
and far more than that he is made to 
see and feel the need of the training 
of his mind afforded through the gen- 
eral school curriculum. Let the good 
work of creating prize school boy po- 
tato growers proceed. 



The parcel post egg cartons, made 
by the Pacific Fruit Package Com- 
pany, Raymond, Wash., are giving ex- 
cellent satisfaction. Samples are 
available on application. 



DRIED APPLE MARKET. 

It is reported on good authority that 
buyers from Norway and Sweden are 
making contracts in the Eastern states 
for speedy delivery of choice dried ap- 
ples. A year ago apple growers did 
not foresee this demand which is caus- 
ed by the war. Heretofore the Scan- 
dinavians have depended largely on 



238 

Russia for dried apples. The fruit is 
taken in large quantities into the in- 
terior of both Norway and Sweden. 

The agents came in contact with 
many dealers in evaporated apples, 
but they passed by that steamed and 
delicately tinted fruit. It was not the 
kind, that was all, and contracts are 
being made on the basis that the ap- 
ples shall be of the homely quality 
which are familiar to farmer boys. 

They must be apples in quarters or 
eighths, of a rich golden brown, such 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST AND DAIRYMAN 

as may be converted into apple butter 
or perchance into a delectable apple 
sauce. Apples with something of a 
tart flavor are preferred, and the chil- 
dren of the north insist that they shall 
retain the real flavor of the fruit. The 
news will cause busy fingers to pare 
the increase of the orchards, and the 
paring bees for that purpose are likely 
to be numerous for days to come. 
Several large dealers are reported to 
be aiding the Norsemen to obtain a 
full supply. 



THE PRUNING QUESTION CONCERNING BOTH 
NURSERYMEN AND FRUIT GROWERS 

By Leigh Overman, Spokane, Wash. 

The pruning question concerning both nurserymen and fruit growers is 
becoming more important each year. Today buyers of nursery stock are seek- 
ing more information on the subject than ever before. 

To those who wish a good income from their orchards a knowledge of 
pruning is more and more essential every day. It is only just that a nursery- 
man should be able to give this instruction to the purchaser of his goods. 

This is an age of science, and method must be applied to every line of 
business. Old ways of doing things are not accepted now. Pruning, as well 
and in order to do this the man who sells trees must have a practical 
as all other branches of the nursery business, must keep up with the times, 
knowledge of it. 

We all know that pruning is important to the grower, because when prop- 
erly done it increases the quality and quantity of his crop and lengthens the 
life of his orchard. 

My customers are eager to learn more about pruning. They keenly ap- 
preciate the advantage of starting right, and realize that it is an investment 
which will mean income for the future. There are so many two-year-old trees 
(branch stock) sent out by nurseries that it is doubly important to shape 
them well during the first two years of their orchard life. 

It is no credit to a nurseryman to sell stock that is not well proportioned. 
It is equally his duty to teach his customers that if they want a really good 
orchard, an orchard that will "deliver the goods," they must take special 
pains to keep the trees well shaped from the date of planting, and not wait 
until they have grown without attention for several years to prune them. As 
the work of the first two years in a child's school life lays the foundation for 
his future education, so the care given trees the first two or three years shapes 
their future. 

There are multitudes of would-be pruners who have ruined and will ruin 
many hundreds of orcnards which would produce the best results of properly 
treated. However, it is hard to find even two good pruners who agree as to 
method. This is naturally confusing to the average grower, but if each nursery- 
man will study the problem carefully, adopt some method that he knows has 
proven successful, and stick firmly to it, most planters will accept his advice 
and profit greatly by it. 

As an illustration of the harm different methods applied to one orchard 
can do: I know of a large orchard which has been pruned for three years, 
during which time three men have had charge of it. The first man pruned it 
thoroughly according to his ideas, and left at the end of the year. The man 
who followed him said the orchard was ruined, but he'd bring it out all right! 
His method was almost the opposite, but he, too, left at the end of a year. 
Another man took charge and shook his head sadly at the destruction the 
second man had left in his wake. He pruned the trees the same way the first 
man had. Result: At the end of the third year, this orchard is no farther 
advanced than it was at the beginning of the first. All three of these men 
were experts, and if either of the methods had been carried out alone the or- 
chard would now be in a high state of cultivation. 

In the past many nurserymen have not given thought to this important 
part of orchard growing, but in the future each and every one of us should 
be more zealous in this branch of the work. 



PEAR BLIGHT. 

Ira D. Cardiff, director Experiment 
Station, State College, Pullman, Wash., 
warns fruit growers whose orchards 
are affected with pear blight, against 
alleged cures which will not do the 
work claimed for them. 

"The blight disease and its charac- 
teristics are well-known to plant path- 
ologists and horticulturists the coun- 
try over. Its cause is well-known and 
the methods of combatting it are well- 
known. There is, therefore, little ex- 
cuse for making mistakes in regard 
to combatting this disease. The only 
way to cure a tree blight, once it is 
affected, is to cut out the infected por- 
tions. There is no patent cure," says 
Prof. Cardiff. 

A satisfactory preventive seems not 



yet to have been discovered, but that 
is no reason why continued efforts 
should not be made to find if possible 
some way to prevent it. A preventive 
measure when discovered is not likely 
to be expensive and should be amply 
proven before being offered for general 
use. 



The article on another page of this 
issue by Horticulturist R. M. Wins- 
low, on "Choosing Varieties of Ap- 
ples for British Columbia," is of in- 
terest to all fruit growers in the Pa- 
cific Northwest states in the matter 
of adaptability of varieties. His dis- 
cussion is very comprehensive, show- 
ing how heat units and length of sea- 
son affect certain choice commercial 
varieties. When planting orchards it 
is very important to observe the pre- 




The J. B. Pilkington Nursery, Portland, Oregon, is one of the 
busy firms supplying planters throughout the Northwest with orna- 
mentals this season. They report a strong demand for evergreen 
shrubs, particularly the laurels, hollies, cypress, junipers and the 
small cedars of different varieties. Their catalog illustrating 
beautiful home grounds and plants is a most excellent guide for 
any who desire information on what to select and how to arrange 
for the most pleasing effects. Their booklet may be obtained 
on application by addressing 

J. B. PILKINGTON, Box 242, Portland, Ore. 
and mentioning this paper. 



The BROOKS 
NURSERY 

A. L. BROOKS, Prop. 

LAFAYETTE, OREGON 



A complete line of Fruit, Shade, Orna- 
mental nursery stock. Guaranteed true 
to name. My nursery stock is free from 
disease and pests; first-class in every 
respect. Extra large roots, also large in 
calibre. Any one wishing to set in large 
lots will get the benefit of wholesale 
prices. It will surprise you in getting 
my price list before buying elsewhere. 



cautions suggested as well as altitude trees might find utility in the road- 
and character of soil. side plan on this Coast. 



TREE GROWING ALONG ROAD- 
SIDES. 

The Horticultural Society at Battle 
Creek, Michigan, recommends the 
planting of fruit trees along the road- 
sides, as is now the practice in some 
thickly populated European countries. 
This plan is practical only in densely 
populated districts. On the Pacific 
Coast it will be many years before 
we are ready for that system, if ever. 
In commercial fruit districts we can- 
not afford to take chances with pest 
producing places. Some of the nut 



CLOVER SEED— SEEDING CORREC- 
TION. 

In a recent issue an article on Grass 
Seed for Pasture mixtures taken from 
the September Bulletin of Western 
Washington Experiment Station, Puy- 
allup, two pounds alsike clover was 
given for wet land. Prof. E. B. Stook- 
ey calls attention to this error which 
corrected should read three pounds al- 
sike clover in mixture for wet land. 
The moist land should also contain 
four pounds white clover in the seed 
mixture. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST AND DAIRYMAN 



239 



STORE GOOD POTATOES 

The potato crop this year was not 
very large in Washington and there 
was, in some sections, more disease 
than in previous years. Professor 
O. M. Morris of the Agricultural Ex- 
periment Station at Pullman states 
that the indications are that many 
growers will lose heavily if they 
place many potatoes in storage. 

The late blight was active in many 
fields and the potatoes grown therein 
are sure to keep poorly in storage. 
The potatoes may look sound and 
clean, but rot quickly when stored. 
There is no process of storage that 
will prevent this rot. The disease 
develops in the entire plant body and 
is established in the tubers before 
digging time. Late digging lets the 
potatoes rot in the field and there 
is less rot in storage. 

The dry rot, also called root rot, 
infests the entire plant under ground. 
The potatoes may look sound, but be 
rotting under the skin at the stem 
end. There is nothing that can be 
done to check the progress of the 
disease in storage. 

The only thing that can be done is 




Clean 
Trees 



of every known variety, 
also rare ornamental 
shrubs and new choke 
hardy roses grown in 
our nursery are now 
being shipped to plant- 
ers. Send for list to- 
day. 

OREGON 
NURSERY CO. 

Orenco, Ore. 



t.v5 select sound potatoes from clean 
fields. Dark spots in the flesh indi- 
cate the presence of some disease 
that will destroy the value of the 
potato. 



CHOOSING VARIETIES OF APPLES FOR BRITISH 

COLUMBIA 

By R. M. Winslow, Provincial Horticulturist for British Columbia. 

Mr. President, and Members of the Pacific Coast Nurserymen's Association: 
Permit me to express for the Department of Agriculture, and for myself 
personally, our sincere appreciation of the honor we feel in having you meet in 
this Province. Of the great horticultural areas of the Pacific Coast, British 
Columbia has been the last to develope; our progress has, therefore been 
rapid, and we are pleased that it has, among a great many other things, been 
instrumental in bringing you here. It is a great pleasure to me, personally, to 
meet your members and to have the privilege of attending your sessions. 

The commercial apple industry of British Columbia is a development of the 
last decade. The census of 1890 showed about 6,000 acres of fruit in the Pro- 
vince, and the census of 1900 showed an increase to only 8,000 acres. At the 
time of the 1910 census, however, the acreage had increased to 33,606, and the 
Provincial Government's Agricultural Survey of 1913 showed this further in- 
creased to 38,196 acres. The development was, therefore, a rapid one, following 
a period of inertia. The new development is largely in the Interior. In 1900, 
Interior districts had only about 1,000 acres and now how 30,000 acres; while in 
the Coast sections, in the same period, the acreage has increased only about 
1,000 acres. In fact, the seat of industry was almost entirely changed, for 
our Interior districts are as different from the Coast sections as is the case in 
Washington. 

The great demand for information on varieties of apples to plant came 
largely, therefore, from these new interior areas, which were almost entirely 
lacking in old apple orchards; even further, the Interior sections, looking to 
the Canadian Prairies for their markets, were without information. as to what 
those markets desired. The situation has, therefore, thrown a great respons- 
ibility on the Provincial Government's Department of Agriculture, which had 
been active in promoting the fruit industry and was then called on for 
technical information on varieties and on cultural methods. 

A great deal of the planting had already been done when I came to the 
Province as Provincial Horticulturist in the spring of 1909, but there was still a 
very large demand for information and the demand continued strong until 
two years ago. With so little local information to draw upon, it was necessary, 
under the circumstances, to secure the most reliable information from other 
districts of similar character. We were fortunate in having weather records 
for considereable periods for typical points in many of our new districts, and 
with these in hand, we set out to compare climatic conditions with already suc- 
cessful fruit districts. 

Comparisons of climate, as to precipitation, are simple, but as to temper- 
atures the matter is hedged with difficuties. In this respect we found the 
method of utilizing temperature records worked out by the U. S. Biological 
Survey of the greatest value. Their investigations show the marked relation 
between the character of the growth period and the vegetation. Knowing that 
all the principal commercial varieties of apples had distinct climatic prefer- 
ences, the problem was to determine what they were. 

The most important temperature conditions influencing the success of any 
variety of apples are as follows: 

1. The length of the growing season and temperature. While this is usually 
gauged from the length of season between killing frosts, the more exact way 
is to determine the period during which the mean temperature is over 43° F. 
This period for Hood River, for instance, averages 240 days, from March 17th 
to November 12th; and for Vancouver, B. C, it is 230 days, from March 25th 
to November 12th. The growing season in the various Agricultural districts of 
B. C. is usually between 175 and 240 days. 

2. Number of heat units. The amount of warmth, as well as the length of 
the growing season is also important. The sum total of heat during the season 
is expressed in heat units, and a heat unit is taken to be 1° F. for one day for 



Ornamentals 



There are three plants which should be in 
every farm home yard in the Coast section, 
as they always afford a high measure of sat- 
isfaction. 

Berry-bearing Holly, with red berries; Lauristenus, an evergreen 
with beautiful small white flowers, in bud and bloom during the winter 
months, and the English Laurel, the evergreen with large broad green 
leaves. No garden is complete without this trio. 

Roses — Three beautiful new ones, Jonkheer L. Mock (pink) won 
gold medal in Europe; Rayon D'Orr (yellow) and Sunburst (deep yellow, 
orange center), all hardy. 

We have 18 acres in choice ornamental plants, 
catalog is free on application. Write for it today. 



Our very complete 



J. J. BONNELL 

28th Ave. and East Galer St., SEATTLE, WASH. 



each day of the growing season. In this way, the total heat units for the 
growing season are determined. Hood River has an average of 15,315 heat 
units; Vancouver, B. C, has 12,667. The total heat units vary widely in B. C. 
horticultural districts, but are usually between 10,000 and 13,000. 

3. The hottest six weeks. Also important is the average temperature at 
the height of the growing season. Where the average temperature for the 
hottest six weeks is below 62° F. Sweet Corn and tomatoes are ripened with 
difficulty; where the temperature averages 66° F. for the same period, these 
same crops are grown in large commercial areas. 

Having collected such data for all the principal apple growing areas on 
the continent, but especially those of the Pacific Northwest, we set to deter- 
mine the range of particular varieties, especially the Yellow Newton, Spitzen- 
berg, Winesap, Jonathan, Wagener, Mcintosh and Northern Spy, which varieties 
seem to suit our markets and are among the most popular of boxed apples. 

The Yellow Newtown is notably a variety of limited adaptabilities. We 
found that Hood River, Rogue River, and the Albemarle country of West 
Virginia, in which areas this variety reaches its greatest perfection, have a 
growing season of 240 to 270 days, with a total number of heat units of from 
13,750 to 15,700, and a temperature over the 6 hottest weeks of 67.° F. to 70.7° F., 
all of these, furthermore, are humid areas. The districts with most nearly 
similar conditions to British Columbia are still very far from having the same 
conditions. We, therefore, counselled against heavy plantings of Yellow 
Newtown, and actual experience has since confirmed our opinion. 

A similar investigation of the Spitzenberg, and other notably sectional vari- 
eties, showed that it required somewhat similar climatic conditions, save that 
it is doing well in some Western irrigated districts with similar temperatures. 
In districts such as Spokane, with 216 growing days, 12,620 heat units, and a 
temperature for the six hottest weeks of 68.6° F., the trees are not so pro- 
ductive, the fruit is not so large, nor well colored, nor of such high quality. Our 
principal Interior districts, which have temperatures much like that of Spokane, 
are finding similar results and these results have justified our expectations. 

The common or old Winesap is one of the most popular of Western apples 
and has been widely favored in B. C. on that account. We found, however, that 
it apparently requires a' growing season of around 225 days, a total of not less 
than 13,400 heat units, and temperatures for the six hottest weeks of 70° to 72° 
F. With shorter or cooler seasons, the fruit lacks in size, color and quality. 

The most favorable recorded points in this Province, such as Lower Okan- 
agan Lake, with a growing season of about 203 days, heat units 11,775, and 
six hottest weeks' temperature of 67.3° F., are obviously lacking. The Kam- 
loops district is much more nearly suitable, having an average of 214 growing 
days, 12,683 heat units, and six hottest weeks' temperature of 69.3° F. The 
Similkameen Valley, of which, unfortunately, we have no temperature records, 
but which is believed to have the longest and hottest growing season in the 
Province, comes even nearer than Kamloops to meeting the requirements. We 
have accordingly advised fruit growers to avoid the Winesap, except for these 
hottest localities. In the last two years the Winesaps produced in various dis- 
tricts have borne out our expectations, and I believe that in the most favored 



240 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST AND DAIRYMAN 



districts mentioned the variety will succeed commercially. On our recom- 
mendations these districts have planted largely of it, and other districts have 
largely avoided it. 

The Jonathan is another variety, which we find succeeding best in dis- 
tricts with long and warm growing seasons, with high temporatures during 
the hottest six weeks, and usually on the Pacific Coast, under irrigation. 
Jonathan we found, however, to do well, and sometimes very well in dis- 
tricts apparently not nearly so well suited as the most favored ones. In our own 
Okanagan Valley, where such points as Kelowna have a growing season of 201 
days, 11,517 heat units, and a temperature for the six hottest weeks of 66° F., 
the Jonathan is bearing heavily and producing fruit of high color and ex- 
cellent dessert quality. Because of the rather shorted season, the keeping 
quality is much improved, giving us a season up to the end of January under 
ordinary storage. In cool seasons, however, even in our most favored sections, 
the Jonathan may be below grade in both quality and appearance. On the 
whole, our Jonathans would be largely confined to the Okanagan, Thompson 
River, Similkameen, and Kettle River districts, and preferably in warm loca- 
tions and in good deep soils. 

The Wagener has been much favored for planting in the Interior of the 
Province, largely because of early bearing and productiveness. Wagener re- 
quires apparently just about the very conditions found largely through our 
Interior sections. It is the most largely planted variety in the Interior next 
to Jonathan. In the cooler and less sunny districts, it is not doing as well 
as in more favored ones. Water Core has given considerable difficulty, and 
its control by cultural methods is not yet attained. It seems well suited to the 
dry belt areas in which the Jonathan is succeeding and, I think will justify 
the large plantings which have been made. 

The Mcintosh Red is not so well known south of the line as in British 
Columbia. It is, as you know, of Canadian origin, though a very popular apple 
now in Vermont and in the Bitter Root Valley, Montana. In its native home it 
thrives excellently with a growing season of 190 days, with 11,052 heat units, 
and a temporature for the six hottest weeks of 68.2° F., and in the Bitter 
Root Valley with a slightly longer season, 11,600 heat units and a six hottest 
weeks' temperature of 65.8° F. We find these conditions very closely dupli- 
cated in both the irrigated and nonirrigated fruit districts of the Interior. 
No other well known variety seems to be so admirably adapted in this respect as 
the Mcintosh. I am pleased to say that this variety has strongly justified our 
recommendations for it and may yet become our premier apple. 

Similar studies made with a large range of varieties have given us must 
valuable suggestions and we feel inclined to lay even more stress than before on 
temperature requirements, as our previous conclusions have become justified 
by experience. 

The great unsolved problem in B. A. apple culture is to find a suitable 
long-keeping apple. The tree must be hardy, vigorous and productive; the 
fruit must be of medium or larger sizes, red, of high dessert quality, and of 
long-keeping quality. We have not yet found all these requirements in one 
single variety. It is true that the same problem faces apple culture through- 
out Canada. In the search for this variety we have examined the require- 
ments of practically every variety grown on the continent,- and are even now 
testing a number of varieties grown successfully in Great Britain and Australia 
The successful search for the desired variety will mean millions of dollars 
to Canadian fruit growers. There is still much room for improvement in 
varieties. 



AGRICULTURE 



The Basis of 
Prosperity 



Government Doings for Farmers 



From an Address by the Secretary of 
Agriculture Before the National 
Dairy Show Association, Chi- 
cago, lllinios, Monday, 
October 26, 1914. 
Within the year Congress has enacted 
the Smith-Lever Extension Bill, 
which, in my judgment, is one of the 
most significant educational measures 
ever adopted by any government. It 
recognizes a new class of pupils — a 
class composed of men and women 
working at their daily tasks on the 
farm. The Government takes the 
adult farmer and farm woman, as 
well as the farm boy and girl, as its 
pupils. It provides for an expendi- 
ture of over eight millions of dollars, 
partly by the States. It incorporates 
the most efficient method of convey- 
ing information to the farmer, and 
through the healthful process of co- 
operation between the State and the 
nation, places the brains of these two 
great, angencies at his disposal, in- 
sures efficiency, and eliminates waste 
and friction. I yield to no man my 



appreciation and value of scientific 
investigation and research, but I am 
convinced that the great task con- 
fronting us now for the betterment of 
agriculture is to bring to the aver- 
age farmer what the experts and the 
best farmers know and to induce 
them to apply it. If we could secure 
this we should revolutionize agricul- 
ture; and this is the object of the 
Smith-Lever Bill. It aims to reach 
the farmer by personal contact, and 
above all, to bring assistance to the 
farm woman who has been too long 
neglected as a factor in agricultural 
life of the nation. 

Marketing Undertakings. 
But vital as are these problems of 
production, even more urgent are 
the problems of marketing and dis- 
tribution. It has become clear to stu- 
dents of agriculture that further pro- 
duction in many directions waits on 
better distribution, and that in this 
field fundamental problems of jus- 
tice and injustice are involved which 
demand solution. The time has come 
to conceive agriculture in all its 



HOLLAND BULBS 

Our choice importation of these 
are being sold to all parts of the 
Northwest and now is a good time 
to plant. 




Roses 

In new stock of choice and rare 
varieties of roses we have plants 
which will afford a high measure 
of satisfaction. Our new catalog 
describes them and contains many 
valuable hints on the arrangement 
of ornamentals to beautify the 
home yard. Write for a copy today 

MT. VERNON NURSERY 

MT. VERNON, WASH. 




Kis a wonder of compact 
power. It weighs only 171 lbs. 
and I guarantee that it can 
pull any stump that can he pulled 
with a one-inch steel cable. Krupp 
process steel frame; hardened steel 
wearing parts; weather-proof Eng- 
lish cable. With a "K," one man 
can pull 48 tons. Used- in U. S. 
Alaskan experiment station. 

Write me for special low-price 
offer. W. J. PITZPATRICX 
Box J, 1926 2nd Avenue, 

Seattle, Wash. 



FRESH SALMON 

For $1.25 we will send one fine 
large salmon (from 8 to 12 pounds) 
boxed, iced and prepaid to any 
part of the United States where 
there is an express office. One of 
these sent to your Eastern friend 
would be a treat. 

EGGERS FISH CO. 

15th and Dock Sts., Tacoma 

(References — All express com- 
panies.) 



STRAWBERRY PLANTS — Clarke's 
Seedling at lowest wholesale price. 
State quantity wanted. W. LEHMAN, 
White Salmon, Wash. 



RED AND AIiSIKE CLOVER SEED — 

Direct from the section where grown, 
at lowest price. 

Address Rhoten Farm, Salem, Oregon. 



relations, to conceive it as a unit and 
not to attend to merely one or a few 
of its phases. The Government has 
been quick to see these things. 
Urgent problems have been pressing 
upon it for solution, problems of 
marketing, of distribution, of good 
roads, of rural finance and of rural 
sanitation and health, and the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture has rapidly tend- 
ed to become, as it should, a great 
Department of rural economics and of 
rural life. The Congress now sitting 
has appropriated two hundred thous- 
and dollars for the study of market- 
ing, passed the Cotton Futures Act, 
made increased provision for the in- 



IT PAYS TO HAVE 
SHADE TREES 

If a real estate dealer tells you 
that the house or building lot you 
are thinking of buying is worth 
several hundred dollars more be- 
cause it is well supplied with 
shade trees, don't be too sure that 
he is trying to take advantage of 
you until you have counted and 
measured the trees. Very prob- 
ably he may be telling the truth, 
for it has lately been discovered 
that the right kind of trees do in- 
crease the value of a piece of real 
estate. 

In order to determine the value 
of trees in residential districts the 
Massachusetts Forestry Association 
recently sought the advice of a 
number of practical real estate 
men. These men were asked this 
question: "How much, in your 
judgment, do full grown shade 
trees along the street improve the 
value of the adjoining land for 
house lots?" 

The majority of answers ranged 
from 10 to 50 per cent., while some 
went so far as to state that a 
house lot would be worth 100 per 
cent, more if full grown shade 
trees were standing in front of it. 
A fair average of the answers held 
that trees would improve the value 
of the adjoining land 40 per cent. 

Expert tree appraisers say that a 
shade tree in good condition and 
well placed is worth $1 per square 
inch of cross-section measured at 
breast height. At that rate, a 
tree one foot in diameter is worth 
$113, while a tree two feet in 
diameter is worth $453. 

For the sake of illustration, sup- 
pose that we take a good sized 
house lot, 50x100, or 5000 square 
feet, worth 25 cents a foot. The 
land value is $1250. If the trees 
are spaced 50 feet apart on the 
street there would be one tree in 
front of the property. The tree is 
two feet in diameter and worth 
$452, which would increase the 
value of the lot 36 per cent. 

The above news item which ap- 
peared in Spokesman-Review con- 
firms what every tree planter has 
so long known, and is proof posi- 
tive of the argument we have pre- 
sented so often. 

We have this season, an un- 
usually fine lot of all the staple 
deciduous shade trees adaptable 
to western conditions, such as 
American Elm, Soft Maple, Norway 
Maple, Sycamore Maple, Ash, 
Beech, Birch, Catalpa, etc., be- 
sides the exceedingly rapid grow- 
ing trees such as Carolina Poplar 
and Black Locust for the dry hot 
regions where quick shade is so 
much desired. 

In shrubbery we have a fine as- 
sortment of the choicest varieties 
in Althea, Barberry, Calycanthus, 
Current, Forsythia, Honeysuckle, 
Jap Quince, Jasmine, Spirea, Sy- 
ringa, etc., besides a full assort- 
ment of all the odd favorite roses, 
and a large number of the new 
proven sorts. Send for our cata- 
og or let our salesman show you 
our list when he cals. 

Stock all grown on clean new 
volcanic ash soil and is well root- 
ed, hardy and fully matured. 
Transportation charges' prepaid to 
destination on any purchases. 

WASHINGTON NURSERY COMPANY 

Toppenish, Wash. 

Salesmen wanted. 



vestigation and promotion of good 
roads, and has pushed nearly to the 
point of completion measures for the 
standardization of grain and for the 
supervision of its sale in interstate 
commerce, for the standardization of 
cotton and for a permissive warehouse 
system for the leading staple crops. 
The Office of Markets, although only 
recently created and necessarily re- 
quiring time for the consideration of 
its projects and especially for the se- 
curing of an efficient staff of experts, 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST AND DAIRYMAN 



241 



has conducted investigations in a great 
variety of directions, furnishing much 
information to those seeking it; and 
it will at no distant day extend aid 
through bulletins and as rapidly as 
possible through demonstration. It is 
investigating the proper methods of 
grading and standardization, packing 
and shipping, the marketing of special 
products, transportation and storage 
problems, city marketing and distribu- 
tion, including farmers' municipal 
wholesale and retail market houses, 
the direct dealings between producers 
and consumers, and cooperative pro- 
duction and handling of products. It 
is giving special attention to such de- 
tails as docking in the sale of grains, 
and to the methods and practices of 
large terminal markets in the practice 
of mixing. The object is to do justice 
as between producer and consumer, to 
guarantee that the producer shall get 
a just price for the specific product 
which he offers for sale, and to the 
consumer that he shall get the specific 
product for which he pays his price, 
that normal and orderly processes 
shall prevail in the distribution of 
farm products, and that there shall be 
added incentive to the farmer to in- 
crease in the fullest measure pot only 
the quantity but the quality of his 
product. 

The Road Problem. 

It is estimated that it costs twenty- 
three cents per ton to haul a mile un- 
der existing conditions on the country 
road, and that this could be reduced 
by half if the roads were improved. 
The question is one partly, of course, 
of means or funds, but even more 
largely of methods, of instrumentali- 
ties, and of administration. The na- 
tion today is spending annually the 
equivalent of more than two hundred 
millions of dollars for roads, an en- 
ormous increase in the last decade. 
Much of this is directed by local sup- 
ervisors and it is estimated by experts 
that of the amount so directed any- 
where from thirty to forty per cent is, 
relatively speaking, wasted or mis- 
directed. The first requisite, there- 
fore, is for efficient expenditure and 
administration, and so far as the Fed- 
eral Government is concerned, to pro- 
ject it into the situation so as to safe- 
guard the expenditure and to perfect 
the administration. The Office of Pub- 
lic Roads is at present doing every- 
thing in its power to promote the 
economical building of good roads, and 
especially to assist in the develop- 
ment of proper administration. The 
difficulties are presented mainly in the 
sphere of State and local administra- 
tion.- Less than half the States at 
present have an expert highway com- 
mission, and none have expert county 
commissioners. If direct Federal aid 
is to be extended it should be done on- 
ly under such conditions as will guar- 
antee a dollar's result for every dollar 
of expenditure. It is clearly unde- 
sirable to discourage State and local 
initiative. Cooperation between the 
State and the Federal government is 
requisite. The State should be the 
lowest unit with which the Federal 
agency should deal, and the repre- 
sentative in every State should be an 
expert highway commission. An auto- 
matic check to assaults on the Federal 
treasury should be provided, and the 
requirement that each State makes 
available at least twice as much as is 
appropriated by the Federal govern- 
ment should be imposed. If there 
were the further provision that the 
Federal funds should be limited to 
construction projects and that before 



Federal money is made available for 
any projects, those projects shall have 
been mutually agreed upon by the Fed- 
eral agency and the State Highway 
Commission, with clear understanding 
as to methods of construction, specifi- 
cations, materials, and development of 
a State system, great benefits might 
result and dangers would be reduced 
to a minimum. This same principle 
of cooperation is embodied in the 
Smith-Lever Extension Bill; and, in 
my own opinion, in intelligent co- 
operation of this sort many of the 
problems which are presented by our 
dual form of Government will find 
solution. 

Cooperation and Credit 

It is objected by some that such in. 
jection of the Federal Government in 
the administration, in some way, in- 
volves an invasion of State autonomy. 
If there is danger here, the easiest 
way for a State to obviate it is by not 
seeking Federal funds, but if people 
do demand Federal money they can- 
not easily decline to have its proper 
and efficient expenditure safeguarded, 
and surely the people of the nation 
have a right to the best knowledge 
and service of the thoughts of all their 
governmental jurisdiction. All these 
exist for the people, and all should 
have, if they have not, the sole and 
exclusive desire to serve the people. 
Such are the lines along which the 
present government is seeking to 
solve this vital problem. 

The Government recognizes as well 
the broader aspects of rural life. It 
knows that the genius for organiza- 
tion which has done so much for indus- 
try in the nation can be brought to 
prevail in the sphere of rural life and 
of agriculture. Extreme individualism 
in agriculture has had its day. There 
can be no question that the key to the 
solution of many of the problems of 
rural life will be found in some form 
of concerted action or of cooperation. 
Some form of organization is as in- 
evitable as it is desirable. Without 
it the farmer cannot have adequate 
schools or social life; without it he 
cannot secure good roads; standardize 
his products or economically market 
them; without it he cannot have the 
proper health facilities or lay the cre- 
dit foundations which will enable him 
to secure capital at more reasonable 
rates. The Congress has recently 
given concrete expression of its appre- 
ciation of these phases of rural life by 
placing at the disposal of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture the fund for the 
study of cooperation, and not only as it 
affects marketing, but also as it af- 
fects other phases of rural activities 
and especially as it affects rural cre- 
dits. In addition to recognizing, as to 
the President expresses it; that the 
farmer "is the servant of the seasons," 
and that' therefore, not as a matter of 
discrimination but as a matter of equal 
justice, peculiar consideration should 
be had for his circumstances and of 
his credit needs, by providing in the 
Federal Reserve Act, for a longer 
period of maturity for farmers' loans 
and for loans on farm mortgages by 
national banks within certain limits, 
Congress has spent many weeks ma- 
turing a measure for the Creation of 
land mortgage banks and the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture has made a special 
study of cooperative credit associa- 
tions for the small farmer. There is 
every reason to hope that in the near 
future valuable and helpful action will 
be taken in these two directions. 
Equalizing Some Rural Burdens. 
Nothing short of a successful at- 



LIME YOUR SOIL 

The same work, the same investment in time and money 
on limed soil will double your crops and the best form of 
lime to use is 




Because it is lime in the most concentrated form, specially 
prepared for agricultural purposes and will give immediate 
results. Mixed with other fertilizers or manures, the effect 
on soil and crop is wonderful. Contains over 70% Calcium 
Oxide. 

Send sample of your soil. Write for prices and Lime Bulletin. 

F. T. CROWE & CO. 

Seattle, Tacoma, Portland 



GROUND LIMESTONE 



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on carload Jots delivered 
to your railroad depot 



for Scale, Insects til 1 fungus Diseases 

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Keeps indefinitely and you pay 

NO FREIGHT ON WATER 
Manufactured under the HITE 
patents by the 
OREGON 
ARSENICAL 
SPRAY CO. 
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It contains much information of 
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and prices on sprays. 



The Spray Pump for 
The Pump Wise 

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SPRAY PUMPS 

Pumps that you buy to last for 
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"How to Spray 
When to Spray 
Which Sprayer 
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much information on sprays and 
spraying. 

OUR COMPLETE CATALOG 

Lists Gould Pumps, pruning tools, 
sprays and tells about many things 
of interest to growers. Sent free. 
Ask for Catalog 54. 



FERTILIZE NOW 

Put your fertilizer problems up to us. Diamond Quality Fertil- 
izers are complete fertilizers of the highest grade. Bone meal and 
tankage form the base to which is added the necessary potash, nitro- 
gen and phosphoric acid. We prepare a specific fertilizer for each 
purpose. 

FREE FERTILIZER BOOKLET listing and giving complete 
analysis of various fertilizers, together with much good information 
on fertilizing, sent FREE. Ask for catalog 55. 



Portland Seed Co. Portland, ore. 



Reasons Why You Should 

V II 'Instigate the SAND0W 

L U Kerosene-stationary ENGINE 




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portable— great power — starts easily at 
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prices baaed on enormous out put--S0 d» j 
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tend a postal today for free ca'alog which 
tells how SftDdow will be useful to you 
>'o -tweens. Pooket agrota' in ' 
middlemen's oommlselouB by dealing 
ilreot with factory. (602) 

Detroit Motor Car Supply Co. 
000 Canton Are* Detroit, Midi. 



FINE GOAT RANCH 

800 acrn of good land. Over half 
of it can be plowed when cleared 
Balance fine pasture. Watered by 
creeks and springs. Located on the 
Northern Pacific Railway between 
Portland and Tacoma. Price $15 per 
acre. Good terms. The best proposi- 
tion for a goat ranch in Western 
Washington, subsequently to become 
a dairy farm. This apportunity merits 
careful consideration by any prospec- 
tive stock farmer. 

ACME REALTY COMPANY 
401 Equitable Building, Tacoma. 



242 

tempt to secure these larger results in 
the rural life of the nation, to organize 
it, to make it profitable, healthful, 
comfortable, and attractive, can satis- 
fy any thoughtful and patriotic man. 
It is the only sure way of developing 
and retaining in the rural districts of 
the nation an adequate number of ef* 
ficient and contented people. That the 
thought and action of the nation must 
be along these lines is made clear by 
the facts I have recited and by the 
further fact that while the population 
of the nation in the last 15 years has 
increased 23 millions, the strictly rural 
districts have shown an increase of 
less than 6 millions. We cannot neg- 
lect the higher things to which the 
material minister and which if secured 
would render much of our other ef- 
fort unnecessary. The greatest un- 
developed resource of any community 
is its people, and if we devoted more 
attention to the conservation and 
development of the people we should 
be relieved of much of our concern 
for the conservation and development 
of our natural resources. An awaken- 
ing of the mental and spiritual facul- 
ties is prerequisite to the success of 
any educational enterprise, and there- 
fore along with our attempts directly 
to increase the production of material 
things, we must minister to the minds 
and spirits of the rural population. In 
short, we must see to it that the finer 
results and the higher things of civil- 
ization are not the peculiar possession 
of urban peoples, — that they do not 
pass by or over our struggling rural 
masses. We must see to it that there 
is within reach of every country boy 
and girl an opportunity for a sound 
elementary and secondary school train- 
ing, that the rural family be protected 
in its health against the ravages of in- 
sects and of disease; that the load 
be lifted in some measure from the 
struggling women of the farm, and 
that the wholesome social attractions 
of life be made more freely to abound. 
Any expenditure of effort or money in 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST AND DAIRYMAN 



this direction will not be a burden but 
an investment, and with such protec- 
tion, the farmers of this nation need 
not fear the competition of the world 
and the nation need not fear for its 
permanency. 



WHEAT SALE LARGEST IN 
NORTHWEST 

What is said to be the largest 
wheat sale ever made in the North- 
west by one individual farmer was 
consumated last month when the 
Jones-Scott Company of Tacoma is- 
sued a single check to George Drum- 
heller of Walla Walla for $228,375 in 
payment of 225,000 bushels of wheat, 
mostly club, at $1.02% f. o. b. load- 
ing point. 

The Jones-Scott firm has bought 
Drumheller's wheat for years. Last 
year a check amounted to $180,000. 
The total purchases of the firm this 
season total about 500,000 bushels. A 
large part of this, it is said, prob- 
ably will go to the European war 
zone. 

Sales at Walla Walla in one week 
amounted to more than 500,000 
bushels, included in which are the 
Drumheller holdings stored at vari- 
ous warehouses all over the county. 

The avalanche of wheat at Walla 
Walla recently was due to the offer- 
ing by dealers of $1 net for the club 
variety, or $1.01% f. o. b. Following 
some big buys, however, they with- 
drew from the market. 

Exports of grain from the North- 
west this season promise to be record 
breaking. The shipments began early 
and the chartering for the foreign 
trade has continued heavy. 

Wheat continues to pour into 
Tacoma and Seattle in considerable 
quantity. Much of this will be ground 
up into flour, but thousands of bush- 
els will find their way to feed the 
hungry mouths on the Continent, be- 
ing shipped as fast as vessels to 
handle it becomes available. 



BREAD FROM STONES 

Ground Phosphate Rock and Lime Stone with Other Fertilizers. 



In Circular Bulletin No. 168 entitled 
"Bread from Stones," sent out by the 
University Exp eri- 
ment Station, TJr- 
basa, Ills., by Cyril 
G. Hopkins, he ex- 
plains how a 40-acre 
tract of land, deplet- 
ed in fertility had 
been brought back to 
good cropping con- 
dition, by growing 
clover, then applying 
manure, and ground 
limestone and some 
fine-ground raw rock 
phosphate. The sur- 
prising result was 
obtained where the 
ground phosphate 
was applied in con- 
nection with other 
fertilizers. Where 
the barnyard com- 
post a lime rock was 
applied there was a yield of 15 bushels 
wheat per acre and where the phos- 
phate was applied in connection 
with the other fertilizers, the 
yield was 35% bushels per acre. About 
2 tons per acre of the phosphate had 
been applied during 10 years or about 
400 pounds per acre a year. 

The illustration shows the increased 
yield where both the lime and phos- 



phate had been applied compared with 
the yield from an equal amount of 




ground fertilized with farm manure 
only. This is not an argument against 
the use of the farmyard compost, but 
is a carefully conducted demonstra- 
tion showing how much its efficacy is 
increased by applying in connection 
the limestone and the ground phos- 
phate, in reality is producing "bread 
from stones." The Pennsylvania Ex- 
periment Station has verified the dem- 
onstration, as have also the stations 



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am 



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H-L-F Lumber prices very low 

We control forests and mills— sell you direct— give 'you better 
lumber at big saving. Count, grades, satisfaction guaranteed. 
Good ideas on plans in H-L-F Prize Plan Book, 10c; H-L-F 
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wall, freeze proof.) Also send for H-L-F Millwork Catalog. 

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Capital $1,000,000 



Not In any Trust or Combine 




Have You Read This? 

"At my home on Nob Hill, I have 
two Walnut trees which I purchased 
from your Company. They are now 
thirteen years old; were one year old 
when planted. They have been bear- 
ing eight years. The trees are per- 
fectly hardy, having withstood a 
freeze of 20 degrees below zero. I 
gathered over six bushels of nuts 
from those two trees last fall. My 
grocer pronounced them superior in 
size and flavor to California nuts." 
E. W. Brackett, North Yakima. 

Space here forbids much explana- 
tion, but if you will write us, we 
will gladly explain the difference be- 
tween the famous VROOMAN PURE 
STRAIN FRANQUE'TTE WALNUT 
and the common sort. You can af- 
ford and should have at least a few 
of these most desirable trees in your 
orchard. Write us — now. We also 
have, you understand, the largest 
assortment and stock of all kinds of 
fruits, berries, vines, roses, etc., in 
the West. ORENCO trees are plant- 
ed from coast to coast because they 
are known to be always — dependable 
— first class. 

FILBERTS — Good plants of such 
leading varieties as Barcelona and 
du Chilly. 

OREGON NURSERY CO. 

Orenco, Oregon 

Competent salesmen wanted. 



Small Fruit Plants 

at 

Wholesale Prices 

Blackberries Gooseberries 
Raspberries Currants 

Loganberries Dewberries 
Strawberries Rhubarb 
Asparagus 

Write for prices. 

F. H. Burglehaus 

SUMNER, WASH. 



FARMS WANTED 

Wanted to hear from owner of good 
farm or unimproved land for sale. 
Send description. 
NORTHWEST BUSINESS AGENCY 

Minneapolis, Minn, 



Nursery Stock 

FRUIT TREES 

SMALL FRUITS 

ORNAMENTALS 

The planter always wants the 
very best paying results. There is 
but one way to accomplish this. 
The right start with our guaran- 
teed whole root, non-irrigated stock 
in fruit trees, our splendid two- 
year-old stock in small fruits and 
our unexcelled selection of orna- 
mentals will do it. Beware of poor 
stock. Disappointment Is the only 
result therefrom. 

Send for our catalogue. Agents 
wanted. 

SALEIVL NURSERY COMPANY 

F. J. Rupert, Mgr. 
SALEM OREGON 



iOOO ACRE RANCH 
$15 Per ACRE 



1000 acres of fine land in 
Eastern Oregon, 8 miles from 
good town and railroad; 75 
acres can be put in alfalfa and 
irrigated from nice creek that 
runs through the place and 
furnishes abundance of water 
the year around; 400 acres 
good wheat land; balance of 
place fine bunch grass pasture. 
House, barn and outbuildings. 
Orchard. Price only $15 per 
acre. Good terms. A splendid 
opportunity to go into the hog, 
cattle and wheat business. 
Write us if you are looking 
for a ranch of any kind. 



ACME REALTY 
COMPANY 

401 Equitable Building 
Tacoma, Wash. 



FRUIT GROWERS 

Any reader desiring trees for this 
planting season will do well to get 
our list and price on some 3-year 
rooted and 1-year top apple trees, 
strictly first class, in leading var- 
ieties. 

The stock being on ground with 
lease expiring this season, must be 
sold and it will pay intending plan- 
ers to investigate. Write at once. 

ROEBER BROTHERS NURSERY 

R. F. D. 2, Beaverton, Oregon. 



VETCH SEED 

We make a specialty of vetch seed 
and you will find our prices the very 
lowest. 

CLOVER SEED 

We are located in the best clover 
producing country in the U. S. and 
buy the very best lots for our own 

use. 

When you are in need of vetch, 
clover or any kind of seeds, write us 
for prices. You will always find our 
prices the lowest. 

D. A. WHITE & SONS 

SEEDSMEN 

Salem, Oregon 



in Maryland and Ohio, where the in- 
crease of yield by means of the added 
phosphate was from 500 to 1000 per 
cent. The ground phosphate is now 
put on the market by the United 
States Phosphate Co., Salt Lake City, 
Utah, where it is mined and finely 
ground. Complete information regard- 
ing its use and application to the dif- 
ferent soils may be obtained by ad- 
dressing this company. 



POISONOUS PLANTS ON RANGES 



Principal Varieties Causing Heavy 
Losses to Stockmen. 

Six of the poisonous plants that 
cause the heaviest losses of live stock 
on western ranges are described with 
the aid of full-page photographs in a 
circular just published by the United 
States Department of Agriculture 
under the title, "Principal Poisonous 
Plants of the Western Stock Ranges." 

Despite the damage that these 
plants do every year there are many 
stockmen who do not recognize them 
and in consequence are unable to 
protect their stock effectively from 
being poisoned by them. It is prob- 
able that there are on the ranges 
a large number of poisonous plants 
but the heaviest losses are those pro- 
duced by the plants named in the 
circular. These are the zygadenus, 
or death camas, the lupine, the rattle- 
weed or white loco, one of the worst 
of the many varieties of loco plants, 
the tall larkspur, the low larkspur 
and the cicuta or water hemlock. Of 
these cicuta alone is dangerous to 
man, causing violent convulsions and 
even death. The root of it, however, 
is the only poisonous part. In the 
case of the other plants, with the ex- 
ception of the lupine, all parts are 
poisonous to stock. Both the tall 
and the low larkspur lose their pois- 
onous qualities after blossoming. 

The illustrations in the circular 
are accompanied by brief descriptions 
of the plant which should enable the 
stockman to identify them readily. 
The symptoms peculiar to each form 
of poisoning and the remedy, when 
there is one, are also set forth. 



FALL PLOWING. 

Fall plowing possesses many advan- 
tages in the greater part of the agri- 
cultural area of Washington. 

(1) Fall plowed land left rough will 
absorb the winter's precipitation much 
more completely than a firm surface. 
This advantage is very important ex- 
cept in some of the regions of heavy 
rainfall in Western Washington. 

(2) The winter's rain and snow will 
settle the furrows, shutting out exces- 
sive air space, and restoring capillary 
connection with the soil beneath. This 
puts the soil in better shape for rapid 
and extensive root development and 
greatly lessens the danger of the fur- 
|rows drying out if much [manure, 
stubble ^or other refuse has been 
plowed under. This settling of the 
furrows, accomplished by nature, is 
more effective and costs less than the 
firming of spring plowing done with 
compacting tools. 

(3) The weathering of the loosened 
furrows improves the physical con- 
dition of heavy soils and aids in the 
liberation of latent plant food. The 
immediate yielding power of a given 
piece of land is not determined by the 
amount of plant food actually stored 
in the soil, but by the amount of plant 
food that can be made available to 
the immediate crop. One of the lead- 
ing purposes of tillage is to encourage 



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the development of available plant _____ 

food in the soil. 

(4) In the hilly sections land plowed 
on contour lines in the fall and left 
rough is less apt to wash and gully 
than the same soil left with a firm 
surface. This is becoming an im- 
portant consideration in the grain belt 
in most cases. 

(5) Fall plowing economizes time 
and labor by utilizing teams and 
equipment that would otherwise be 
idle, and relieves the usual congestion 
of spring work. This usually gives 
time for better soil preparation in the 
spring. In most cases it is probably 
better not to fall plow land that is 
to be summer fallowed, but instead 
disc the surface. Discing in the fall 
will give the benefits of fall plowing 
in a minor degree. Summer fallow 
land is usually apt to become too 
compact by the spring after seeding 
if it is plowed the fall before summer 
fallowing. It is also usually best not 
to fall plow a leachy soil in a wet 
climate. 

In general, however, it is usually 
desirable to fall plow for spring crops 
in most parts of Washington except 
where the spring seeding is done on 
summer fallow. We would urge those 
who have not practiced fall plowing 
for spring crops to give the practice a 
small trial this fall. Land may be 
given a deeper plowing in fall than 
in spring with good results. 

GEO. SEVERANCE, 
Agriculturist. 



243 




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PORTLAND, OREGON \m 



WHEAT EXPORT FROM THE 
UNITED STATES MAKING 
NEW HIGH RECORDS 

Washington, D. C, 1914. 

Large exports of domestic wheat 
in the three months which ended with 
September, 1914, brought the total for 
that period up to the highest point 
ever reached in the corresponding 
months of any year in the history of 
our export trade. The total exports 
of wheat, including flour in terms 
of wheat, in the first quarter of the 
currant fiscal year aggregated 89% 
million bushels, as against 59 million 
in the corresponding period of last 
year and 83 million in the July-Sep- 
tember quarter of the fiscal year 1902, 
when exports of domestic wheat rose 
to their previous highest level. In 
the fiscal year 1902, the total was 
234,772,515 bushels. Figures publish- 
ed in the "Monthly Summary of For- 
eign Commerce" by the Bureau of 
Foreign and Domestic Commerce of 
the Department of Commerce show 
that the exports of wheat in the quar- 
ter which ended with September last 
exceeded those of the complete fiscal 
years 1910, 1911, and 1912. 

Most of this greatly increased ex- 
portation of domestic wheat was dis- 
tributed to European countries, Sep- 
tember alone showing consignments 
of wheat, exclusive of flour, in the fol- 
lowing amount: To France, 7,572,000 
bushels; the United Kingdom, 6,640,- 
000; the Netherlands, 2,201,000; and 
other Europe, 5,390,000. Over 2,560,- 
000 bushels were exported last month 
to Canada, while a very unusual 
transaction was the shipment of 580,- 
000 bushels of wheat from Port Ar- 
thur, Texas, to Brazil. The notable 
features in the outward movement 
of flour was the market gain in ship- 
ments to Brazil and other countries 
of South America. Exports thereto 
in September were nearly double 
those of a year ago, while the aggre- 
gate to foreign countries as a whole 
showed practically no change. 



BEST PEAS GROWN 



KAUFMAN'S PROLIFIC, SHORT VINED, HAND PICKED BLUE BELL 

PEAS 

$240 PER ACRE. (Over 28 tons from 14 acres; was offered $120 per ton) 
RECORD CROP OF PEAS! 

Write for price list and circulars (used as supplementary reading in many 
High Schools). 

W. H. KAUFMAN, Bellingham, Wash., 



DONALD GROWN NURSERY STOCK 

That is what you want. Now is the time to make arrangements 
for your fall's requirements. Mail us your want list for quotations 
and ask for our illustrated descriptive catalogue. 

DONALD NURSERY CO., Inc. 



Donald, Ore. 



SALESMEN WANTED. 



The Puyallup Nursery 



Hardy Ornamental 
Nursery Stock a 
Specialty 



Large stock of Ornamental Evergreen Shrubs and Trees propagated on 
our own grounds. Make your own selections. Shipping season begins in 
October. 

Everything worth while in Roses, Gladiolli, etc. Send for list. 

Specimen Grounds, 702 PIONEER AVENUE, EAST 
A. L1NGHAM PUYALLUP, WASH 



ALFALFA 

HAY 



From Grower Direct to User 

This Hay is grown on our 
ranch at Mabton, Wash., and is 
cut and cured so as to afford 
the highest feeding value. 

Order now because the price 
of hay will rise as winter ap- 
proaches. 

KARR INVESTMENT GO. 

16 North 6th St. 
NORTH YAKIMA, WASH. 



VETCH 

CLOVER and other 

GRASS SEEDS 

GET your orders in early 
to make sure of mini- 
mum price. Remember 
ours won't stay in the 
ground. They grow. cata= 
log and price list on appli- 
cation. 

J. J. BUTZER 

188 Front St., Portland, Ore. 



244 

The proportion of the domestic 
wheat product which is exported has 
greatly diminished in recent years. 
In 1901, 41.36 per cent, of the domes- 
tic wheat crop was exported; in 1902, 
following the record-breaking crop 
of 748 million bushels for the calen- 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST AND DAIRYMAN 



dar year immediately preceding, 31.- 
37 per cent.; and in 1908, 25.71 per 
cent; while since that year the pro- 
portion exported has been less than 
20 per cent., having fallen as low 
as 10.91 per cent, in the fiscal year 
1911. 



IRRIGATION 



Adequate, available moisture 
at all seasons. 



PROPOSED WASHINGTON 
WATER CODE. 

The Washington Water Code Com- 
mission has formulated a proposed 
code for the attention of the next 
legislature, issued in pamphlet form. 
Those interested will address O. L. 
Waller, Pullman, Wash, Chairman of 
the committee, for a copy. 

In a letter to the Horticulturist, 
Prof. Waller States: 

Idaho, Oregon and Canada — on 
three sides of us — have excellent 
water laws and are rapidly bringing 
their arid lands under cultivation, 
while in Washington the inability of 
the water user to secure a record title 
to his water rights beeps business 
men and investors from risking money 
in irrigation and power developments. 

Without state supervision the small 
water user is at the mercy of the big 
operator and unless his rights are 
determined before the old settlers, 
who generally are his only witnesses, 
are dead and gone, he or his heirs 
are likely to lose their rights through 
inability to produce evidence neces- 
sary to establish title in court. 

Within the last decade the leading 
states in the arid west have revised 
their water laws and made some very 
important changes; providing for re- 
cord titles to water so that abstracts 
of title may be made the same as for 
land titles; for police supervision; 
and for safety to the public in dam 
construction. In the compilation of 
this report the commissioners have 
had access to all of these revised 
statutes and to the court decrees 
thereon. They have further aimed 
not to disturb the judicial findings of 
the Supreme Court of this State. 

In preparing this report the com- 
missioners have undertaken; 

First, to provide a method whereby 
parties now using the public water of 
the State may, in an inexpensive way, 
have their rights adjudicated, and 
made a matter of record; and 

Second, to provide a way whereby 
parties wishing to acquire new watei' 
rights may do so under authority of 
the State, and under the protection 
thereof, with full assurance that 
when a permit to use water is once 
granted that there is water to supply 
the amount called for, and that the 
title to the said water right will be 
as good as that to the land upon 
which the water is used. 

Third, provision has also been made 
for properly distributing the public 
waters of the State to those parties 
who are entitled to their use, and to 
offer sufficient police supervision to 
protect everyone in the peaceable and 
undistributed use of the water called 
for in his permit or decree. 

Fourth, whenever necessary to se- 
cure safety to life and property, the 
State, through a State Hydraulic En- 
gineer, is given authority to approve 
plans and specifications for dams, 
and to supervise the work thereon in 
so far as may be necessary to guaran- 
tee their proper and safe construc- 
tion. 



You will find nothing radical in the 
report. In its preparation the com- 
missioners have made a careful study 
of recent legislation in other states, 
and have communicated with many 
of the officers charged with their exe- 
cution. They have omitted every- 
thing from this report except abso- 
lute essentials, with the expectation 
that those charged with the adminis- 
tration of the laws would work out 
such future legislation as may be 
needed. 

The recommendations in this report 
attempt only to guarantee water 
titles to the rightful holders thereof, 
to secure them against damage to 
life and property, and to protect them 
in the peaceable enjoyment of their 
rights. 

It is the belief of the Commission 
that the enactment of these recom- 
mendations into law will also put an 
end to wild cat speculation in irri- 
gated lands. 

O. L. WALLER, Chairman, 
Washington Water Code Commission. 

Pullman, Wash. 



SUNNYSIDE CANAL 
EXTENSION. 

On October 9th, the Benton County 
Commissioners let to W. A. Moraine, 
the contract for building a good road 
from Prosser to Benton City, at a 
price of something more than $12,000. 
Nearly two-thirds of the total cost of 
this road will need to be expended on 
one mile, mainly rock work, about 5 
miles above Benton City. This is a 
piece of road badly needed, and 
makes a link in the State road across 
the State. 

After many unexpected and appar- 
ently interminable delays and the un- 
winding of miles of red tape, the De- 
partment of the Interior has finally 
approved the contract looking to the 
extension of the Sunnyside canal from 
its present terminal, six miles north- 
west of Prosser, to the neighborhood 
of Benton City, a distance of about 
eleven miles. 

When the bids were opened on 
October 26, for the construction of 
the Sunnyside Extension Canal, the 
following were found to be the 
lowest: 

For the entire canal, G. P. Wright, 
Tacoma, $81,093.01. 

The second bid was by Oregon 
Bridge & Construction Co., $87,653.19. 

Valley Construction Co. bid $91,- 
625.40. 

In accordance with the regulations 
of the Department of the Interior, the 
bids were forwarded to Washington, 
D. C, with the recommendations of 
those in charge of the matter at r&e 
Sunnyside end, and it is presumed 
that the contract will be let very 
soon. 

Some of the settlers that have been 
holding on for some years in anticipa- 
tion of water will feel greatly re- 
lieved when it comes. The contem- 
plated extension will water 4730 acres 
of most excellent land. The canal 
will cover considerable more land, 



Quaker Trees 



FRUITS 
ORNAMENTALS 
SHRUBS 



A Fine Stock of Apples, Pears, Peaches, Plums, Prunes, Apricots and 
Small Fruits. 

It Is a good year to increase the ornamental planting. Thousands 
will come to the Pacific Coast seeking homes during the next few years. 
Do you wish to sell any part of your land, or your home place, or do you 
wish to encourage settlers who have some degree of taste and refine- 
ment? Then adorn your home with some ornamental plants, shrubs and 
trees. The cost is trifling compared with the actual value which may be 
derived. Our catalog contains valuable suggestions. 

Write for catalog and price list today. State your requirements. 

QUAKER NURSERIES 



Good Agents Wanted. 



C. F. LANSING, Prop. 



SALEM, OREGON 



FRUIT AND POULTRY 

We have facilities to handle quickly and advantageously 
YOUR FRUIT, POULTRY AND EGGS 
We make prompt returns of proceeds on all consignments. We answer 
promptly all inquiries as to market, prices, or of any other nature. 
Twenty years of satisfactory service to growers our best recommendation 
823-6 Railroad Aw. CHAS. UHDEN SPOKANE, WASH. 



250,000 Extra Choice Holland Bulbs 

Hyacinths, Tulips, Crocuses, Iris, Daffodils, etc., in all the latest 
and rarest varieties. Out catalog contains valuable information about 
plants of all kinds and how to grow them. When writing for catalog 
and to obtain a generous discount on orders for the next 30 days. Please 
mention this paper. 

AABLING-EBRJGHT SEED CO. 

89 Pike Street, Seattle, Wash. 



VETCH TIMOTHY 
RYE ETC. OVER 99 
PER CENT PURE 



CLOVER SEED 

It is advisable to get orders in early as possible, as prices 
have upward trend. 

Don't forget we handle CONKEY FLY KILLER, Conkey 
Lice Powder and all of their Poultry Remedies. 

BARTLETT'S Calf Meal, the perfect milk substitute. 

CYPHER'S Incubators and Brooders. 

Send for Catalog and list today. 

Please mention this paper. 

Seattle Seed Company 

SEATTLE, WASH. 



Christopher Nursery Co. 

Established at present location for 25 years. Nurserymen for four 
generations is the record. 

APPLE TREES — All leading varieties 4 to 7 feet stocky trees: Yellow 

Transparent, Gravenstein, Wealthy, Wagener, King, Olympia, Baldwin, 

Winesap, Winter Banana, etc. 
PEAR TREES — A fine stock of Bartlett, Anjou, Bosc, Angoulene, Cornice 

and others; also Dwarfs. 
CHERRY TREES — A choice lot of Lamberts, Montmorency and other 

kinds. 

PLUM AND PRUNE TREES— Strong Italian, French, Sugar Bradshaw. 

SMALL FRUITS — Gooseberry, Currants, Blackberry, Raspberry, Logan- 
berry and other classes. Strong plants. 

ORNAMENTALS — Roses affording satisfaction, Azalias, Hollies, berry- 
bearing; Rhododendrons, English Laurels, Blue Spruce and other 
coniferous, and small evergreens. 

Write for prices and complete list and please mention this paper. 

JOHN A. STEWART & SON, Christopher, Wash. 



CATALOG AND GUIDE BOOK ON ORNAMENTAL 
PLANTING FREE 

Full of helpful suggestiors to make your place beautiful,— It's up- 
to-date, Instructive. Please mention this paper and write to, 

J. B. PILKINGTON, Nurseryman 
Portland, Ore. 



Producers & Consumers Co-Operative Company 

E. HAZEI.TON. Pres. & Mgr. 
1114-1116 Western Ave., Seattle, Wash. TeL Main 3689. 

(1400 Farmers in our Membership) 
We handle all kinds of farm products, making channels between producer and 
consumer as short and inexpensive as possible. If not a stockholder, write 
for our prospectus, also our wholesale provision list. State what you 
have to offer in fruit, potatoes, veal, pork and poultry. Please mention this 
papers ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST AND DAIRYMAN 



245 



but an expert was employed to ex- 
amine every 40-acre tract and elimin- 
ate every tract that cannot be classed 
as good farming land. This is decid- 
edly a contrast from the ordinary 
proceedings of private irrigation com- 
panies, who sell title and water rights 
to sand-blows, rock piles, inaccessible 
canyons and all, if suckers can be 
found for buyers. The expected cost 
of the water rights for these lands, 
which will have to be enough to cover 
the cost of the canal, added to the 
price the settlers have already paid 
or will have to pay for the land, will 
make the proposed farms rather, ex- 
pensive, but it will be land on which 
things can be raised, and it is antici- 
pated there will be a sufficiency of 
water. 

The proposed Highland canal, to 
cover all the vast tracts above the 
Sunnyside canal for its entire length, 
is hoped for in the not distant future; 
and from this proposed canal it is ex- 
pected to pipe water across the Yaki- 
ma river to cover all the desirable 
land between Prosser and Kiona, and 
on southeast to the extensive Badger 
Flats. In addition there are vast 
tracts of splendid lands to the east 
and northeast of Kiona and Benton 
City, waiting only the "magic touch 
of water." W. M. SCOTT. 



IRRIGATION AND CROP 
STABILITY. 

In his interesting address before the 
international Irrigation Congress, at 
Calgary last month, E. F. Benson, 
pesident of the Washington Irrigation 
Institute, referred to the Government 
work in the Yakima Valley, stating in 
part: 

"The present plans when fully work- 
ed out will cost about $15,000,000 and 
store over 1,000,000 acre feet yearly 

"These works not only assure am- 
ple water for existing canals, which 
now irrigate about 300,000 acres, but 
make provision for the irrigation of 
400,000 acres of additional land in this 
one valley. 

"Other large areas in the state for 
which irrigation is being earnestly 
sought, are the Horse Heaven, the 
Palouse project and the Quincy Valley 
district, mounting in all to about 800,- 
000 acres. 

"Although one and a quarter mil- 
lion acres of dry land in the State of 
Washington are under consideration 
for irrigation, with no present pros- 
pect of anything being done unless, 
through some district organizations, 
federal aid can be secured. 

"Very little of the irrigated land in 
Washington is devoted to small 
grains; fruit, hops, potatoes, and al- 
falfa, with its accompanying livestock, 
are the chief productions, but the in- 
creasing number of milk cows and 
hogs, is stimulating corn production 
to an extent not dreamed of a few 
years ago. A Washington farmer won 
the sweepstakes at The Dallas, Tex., 
corn show last winter, and the corn 
production for the state this year is 
estimated at 1,000,000 bushels, 'under 
one irrigation project a careful crop 
census, taken after the 1913 crop was 
harvested, showed that 4516 acres in 
corn produced 225,000 bushels, an av- 
erage of 50 bushels per acre. 

"It may be of interest to know that 
this project containing 10,000 acres 
has, most of it, been watered for the 
past 20 years, that 58,300 acres is the 
total area irrigated up to this season; 
that 46,230 acres was the total area 
cropped during the season of 1913; 
that the market value of crops pro- 



duced that year was $2,820,786, an av- 
erage of a little over $61 per acre. 

"The fruit business became so pro- 
fitable a few years ago that exagger- 
ated prices prevailed for orchards and 
orchard lands. One thousand dollars 
an acre for orchards and $300 to $400 
an acre for unimproved lands, in the 
most desirable districts, were the rule 
and not the exception, and as high as 
$2500 an acre has been paid in the 
different valleys for improved or- 
chards, and a few deals were made at 
much higher prices. 

"Such sales were widely heralded 
and prospective immigrants to our ir- 
rigated prairies went elsewhere to find 
cheaper lands. 

"The hopes of the land-booming 
speculator went glimmering, as year 
after year the crop of immigrants 
failed to come. 

"Meantime the farmers who have 
been growing alfalfa, milking cows 
and feeding hogs noticed no deprecia- 
tion in the earnings of their farms. 

Maximum Results. 

A higher average efficiency Mr. Ben- 
son suggested, is attainable by further 
experiments, observation and practice. 
The average of 4 to 5 tons alfalfa per 
acre might be raised to 8 or 9 ton 
crops. 

"Before much progress can be made 
in the direction of providing happy 
homes for the millions, public senti- 
ment must be developed along the idea 
of: 

"1st. 'Back to the land.' 

"2nd. 'The responsibility of every 
landowner for the sacred trust of land 
ownership,' that he shall get the same 
into a producing condition in a reason- 
ably short time. 

"3rd. 'The making and using of the 
by-products of the farm, orchard and 
garden.' 

"4th. 'The production of livestock.' 

"5th. 'Improving market facilities.' 

"In short, getting the maximum re- 
sults from the land. 

"Population in America is increasing 
much more rapidly than food produc- 
tion, and the man who with industry 
and intelligence prepares to feed the 
people will be sure of reasonable re- 
turns for his labor. 

"If we should hear about 'the high 
cost of living' and the evils and hard- 
ships incident to the great congestion 
of population in our large cities, we 
must help the irrigation farmer to 
make the most of his opportunities, 
and get more lands under water and 
more farmers on those lands. 

"In this we cannot go wrong, unless 
by deliberate exaggeration in repre- 
senting the future of our irrigation 
districts. 

"It is the province of this 'Interna- 
tional Irrigation Congress and similar 
state and district associations, as well 
as commercial clubs and chambers of 
commerce throughout the country to 
awaken and direct a correct public 
sentiment, and until that is done vast 
areas of fertile land will continue to 
remain unirrigated, because the first 
and basic reason for building a canal 
is that the land is needed and will be 
speedily put under cultivation. 

"The individuals, the organization 
and institution and the public officials 
who aid and encourage such develop- 
ment are engaged in the greatest econ- 
omic and philanthropic work of this 
generation. 

"They are laying the foundation for 
local and national prosperity, and help- 
ing to create thrifty rural communi- 
ties and individuals, the surest founda- 
tion of good citizenship." 



THE 

DRAIN TILE QUESTION 
SETTLED 

Note these prices on carload lots of first quality burned 
Clay Drain Tile: 

Weight per ft. Per Thousand ft. 

3- inch • 5y 2 lbs. $15.00 

4- inch 7y 3 lbs. 20.00 

6-inch 13 Vz lbs. 33.00 

F. O. B. cars Seattle. Minimum carload 30,000 lbs. 
If you cannot use an entire carload, unite with your neigh- 
bors and make up the required weight. 

Write for pamphlet, "Hints on Farm Drainage." Free for 
the asking. 

DENNY-RENTON CLAY & COAL CO. 

Department D 

Hoge Bldg., Seattle, Wash. 



Headquarters for 

OREGON CHAMPION GOOSEBERRY 

and Perfection Currant 
Attractive prices made now for Advance Orders 
Also a very complete line of general Nursery Stock, including a 
choice assortment of one-year budded and two-year Apple and Pear. 
Correspondence solicited. 

Portland Wholesale Nursery Co. 

301-302 Stock Exchange Building. PORTLAND, OREGON 

The Place to Buy your Supplies 



Milton Nursery Co. 

Pear, Cherry, Apple, Prune and Peach 

Full Line Shade and Ornamental Stock 

Quality in Nursery stock is a condition, not a theory; it is something 
we put into our trees, not say about them. Thirty-five years' experience 
enables us to do this. 

A. MILLER & SONS, INC.— MILTON, OREGON 

A Catalog and Special 

Salesmen wanted. Prices on Request. 



MONTE VISTA NURSERIES 

PEAR TREES — We have some very choice pear trees in both 1 
and 2-year stock of the following varieties: Anjou, Bartlett, Cornice, 
W. Nells, P. Barry. 

APPLE TREES — Very fine Jonathans, Rome Beauty, N. Spy, New- 
town, Baldwin, Ortley, Winter Banana, King, Waxen, Gravenstein and 
Red Astrachan. Write for prices. 

A. HOLA.DAY SCAPPOOSE, OREGON 



Shrubs = Plants = Vines - Trees 

Having taken over the entire stock of the Richland Nursery, we are 
prepared to fill orders for all kinds of Flowering Shrubs, Vines, Clarke's 
Seedling Strawberry Plants, European Grape Vines and Shade Trees in 
choice grades. Please let us know your needs early and get a copy of 
our catalog and prices. 

BREITHAUPT NURSERY CO. 

C. F. Breithaupt, Prop. Kennewlck, Wash. 



246 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST AND DAIRYMAN 



HOUSEHOLD DEPARTMENT 



OOBDUCTBD BX III. a A. tOmSOJI 



A WOMAN'S THANKS 

There is so much strong men are 
thankful for— 
A nation's progress, or a slow 
strife's end; 
And though I join my praise with 
theirs today, 
Grave things are these I scarce can 
comprehend, 
So vast are they; 
And so apart, dear God, I pray thee 
take 

My thanks for these, thy little bless- 
ings' sake. 

The little common joys of every day, 
My garden blowing in an April 
wind, 

A lennet's greeting and the morn- 
ing fall 

Of happy sunshine through the 
opened blind. 
The poplars tall 
That guard my threshold, and the 

peace that falls 
Like Sabbath stillness from my hum- 
ble walls. 

The little simple joys that we forget 
Until we lose them; for the lamp 
that lights 
The pages of the books I love 
best, 

The hearth's red welcoming on win- 
ter nights, 
The kindly jest 
That moves within the circle, and the 
near 

Companionship of those the heart 
holds dear. 

The dear, accustumed joys we lightly 
take 

Too much for granted sometimes, 
as a child 
His father's gifts; and so, remem- 
bering, 

For these my thanks, for these my 
treasures piled, 
Each simple thing 
Those wiser may forget, dear Father, 
take 

My thanks for these, thy little bless* 
ings' sake. 
— Theodosia Garrison, in Harpers 
Bazar. 



SCHOOL LUNCH 

NEEDS ATTENTION 

"When it is considered that many 
school children depend upon the box- 
lunch for about one-third of their 
food supply, it is seen that its pre- 
paration is rather an important prob- 
lem," says Mary Betz, of the College 
of Agriculture, Ohio State University. 
"A lunch may be a source of pleasure 
to a child; it may be full of sur- 
prises; or it may be a disappoint- 
ment. Just as in the preparation of 
any other meal, there are three points 
to consider in getting up the school 
lunch — selection of proper food and 
the right amount of variety; prepara- 
tion of food so that it will be palat- 
able and digestible; and packing in 
an attractive, sanitary way. Often 
lunches consist of foods that are dif- 
ficult to digest, such as meat, pie, 
doughnuts, cheese and pickles. There 
is a lack of the simple, more digest- 
ible foods, such as jelly, jam, peanut 
butter and lettuce sandwiches, cus- 
tard, gingerbread, fruits, nuts and 
candy. Neatness should be empha- 
sized in packing the lunch, for unat- 



tractive food is not eaten with relish. 
Wax paper should be used to wrap 
up such articles as sandwiches, so 
they will not absorb flavors. A per- 
manent container, made of tin, is bet- 
ter than a paper box or bag for 
daily use, since it can be cleaned eas- 
ily, and prevents the food from dry- 
ing out. Each article of food should 
be packed compactly in the con- 
tainer, because jostling is apt to 
spoil the lunch." 



TRAINING THE CHILD 

The time to begin disciplining a 
child is the day it is born, writes a 
mother in Rural Cafifornian. It is 
then that the correct sleeping and 
waking hours must be formed which 
make for the future comfort of both 
mother and babe. 

My baby, under a year old, has long 
understood the meaning of "yes" and 
"no" and always gives a questioning 
"ah?" as his little hand reach for a 
new object. 

I do not permit my children to be 
overindulged. A monthly outing is 
appreciated far more than daily trips, 
and candy and cookies are luxuries 
rather than an everyday occurrence. 
Constantly eating between meala 
causes a loss of appetite for substan- 
tial food and results in making them 
behave badly at the table. It also 
makes it impossible to keep them 
clean. 

When company comes I know they 
will sit as nicely through a long din- 
ner as a grown person could, and I 
feel free to take them to other peo- 
ple's houses, knowing they will not 
handle the bric-a-brac and that they 
will conduct themselves properly both 
there and on the cars. 

I do not believe in always putting 
temptation out of their reach but 
teach them instead how and when the 
different articles in the household 
should be used. In our home the best 
we possess in china and glass is al- 
ways in evidence and the children 
handle it freely but it is seldom in- 
deed that anything is broken. If 
such a calamity occurs I explain that 
we will be unable to buy new and 
that we will all feel very sorry not 
to have our table prettily set; or if 
it must be replaced, that it will be 
necessary for us to deny ourselves 
some pleasure to save the necessary 
money. Allowing a child to use 
metal dishes but encourages him to 
use them carelessly. 

Kindness to animals has become 
second nature. I do not allow them 
to kill bugs or squeeze the kittens to 
death and I am aften called from my 
work to secue a butterfly from the 
cat or a bug from some supposedly 
perilous position. When other chil- 
dren abuse insects or pull a butter- 
fly's wings to pieces I insist upon 
their leaving them, refusing to play 
with them until they are willing to 
stop the cruel practice. 

A most important but often lacking- 
condition in rearing children is har- 
mony between the parents. Quarrel- 
ing and nagging reflect upon the 
child and if a man speaks disagree- 
ably to his wife he may expect his 
son to address his mother in the 
same manner. 

When irresponsible parents have so 
far spoiled a child that they can do 



Tke Modern fireside 



All you need to complete 
the family circle is a 




There's cheerinits glow- 
ing warmth. 

Dealers everywhere 

Write for booklet, "Warmth 
in cold corners. ' ' 

Standard Oil Company 

(CALIFORNIA) 

Seattle 




Made in 
America 

One Pound 
25 Cents 
All Dealers 




°Nr- — pSShp 

■ Baking 


CRESCENT MANUFACTURING CO., SEATTLE 




SCHOOL SHOES 

ARE AS NEAR 

WATER-PROOF 
WEAR-PROOF 

RIGHT 



AS SHOES CAN BE MADE 



STYLES ARE 
PRICE IS 
FIT IS 



THEY ARE MADE IN SEATTLE 
FROM BEST LEATHER TO SUIT 
THE NEEDS OF HUSKY BOYS- 
JUST SAY 

"BILLY BUSTER" 

TO YOUR SHOE MAN. 

IF HE CAN'T SUPPLY YOU, 
WRITE US AND WE WILL 
ADVISE YOU WHO CAN 



The Wa^h i ncjton 
ShocMfg.Cb. ris! 



NORTHWEST 
GROCERY CO. 

HEADQUARTERS 

FOR HOTEL AND 

CAMP SUPPLIES. 
A one-cent postal with name and 
address will bring an up-to-date 
cash price list. Buying supplies on 
time is expensive. Conditions are 
improving. Why not make money 
by buying right? 

Northwest Grocery Co. 

13th and Commerce Sts., 

Tacoma, Wash. 

Oldest and Largest Mail Order 
House in the State. 




ARMY AUCTION BARGAINS 

Army Revolvers $1.65 up 
*» r-t. i: ;.t. < . ,9g •■ 



Saddles $3.00 up 



Rrldles .90 ' 

Team Harness 31.85 1 

Leggings, pair . .15 ' 

Tents . . . 2.85 ' 



B-L Riiles 
" Swords . . • .35 
" 1 Shot rarbineS.50 
New Uniforms . 1.50 

Colts Cal. 45 Revolve! $7.45. Ctgs.leeach. 15 
Acres Government Auction Bargains illustrated 
and described in 420 large page wholesale and 
^retail cyclopedia catalogue, mailed 25 cents 
East and 30 cents West ot the Mississippi River 
Francis Bannerman. 501 Broadway. New York 



A. S. Johnson ft Co. 



Sunshine Lamp 
300 Candle Power 

To Try In Your Own Home 

Tarns night into day. Gives better light 
than gas, electricity or 18 ordinary lamps at 
one-tenth the cost. For Homes, Stores, 
Balls, Churches. A child can carry, it. 
Makes its light from common gasoline. 
No wick. No chimney. Absolutely SAFE. 

COSTS 1 CENT A NIGHT 

We want ono person in each locality to 
whom we can refer new customers. Take 
advantage of our SPECIAL FREE TRIAL 
OFFER. Write today. AGENTS WANTED. 

SUNSHINE SAFETY LAMP CO. 
214 Factory P'de.. Kansas Citv. Mo. 



FREE 




II4 C Straat 



Taooma,Waah. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST AND DAIRYMAN 



247 



nothing with him and he is a menace 
to the neighborhood the best possible 
course to pursue is to place him in 
school where a responsible person 
and trained disciplinarian will take 
him in charge. While it is an imposi- 
tion to expect a teacher to do more 
than the parents are willing to do, 
one's duty to the child demands it 
and the earlier it is done the easier 
the task for the teacher. She has 
much to contend with, having the 
child but a few hours a day, but if 
she is at all tactful she will probably 
go far towards undoing the wrong 
already inflicted. 



not broken the dent will disappear 
and leave no trace. — Exchange. 



KITCHEN RECIPES 
Delicious Walnut Conserve — Peel 
ripe figs and mash the pulp. To 
each pound of pulp add one pound of 
sugar and cook to a thick jam. This 
is a slow process and should be done 
over a slow fire, and the jam must be 
constantly watched and stirred, for 
the slightest scorching will spoil the 
flavor. Prepare English walnuts by 
shelling and chopping up the meats 
to a medium fineness. Do not put 
them through a meat chopper as that 
will make them too fine and oily. A 
cupful of chopped meats to two 
quarts of cooked jam will make a 
good proportion, but one can have 
as many nuts to the jam as liked. 
When the jam is cooked add the nuts 
and stir them thoroughly in the hot 
jam, but do not cook them. After 
stirring in the nuts fill jam glasses 
with the conserve, and when cold, 
cover with paraffine and set away in 
a cool place. This is one of the most 
delicious conserves imaginable, and 
when served with whipped cream, 
can not be equalled for delicacy. 
— Georgina S. Townsend, Azusa. 

Carrot Pudding— Mix 1 cup grated 
carrots (raw), 1 cup grated potatoes 
(raw), 1 cup brown sugar, iy 2 cups 
flour, 1 cup raisins, 1 cup curants, 1 
cup chopped suet, 1 teaspoon soda, 1 
teaspoon cinnamon % teaspoon 
cloves, one cup walnut meats. Steam 
3 hours. Serve with hard sauce. 

— Rebecca Strutton, San Diego. 

Three-in-One Dessert — This is a 
delicious dessert which combines the 
desirable qualities of pudding, pie 
and cake in one dessert. 

Line a deep pie plate with your 
favorite pie crust and fill with the 
following mixture: Mix together 1 
cup sugar, 2 heaping tablespoons 
flour and pinch of salt. Add butter 
size of an egg, melted, and yolks of 
2 eggs. Beat all to a cream. Add 
to this the juice and grated rind of 
2 medium-sized lemons, 1 cup milk, 
and lastly the whites of 2 eggs, 
beaten stiff. Bake one-half hour in 
rather slow oven. The result will be 
a flaky crust on the bottom, a deli- 
cate layer of cake on top and a dain- 
ty lemon filling between. Served 
with lemon sauce you will have pud- 
ding, with meringue you have pie, 
or simply frosted you have cake. 
—Mrs. Lily, Inglehart, Bellflower. 



BRUISES IN FURNITURE 

Here is a method which has been 
of great use in removing bruises from 
furniture: Wet the part with warm 
water; double a piece of brown paper 
five of six times; then soak it in 
warm water and lay it on the dent. 
Apply a warm (not hot) flatiron until 
the moisture has evaporated. If the 
bruises are not gone, repeat the pro- 
cess. You will find this very good, 
and if the surface of the furniture is 



MINERALS IN THE DIET 

The craving for minerals or ash in 
the diet is shown distinctly by school 
children when they eat slate pencils 
and chalk, says Jessie Hoover, of 
Domestic Science Dept., University, 
Moscow, Idaho. This appetite can 
be satisfied in a much better way by 
supplying mineral in the regular food 
supply. 

Candy Eating Children. 

Have you ever noticed the teeth of 
children addicted to the candy habit? 
Almost without exception these chil- 
dren have decayed teeth. Not less 
than two reasons can be given for 
this condition. The child that eats 
candy between meals and before 
breakfast seldom cares for the plain 
wholesome food which is rich in min- 
erals. Such a child does not have a 
good supply of mineral and hence in 
the processes of metabolism the stor- 
ed up lime is consumed and the teeth 
are honeycombed with holes. Too 
often we think that the enamel is 
broken away exposing the lime pulp 
beneath to deterioration while the 
fact is the pulpy portion of the teeth 
is perforated with holes and then for 
the lack of a proper foundation the 
enamel is crushed and the pulp ex- 
posed. In feeding children look well 
to the lime. 

Iron for the Anaemic Child 

If the child is anaemic, pale and 
languid select foods not only rich in 
lime but also rich in iron. "Vegetables 
are a better source of iron than meat. 
Fruits, especially prunes, are rich in 
iron. 

Foods Containing Lime. 

Milk Oranges 
Cabbage Rutabagas 
String Beans Cauliflower 
Peas Celery 
Cereal Cheese 
Asparagus Lettuce 
Blackberries Cucumbers 
Buttermilk Molasses 
Carrots Onions 
Radishes Parsnip 
Pumpkins 

Vegetables for Iron Diet 

Meat Lentils 

Carrots Lettuce 

Spinach Peas 

Asparagus Onions 

Beets Potatoes 

Cabbage Radish 

Celery , Strawberries 

Eggs Tomatoes 



We can supply you with GLOVES for 
Christmas presents. 




Sent prepaid to any address, 
for price list. 

K. PETERSON, 
K Street Tacoma, Wash. 



Strawberry Plants 

FOB SALE 

Marshall, Mag'oou and Goodell 

Our plants are as good as the best 
and cheaper than most. 

W. T. GOULD & SON 
F. F. D. 3, Box 108 Tacoma, Wash. 




Olympic Pancake Flour 

Self-rising, nutritious; has a taste that makes every mem- 
ber of the family its friend, and it digests easily for all. 
Four-pound cartons. 



I The Puget Sound flouring Mills Co., Tacoma, Wash. 



Roofing Paper - Building Hardware 

Lanterns 



Air-tight* Heaters, Kerosene Heaters 

"MOHR. HAS IT" 

Henry Mohr Hardware Co. 



1141-43 C Street 
Tacoma, Wash. 



COMPLETE ELECTRIC LIGHTING PLANT 

FOR YOUR HOME AND FARM BUILDINGS 

There is really nothing very complicated about the home electric 
lighting systems. Electricity is generated and flows through the wires 
much the same as water flows through a pipe and is stored in the 
batteries until needed. 

With a small engine to be used also for other power purposes, the 
cost of charging the batteries is very little and in some cases practic- 
ally nothing. 

This independent light plant in your cellar, barn or pump house 
give you bright, clean, glowing electric light, wherever you can 
possibly use it, in your home, yard, cellar, driveways, barn and other 
buildings, always instantly at your service by merely touching the 
button. 

EASIEST LIGHT ON THE EYES. CONVENIENT. OUT OF DANGER 
OF FIRE. PURE AIR. 

WRITE FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE AND PRICES. 

CHANDLER-DUNLAP CO. 

(Formerly Racine Boat and Auto Company) 

73 Columbia St. SEATTLE, WASH. 



COPPER ORE PAINT 

For your Barns, Silos, Roofs, etc. Red — Brown — Protective- 
Trial gallon delivered by parcels post on receipt of $1.00. 
Write for prices on quantities. 



-Permanent. 



HASHELL PAINT CO., Tacoma, Wash. 



PEONIES Lewis County Farms 



The popular and satisfactory flower- 
ing plant for the Northwest. 

Our experience in ornamentation of 
the home surroundings is your oppor- 
tunity for suggestions, free of cost. 

For complete information, send for 
a copy of our special peony catalog, 
free. 

BEAVERTON NURSERY 
Beaverton, Oregon. 
H. E. Weed, Prop. 



We make a specialty of Lewis 
County lands. The best for farm- 
ing, dairying and stock raising 
in Western Washington. Well im- 
proved farms that raise 100 to 
120 bu. oats, 35 to 50 bu. wheat 
or 5 to 6 tons of hay per acre. 
On daily mail, milk and cream 
routes, phone line, etc. Close to 
good market, railroad and 
schools, $50 to $100 per acre, in- 
cluding stock, tools and machin- 
ery. Write for our list. 

ACME REALTY COMPANY 
401 Equitable Bldg, Tacoma, Wn. 




Ornament 

your home yard 
at moderate cost 
Suggestions cheerful- 
ly given. Write today 
for our list and men- 
tion this paper. 

MITCHELL NURSERY 
COMPANY 

Larchmont Station 
Tacoma, Wash* 



1 



{ Raise Wheat 



Big money will be made raising 
wheat next few years. We have 
some fine, well improved wheat farms 
in the best wheat raising section of 
Eastern Oregon, $22.50 to $25 per 
acre. Easy terms. Write us and 
mention this paper. 

ACME REALTY COMPANY 
401 Equitable Building, Tacoma. 



248 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST AND DAIRYMAN 



DAIRY DEPARTMENT 



Testing Dairy Cows for butter fat records of highest importance. 
Conserve Dairy Energy and figure on the Individual Cow.* 



(Address any Inquiries about dairying to H. L. Blanchard, Asat. Supt. Exp. 
Station, Puyallup, Wash.) 



THE MILKING MACHINE. 



By C. J. Zintheo, Agricultural En- 
gineer with the John Deere Plow 
Company, Seattle, Wash. 

Farmers who are following the 
progress of the times are aware that 
the milking machine has at last been 
perfected and has come to stay. Ow- 
ing to the numerous failures during 
the experimental stage, a great deal 
of prejudice exists against the milk- 
ing machine and this is the reason 
it is not more generally adopted. Of 
the several different types of ma- 
chines, all are similar in the princi- 
ple that they employ vacuum created 
by means of pumps of various de- 
signs driven by some form of motive 
power such as gasoline engine to 
draw the milk out of the udder 
through the teat cups into a bucket 
The first machines employed continu- 
ous vacuum. This would draw the 
milk from the udder, but it would 
also draw the blood from the udder 
into the teat, congesting ana intiam- 
ing it, thus injure the cow. 

Afterwards the vacuum was inter- 
rupted, but the successful machine 
did not appear until another step was 
taken which employed compressed air 
to be forced against a rubber dia- 
phrgam inside of the teat cup. This 
gives an upward squeeze intermittent 
with the vacuum which forces the 
blood back into the udder while the 
milk is drawn out by vacuum at the 
bottom of the teat cup. 

By this means there is absolutely 
no danger of injuring the cow no 



the fly wheel of the engine which 
charges the storage battery while 
the milking is being done, thus util- 
izing the surplus power of the engine. 
From the vacuum pressure pump lead 
two lines of pipe, one carrying com- 
pressed air and the other vacuum. 
They are held in place by stall fix- 
tures to which are attached the pul- 
sators that interrupt the continuous 
vacuum. Rubber tubes lead to the 
teat cups and to the milk bucket. 
One cow is milked with each unit, but 
one man can operate three units at 
the same time and strip the cows, 
each unit will milk a little faster 
than a man, as it milks all four teats 
at the same time. Where the sav- 
ing comes in is that with three units 
one man can milk about thirty cows 
in a little over an hour. By this 
means the milking machine really 
does not cost the farmer anything, 
as it pays for itself in what it saves 
in labor. 

It has the other advantages of be- 
ing clean and making the farmer in- 
dependent of professional milkers. 
It also reduces the cost of producing 
the milk in that it puts into the 
farmer's pocket the money which he 
has been placing in the pocket of an- 
other. 

The machine is adapted for three 
teated cows and it has often brought 
back to use teats that have been 
spoiled by hand milking. Stripping 
after the machine, is recommended, 
not on acount of the milk obtained, 
but as a precautionary measure to 
see that the teats are in good heal- 
thy condition. The machine has no 




Milking Machine Milking 
Grandview, Wash. 



the Registered Jersey Cows of J. B. Early, 



matter how long the machine is 
left on the teats. 

The vacuum and presure pump are 
usually placed in the milk house 
away from the barn. It requires 
from two to three horse power gas 
engine to operate it but a four horse- 
power engine is usually installed, 
which is connected to a line shaft 
and from this is usually driven the 
milking machine, cream separator, 
pump for water, woodsaw and often 
an electric dynamo is attached to 



brains and will not solve all the 
dairy problems, but in the hands of 
a man of average intelligence with 
some degree of mechanical skill, the 
milking machine has proven itself 
to be a valuable aid to the dairy 
farmer, which makes his work more 
agreeable and more profitable and 
the advantage in its use will be to 
those who earliest install it in opera- 
tion, since it enables the farmer to 
produce more butter fat with less out- 
lay for hired labor. 




Don't Feed Butter 
Fat to the Hogs 

To get every ounce of butter fat from your milk, the 
bowl of your separator must spin swiftly and smoothly. 
This requires a special oil. The oils you use on your 
other farm machinery are not suited to the delicate, high 
speed mechanism of the separator. 



Standard Hand 
Separator Oil 



is of just the right body to quickly reach those finely ad- 
justed, close fitting bearings. That is why it will give you 
perfect lubrication. If a better separator oil could be 
made, we would make it. Dealers everywhere. 



Standard Oil Company 

(California) 



Pure Bred Holstein Records 

Our herd bull is Johanna Colantha Champion, grandson of Colantha 
Johanna, also grandson of Sir Fayne Concorda, full brother to Grace 
Fayne 2nd Homestead. His dam is Johanna Colantha, 26% lbs. butter in 
7 days. Her daughter J. Colantha 2nd made 32.85 lbs. butter in 7 daya. 
Two of our 5-year-old cows each made over 27 y 3 lbs. butter in 7 daya. 
8-year-olds 20 to 23 lbs., and a 2-year-old 17 lbs. 

A few bull calves 5 months old and younger, out of these hear/ 
producers for sale. Write at once for prices. 

WILLIAM TODD & SONS 

NORTH YAKIMA, WASH. 



HOLSTEINS WITH HIGHEST RECORDS 

Our Registered Holstein Cows are well up near the 1,000 pound per 
year butter record. One of our two-year cows gave 19,510 lbs. milk and 
825 lbs. butter in 365 days. 

In her 3rd year she starts with 2,336 lbs. milk and 108 lbs. butter in 30 
days. Our entire herd is above the 500 lb. butter record. 

Do you want some youngsters of this breeding? Then write for 
particulars and prices. 

J. W. Hollinshead, LADNERS, B. C. 



HOLSTEIN HEIFERS - -Choioe High Grade Stock 

We are offering to sell 30 young Holstein cows, fall freshening; also 
a choice bunch of Holstein heifers out of registered bulls with dams on both 
sides great producers, bred to registered sires, will freshen in early spring. 
If you want something of this kind, tubercular tested, write for particulars 
at once and mention this paper. 

F. T. FOLSOM. 
204 4th Ave., Kent, Wash. 



Registered and High Grade Holsteins 

We are constantly preparing to supply the needs of dairymen in the northwest with 
Registered and Hifth Grade Holsteins, the kind which affords buyers the highest measure of 
satisfaction in production. Tuberculin tested. Specify your wants and write for particulars. 

E. H. THOMPSON, Mt. Vernon, Wash. 



Brady 
Farm 
Guernseys 



We have for sale several fine heifer 
calves from two weeks to six months 
old. Also one bull calf from a fine 
producing cow. Write for butter fat 
records of dams' show winnings. 
Please mention this paper. 

E. R. BRADY 
Satsop, Wash. 



THE NORTHWEST HORTICULTURIST AND DAIRYMAN 



249 



HEAVIER CREAM, BETTER 
BUTTER. 

Prof. J. D. Jarvis, advisory expert, 
Department Dairy and Creamery Im- 
provement of the Delaval Seperator 
Company has directed the dairymen's 
attention to the importance of pro- 
ducing heavy cream as well as the 
proper care of it in order to obtain 
a higher quality of butter. 

Heavy cream, he says, means bet- 
ter quality butter for four important 
reasons: 

(1) Heavy cream does not sour as 
quickly as thin cream. 

(2) Heavy cream means a smaller 
amount to be taken care of, hence it 
it likely to be more thoroughly cooled 
and receive better care. 

(3) Heavy cream can be pasteuriz- 
ed in the creamery with less loss of 
butter-fat in the buttermilk. 

(4) Heavy cream permits of the 
use of larger amount of good starter. 
Other Advantages of Producing a 

Richer and Heavier Cream. 

In addition to making it possible 
to produce better butter and hence 
a higher price to the patron, heavy 
cream has other economic advantages 
over thin cream. For instance, it 
means that more skim-milk is re- 
tained on the farm for feeding pur- 
poses; the cost of transportation is 
materially less, the benefit of which 
fall directly upon the patron. 

When the creamery receives both 
milk and sweet cream, the cream 
patron should receive more per pound 
for the butter-fat he delivers than 
should the milk patron because there 
is always a certain amount of butter- 
fat left in the skim-milk, and this, of 
course, does not reach the cream 
vat. For every 103 pounds of butter- 
fat delivered to the creamery in the 
form of whole milk only 100 pounds 
reaches the cream vat, whereas in 
the case of cream, all of the butter- 
fat delivered reaches the cream vat. 
The loss will, of course, vary more or 
less, but the above amount, or 3 
per cent., is, according to Professor 
Farrington, about the average. 
Heavy Cream Advantagious to 
Creamery. 

If two adjoining creameries were 
operating under similar conditions, 
excepting one received cream testing 
40 per cent, and the other cream 
testing 20 per cent., this difference 
would soon cause the latter creamery 
to fail. 

Up-to-date creameries receiving 
cream which is more or less sour 
follow the practice of pasteurizing 
the cream in order to improve the 
quality of the butter. If the cream 
tests low in butter-fat the losses will 
be excessive because the practice 
of pasteurizing causes the smallest 
fat globules to become imprisioned in 
the coagulated curd and hence lost 
in the buttermilk. The loss in the 
buttermilk due to this cause may run 
as high as y 2 % of butter-fat. 

The capacity of a creamery can be 
materially increased by influencing 
the patrons to deliver a rich cream 
instead of a thin cream, because the 
capacity of the can, cream vats, 
churns, etc., is measured in gallons 
of cream and not in pounds of butter. 

Some creameries today are follow- 
ing the policy of taking the per- 
centage of butter-fat into considera- 
tion in determining the price. The 
cream which is clean flavored and 
tests 30% or over, will receive top 
quotations, which cream testing less 
than 30% will receive one cent or 



two cents less per pound for butter- 
fat. 

High Quality Butter From Gathered 
Cream. 

That just as good butter can be 
made from hand separator as from 
whole milk separator at the creamery 
cannot be disputed. At the Inter- 
national Dairy Show in Milwaukee in 
1912, over 80% of the Wisconsin en- 
tries of butter were made in cream- 
eries that received hand separator 
cream and the average score was 92.8 
points. The entries from hand separ- 
ator creameries in Minnesota and 
Iowa compared favorably with the 
Wisconsin score. Nevertheless the 
quality of creamery butter, as a 
whole, has been lowered a few points 
and the greater majority of cream- 
eries must change their general meth- 
od of creamery operation with refer- 
ence to quality of cream received be- 
fore a marked improvement in the 
quality of butter will be achieved. 
Butter manufacturers are beginning 
to recognize that there is now a 
greater range in the quality of cream- 
ery butter than formerly, and they 
are making their quotations accord- 
ingly. Thus the progressive, up-to- 
date creamery is put in position to 
receive direct benefit for its efforts 
in the way of improving the quality 
of butter through improving the 
quality of cream delivered by its 
patrons. 



FEED RATION. 

Corn Ensilage in Connection with 
Other Feeds. 

Ironclad directions for feeding cows 
cannot be given. In general, how- 
ever, they should be supplied with 
all the roughage they will clean up 
with grain in proportion to butterfat 
produced. The hay will ordinarily 
range between 5 and 12 pounds per 
cow per day when fed in connection 
with corn silage. For Holsteins 1 
pound of concentrates for each 4 
pounds of milk produced will prove 
about right. For Jerseys 1 pound for 
each 3 pounds of milk or less will 
come nearer meeting the require- 
ments. The grain for other breeds 
will vary between these two accord- 
ing to the quality of milk produced. 
A good rule is to feed seven times 
as much grain as there is butterfat 
produced, is the statement in Farm- 
er's Bulletin 578, U. S. Department of 
Agriculture. 

The following rations will be found 
good: 

For a 1,300-pound cow yielding 40 
pounds of milk testing 3.5 per cent: 

Pounds 

Silage (corn) 40 

Clover, cowpea, or alfalfa hay . . 10 

Grain mixture 10 

For the same cow yielding 20 
pounds of 3.5 per cent milk: 

Pounds 

Silage 40 

Clover, cowpea, or alfalfa hay . . 5 

Grain mixture 5 

For a 900-pound cow yielding 30 
pounds of 5 per cent milk: 

Pounds 

Silage 30 

Clover, cowpea, or alfalfa hay . . 10 

Grain mixture 11 

For the same cow yielding 15 
pounds of 5 per cent milk: 

Pounds 

Silage 30 

Clover, cowpea, or alfalfa hay . . 8 

Grain mixture 5 

A good grain mixture to be used 
in a ration which includes silage and 




Quarantine measures against the shipment of cattle from certain 
districts and states east, is likely to interfere with the movement of 
stock to the Coast, and buyers have a more limited field from which to 
select. Prices are now within easy reach of dairymen, but there is no 
telling how soon it may be very difficult to get good dairy cows at 
any price. So long as there are any left in our last shipment we are 
giving buyers their choice in the order of their selections. 

The Holsteins are, as usual in our shipments, fresh and near fresh cows 
of large milk capacity. In youngsters buyers have an opportunity to get 
some pure-breds with high ancestral records at inside prices. We also 
have young pure-bred stock of our own raising very choice. Always glad 
to give full particulars. Write or call. 

FRYAR & COMPANY 

Please Mention 

This Paper. 



SUMNER, WASH. 



Holsteins For Sale=-A. r. o. Breeding 

We offer 12 females of the very best and .most promising heifers 
raised here, five coming fresh this late fall and winter; also a young bull 
ready for service. All out of A. R. O. dams. 

J. H. DE HOOGH & SON 
Twin Brook Stock Farm Lynden, Wash. 



Fresh High Grade Cows 

We are offering for sale High Grade Cows which are very 
satisfactory producers at reasonable prices. Some of them 
are nearly pure of the best in Holstein breeding, some are 
high grades of other dairy breeds but all of excellent dairy 
type. We also have a fine bunch of youngsters from 
which to make selections. For many years we have been 
supplying dairy cows to condensor patrons. 

Write for prices and particulars and submit wants. 

J. D. ROSS & SON Kent, Wash. 



A. J. C. C. JERSEYS 

Big Producer* 

A very fine heifer calf for sale that is a beauty. Sired by 
my great bull "Mermaid's Sultana's Lad 114734." Dam Oza 
of Sunnybank, dam of first prize three-year-old cow at "Wash- 
ington State Fair, Young bulls for sale of the highest breeding. 

Member American Jersey Cattle Club. 

J. B. EARLY 
Grandview, Wash. (Yakima County) 




BERKSHIRES 

Two boars, fit for service. Will 
benefit any farm herd. Now book- 
ing orders for weaned pigs, $10 to 
$15 each. Write us if you want 
foundation stock. 

WOODLAND FARM 

Thurston County Lacey, Wash. 

P. S. Artichokes — We can book a 
few more orders for seed. 



250 

some sort of leguminous hay is com- 
posed of: 

Parts 

Corn chop 4 

Wheat bran 2 

Linseed-oil meal or cottonseed meal 1 
In case the hay used is not of this 
kind some of the corn chop may be 
replaced by linseed or cottonseed 
meal. In many instances brewers' 
dried grains or crushed oats may be 
profitably substituted for the bran, 
and oftentimes gluten products can 
be used to advantage in place of 
bran or oil meals. 

The time to feed silage is directly 
after milking or at least several 
hour before milking. If fed immedi- 
ately before milking the silage odors 
may pass through the cow's body into 
the milk. Besides, the milk may re- 
ceive some taints directly from the 
stable air. On the other hand, if 
feeding is done subsequent to milk- 
ing, the volatile silage odors will 
have been thrown off before the 
next milking hour. Silage is us- 
ually fed twice a day. 

Calves may be fed silage as soon 
as they are old enough to eat it. It 
is perhaps of greater importance 
that the silage be free from mold or 
decay when given to calves than 
when given to mature stock. They 
may be given all the silage they will 
eat up clean at all times. Yearling 
calves will consume about one-half 
as much as mature stock; that is, 
from 15 to 20 or more pounds a day. 
When supplemented with some good 
leguminous hay, little, if any, grain 
will be required to keep the calves 
in a thrifty, growing condition. 

One of the most trying seasons 
of the year for the dairy cow is 
the latter part of summer and early 
fall. At this season the pastures 
are often short or dried up, and in 
such cases it is a common mistake 
of dairymen to let their cow